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Desserts

Desserts

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  • 1. Chapter 8 Desserts and Baked Goods © Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF) and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Baker’s Ingredients  In baking, strengtheners provide stability and ensure that the baked item doesn’t collapse once it is removed from the oven.  Shortenings/fats make baked goods moist, add flavor, and keep the baked item fresh longer.  Sweeteners add flavor and color to baked goods.  Leaveners allow the dough or batter to rise.  Thickeners, combined with the stirring process, determine the consistency of the finished product.  Flavorings affect a baked item’s taste and color.  Liquids used in baking can be water, milk, cream, molasses, honey, or butter. 8.1 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 2
  • 3. Baker’s Measurements  Standardized recipes for bakery products are called formulas.  Flour always has a proportion of 100%, and the percentages of all other ingredients are calculated in relation to the flour.  The formula for baker’s percentages is: Weight of ingredient ÷ (Weight of flour × 100 percent) = percent of ingredient  A yield is how much of something is produced.  Sifting adds air to flour, cocoa, and confectioner’s sugar; removes lumps; and filters out any impurities. 8.1 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 3
  • 4. Section 8.1 Summary  There are seven main categories of ingredients used in baking:     Strengtheners Shortening Sweeteners Leaveners  Thickeners  Flavorings  Liquids  Proportions for each ingredient are given in the form of percentages.  In baking, flour always has a proportion of 100 percent, and the percentages of all other ingredients are given in relation to the flour. 8.1 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 4
  • 5. Types of Dough  Lean doughs are made with flour, yeast, water, and salt.  Rich doughs are made with the addition of shortening or tenderizing ingredients.  The straight-dough method can be used to make yeast breads can be used for all types of doughs—lean, rich, and sponge.  Kneading dough develops the gluten in the dough and gives it the stretch and give it needs to develop the proper texture.  Bakers also use the sponge method to mix yeast doughs. 8.2 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 5
  • 6. Yeast Bread Preparation The 10 basic steps in making yeast breads are: 1. Scaling ingredient 2. Mixing and kneading ingredients 3. Fermentation 4. Punching down 5. Portioning 6. Rounding 7. Shaping 8. Proofing 8.2 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 9. Baking 10. Cooling and storing 6
  • 7. Section 8.2 Summary  Yeast is a living organism that acts as a leavener; that is, it makes baked goods rise.  Breads that use yeast are called yeast breads.  Yeast breads are divided into: lean doughs and rich doughs.  Yeast breads are most often made using two primary methods: straight-dough method or sponge method.  There are 10 basic steps in making yeast breads: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8.2 Scaling ingredients Mixing and kneading ingredients Fermentation Punching down Portioning Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Rounding Shaping Proofing Baking Cooling and storing 7
  • 8. Quick Breads and Cake Batters  Quick breads and cakes are popular snack and dessert items and are usually easy and quick to make.  Quick breads, such as biscuits, scones, and muffins, can be prepared faster than yeast breads. Quick breads use chemical leaveners rather than organic ones, and therefore don’t require a rising period.  A batter is a semi-liquid mixture containing flour, liquid, and other ingredients.  A batter typically has more fat and sugar than a dough and is usually thin enough to be poured. 8.3 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 8
  • 9. Icing  Icings, or frostings, are sweet coatings for cakes and other baked goods.  Icings have three main functions: 1. They improve the keeping qualities of the cake by forming a protective coating around it. 2. They contribute flavor and richness. 3. They improve appearance.  In general, use heavy frostings on heavy cakes, and use light frostings on light cakes. 8.3 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 9
  • 10. Steamed Pudding and Soufflés  Steamed puddings and dessert soufflés are made of batters that require special handling.  Steamed puddings are more stable than soufflés because of the greater percentage of eggs and sugar in the batter.  Soufflés are lightened with beaten egg whites and then baked.  Baking causes the soufflé to rise like a cake. As the soufflé rises, the moisture evaporates and the light batter sets temporarily. 8.3 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 10
  • 11. Section 8.3 Summary  Quick breads and cakes are popular snack and dessert items and are usually easy and quick to make.  The mixing technique for biscuits and scones involves rubbing or cutting a fat into the flour until the mixture is mealy or bumpy in appearance.  Icings are sweet coatings for cakes and other baked goods. The types of icings are buttercream, fondant, foam, fudge, royal icing, and glaze.  Steamed puddings and dessert soufflés are made of batters that require special handling.  Soufflés rely on egg whites and are not as stable as puddings. 8.3 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 11
  • 12. Pies  Pastry chefs make pies using a basic 3-2-1 dough—it is made of three parts flour, two parts fat, and one part water (by weight).  When a pastry chef makes a pie crust properly, it is flaky, tender and flavorful—the perfect complement to the filling.  Crumb crusts contribute a nutty, buttery flavor that highlights cheesecake or frozen fillings.  In general, bake pies just until they begin to take on a golden color.  Prepare fruit fillings for pies using sliced and peeled fresh fruit that is either poached with a liquid or allowed to cook as the pastry bakes.  Baking blind is the procedure for preparing a pre-baked pie shell.  Pastry chefs usually bake cheesecake from a cream cheese or quark (a cheese that is a lot like sour cream) and egg batter on a crumb crust, using a spring-form pan. 8.4 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 12
  • 13. Pastries  Chefs use the roll-in dough method to make Danish, croissant, and puff pastry.  Puff pastry is an elegant product also called pâte feuilletée, and it can be used in both sweet and savory applications.  Pastry chefs also commonly use other doughs, such as phyllo and pâte à choux, for pastries:  Use phyllo dough to prepare baklava, a dessert made of thin pastry, nuts, and honey.  Make pâte à choux by combining water (or another liquid), butter, flour, and eggs into a smooth batter. Some desserts that use pâte à choux include éclairs, cream puffs, and profiteroles. 8.4 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 13
  • 14. Cookies  Pastry chefs make most cookies from rich dough.  Rich dough uses the same creaming method as quick breads and cake batters, but with the liquid and the flour added at the same time.  Due to their high sugar content, cookies are best when they are baked in convection ovens.  The seven makeup methods for cookies are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 8.4 Dropped Bagged Rolled Molded 5. Icebox 6. Bar 7. Sheet Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 14
  • 15. Section 8.4 Summary  Make pie crusts using a basic pie dough called 3-2-1 dough. It’s called this because it is made of three parts flour, two parts fat, and one part water (by weight).  Use the roll-in dough method for Danish, croissant, and puff pastry. Proper mixing methods, rolling techniques, and temperature control are necessary to produce a flaky, quality product.  Pastry chefs make most cookies from rich dough. Typically, rich dough uses the same creaming method as quick breads and cake batters, but with the liquid and the flour added at the same time. 8.4 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 15
  • 16. Chocolate Preparation and Products  Chocolate is produced from cocoa beans picked from cacao trees.  Processors roast the cocoa beans, and machinery is used to loosen the outer shells and crack the beans into small pieces, called nibs, which are the basis of all cocoa products.  The cocoa beans are crushed into a paste that is completely unsweetened, called chocolate liquor.  Chocolate liquor may be ground to give a smoother texture, or pressed to separate the liquid from the solid materials:  The liquid is cocoa butter, which can be combined with chocolate liquor to make eating chocolate, or flavored and sweetened to make white chocolate.  The solids are further ground to form cocoa powder. 8.5 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 16
  • 17. Chocolate Storage  To store chocolate, wrap it carefully, and keep it in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.  Do not refrigerate chocolate. Refrigeration causes moisture to condense on the surface of the chocolate.  Sometimes a white coating, called bloom, appears on the surface of the chocolate. The bloom indicates that some of the cocoa butter has melted and then recrystallized on the surface.  Properly stored, chocolate will last for several months.  Cocoa powder stored in tightly sealed containers in a dry place will keep almost indefinitely. 8.5 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 17
  • 18. Tempering Chocolate  Cooks melt chocolate in a process called tempering, melting the chocolate by heating it gently and gradually.  To temper chocolate, chop the chocolate into coarse pieces and place it in a double boiler, a stainless steel bowl over water, simmering on very low heat.  Tempered chocolate will coat items with an even layer and then harden into a shiny shell.  To coat a food item, dip it directly into the tempered chocolate, or place it on a rack over a clean tray and pour the chocolate over it.  Tempered chocolate can be drizzled or piped out into designs with a piping bag for decoration, or can be used as a glaze. 8.5 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 18
  • 19. Section 8.5 Summary  Chocolate is produced from cocoa beans picked from cacao trees.  Chocolate is very versatile and can be used in many main dishes.  Cocoa beans are crushed into a paste that is completely unsweetened, called chocolate liquor.  Chocolate liquor may be ground to give it an even smoother texture, or it may be pressed to separate the liquid from the solid materials.  To store chocolate, wrap it carefully, and keep it in a cool, dry, wellventilated area. Do not refrigerate chocolate.  Cooks melt chocolate in a process called tempering, melting the chocolate by heating it gently and gradually.  Tempered chocolate will coat items with an even layer and then harden into a shiny shell. 8.5 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 19
  • 20. Frozen Desserts  Quality ice cream has a custard base, melts readily in the mouth, and does not weep, or separate, when it softens at room temperature.  Gelato is an Italian version of ice cream. Unlike ice cream, however, it does not contain eggs.  Sherbet contains milk and/or egg for creaminess.  Sorbet contains no dairy, just fruit juice or purée with sweeteners and other flavors or additives.  Frozen yogurt contains yogurt in addition to the normal ice cream ingredients.  Frozen yogurt both freezes and melts more slowly than ice cream. 8.6 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 20
  • 21. Poached Fruit and Tortes  To poach fruit, combine fruit with a liquid, usually a mixture of sugar, spices, and wine.  Heat the fruit and liquid together until the fruit is tender. Test for doneness with a fork; the fruit is fully poached when it is easy to pierce.  Use fruits that are firm enough to hold their shape during cooking. Good fruits to use for poaching are apples and pears.  A torte is an elegant, rich, many-layered cake often filled with buttercream or jam.  Normally, pastry chefs use Génoise, French sponge cake, in preparing a torte. 8.6 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 21
  • 22. Dessert Sauces and Creams  Vanilla sauce, also known as crème Anglaise, is a classic accompaniment to soufflés and steamed puddings.  Fruit sauces can be raw or cooked, depending upon the desired flavor.  Use fruit syrups to garnish desserts and ice cream or to complement breakfast items.  Chocolate sauce is a family of sauces and syrups with cocoa or melted chocolate as the base.  Pastry creams, or crème pâtissière, have greater density than custards.  Make delicate Bavarian creams by combining three basic ingredients: vanilla sauce, gelatin, and whipped cream. 8.6 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 22
  • 23. Plating and Presenting Desserts  Good plate presentation requires careful attention to colors, shapes, textures, and arrangement of food on the plate.  Guests eat first with their eyes, then their noses, and finally with their mouths.  There are two areas of presentation technique: first, the food itself, and second, the plate, platter, or dish as a whole.  When plating desserts, everything on the plate should be edible.  It’s best to place dessert decoration in threes, because that tends to be appealing to the eye. 8.6 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 23
  • 24. Section 8.6 Summary  Quality ice cream has a custard base, melts readily in the mouth, and does not separate when it softens at room temperature.  Sherbets and sorbets are frozen mixtures of fruit juice or fruit purée.  Frozen yogurt both freezes and melts slower than ice cream.  To poach fruit, combine fruit with a liquid, usually a mixture of sugar, spices, and wine.  A torte is an elegant, rich, many-layered cake often filled with buttercream or jam.  Use sauces to add flavor, moisture, and eye appeal to desserts.  Food presentation is an art. Good plate presentation results from careful attention to colors, shapes, textures, and arrangement of food on the plate. 8.6 Chapter 8 | Desserts and Baked Goods 24