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Chapter 06 power_point
 

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    Chapter 06 power_point Chapter 06 power_point Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 6 Meat, Poultry, and Seafood © Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF) and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Grades of Meat Meat inspection is mandatory in the United States. It ensures that meat is wholesome and that the processing facilities and equipment meet food safety standards. Grading is voluntary.  Grading refers to the meat’s quality. The quality of meat is based primarily on its overall flavor characteristics and tenderness.  Quality grade measures the flavor characteristics of meat products. The USDA evaluates meat for traits that indicate its tenderness, juiciness, and flavor.  Yield grade measures the proportion of edible or usable meat after it has been trimmed of bones or fat. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 2
    • Cuts of Meat  A chef must understand the various cuts of meat, the physical composition of the muscle tissue, and how it is affected by heat.  Muscle fibers are surrounded by connective tissue. This tissue makes the meat tougher but also more flavorful.  Before a cut of meat becomes available for purchase by an operation, the processor cuts the whole carcass into large sections.  After butchering, the meat must be aged between 48 and 72 hours to allow the muscles to relax. At the end of the aging period, the butcher cuts the carcass into primal cuts.  After the butcher makes primal cuts, fabrication can take place. Fabrication is the process of butchering primal cuts into usable portions. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 3
    • Cuts of Meat (Cont.)  Retail cuts of meat are those cuts that are ready for sale.  Foodservice purchasers can purchase retail cuts that are primal cuts, and then fabricate them for their own use or buy fabricated portions.  Fabricators make cuts from the boneless loin or tenderloin of beef, veal, lamb, or pork into a variety of menu cuts.  Offal meat is organ meat from hogs, cattle, or sheep. Though no longer popular in the United States, offal meat is still enjoyed in other regions of the world.  Game meat is meat from animals that are not raised domestically.  Kosher meat is slaughtered to comply with Jewish dietary laws. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 4
    • Purchasing and Storing Meat  Consider the following general guidelines when purchasing meat:  Cost: Fabrication is a way to reduce meat costs.  Freshness: Often, high-quality frozen meats do not appear that different from fresh-meat products.  Fat Content: The fat content of meat products often influences the cooking method used.  Equipment: Consider the types of equipment an operation has before deciding what types of meat products to purchase.  Vendors: It is always a good idea for an operation to shop around to ensure getting the best price for its needs.  After purchasing the product and accepting it for delivery, properly store it. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 5
    • Cooking Techniques The chef ’s goal while cooking meat is to maximize flavor and tenderness while minimizing the loss of moisture.  In dry-heat methods, such as broiling, grilling, and roasting, meats cook quickly. They are best for naturally tender cuts.  Another way to prepare meat is to use dry-heat cooking methods with fat and oil. These methods include sautéing, stir-frying, pan-frying, and deep-frying.  Moist-heat cooking techniques produce food that is delicately flavored and moist with a rich broth.  The combination cooking methods, braising and stewing, use both dry and moist heat to cook food that is not very tender. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 6
    • Determining Doneness  Food preparers can cook beef, lamb, and some game meat to a wide range of doneness.  A beef roast is rare when the internal temperature is 130°F. The meat appears red inside with a thin layer of brown on the outside.  At an internal temperature of 145°F, the roast is medium. The meat is pink inside with a well-browned surface. The surface of meat cooked to medium is firmer than rare meat.  Well-done meat is completely cooked, leaving little or no juice. The cooked surface of the meat is firm and dry, and the internal temperature is 160°F.  In general, as meat cooks, the exterior should develop a deep brown color. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 7
    • Section 6.1 Summary  The two grades of meat are quality grade and yield grade.  A number of butchering processes take place:  Primal cuts are the primary divisions of meat produced by the initial butchering of animal carcasses.  Fabrication is the process of butchering primal cuts into usable portions.  Meat must be purchased from plants inspected by the USDA or a state department of agriculture.  Before a chef can determine the right cooking method for a cut of meat, he or she must understand the physical composition of the muscle tissue and how it is affected by heat. 6.1 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 8
    • Grades of Poultry  U.S. poultry grades apply to chicken, turkey, duck, geese, guinea, and pigeon.  Poultry receives a Grade of A, B, or C (A being the highest).  Use Grade A poultry as is, meaning cook the bird and its parts and consume them in their entirety, without processing.  Use Grades B and C poultry in processed products where the poultry meat is cut up, chopped, or ground.  The class of poultry is defined mostly by the age of the bird. A bird’s age generally affects the tenderness, look, and feel of the bird. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 9
    • Two Forms of Poultry: White and Dark  The two distinct differences in poultry forms are white meat and dark meat. Each type of meat holds different nutrition values.  White meat is from the areas of the fowl where little muscle use takes place, such as the breast:  White meat is low in calories and fat content and cooks faster  Dark meat is from areas where the bird’s muscles are used more heavily, such as the leg and thigh region:  Dark meat is higher in calories and fat.  Dark meat also tends to be the richer, more flavorful meat. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 10
    • Purchasing, Fabricating, and Storing Poultry  Guidelines for poultry purchasing include:  Freshness: As with meat products, high-quality frozen poultry does not look different from a fresh-poultry product.  Form: The operation determines whether dark meat or white meat is preferable and makes purchases accordingly.  Equipment: An operation decides what types of poultry products to purchase and how much to purchase by considering the types of equipment it has.  Vendors: Check out the equipment, storage capabilities, labor costs, and transportation costs of competing vendors.  Cost: As with meat purchases, in-house fabrication is a way to reduce costs.  Store fresh, raw poultry at an internal temperature of 41°F or lower. Store frozen poultry at a temperature that keeps it frozen. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 11
    • Cooking Techniques for Poultry  Poultry is especially suited to the dry-heat cooking techniques of grilling, broiling, and roasting.  Poultry is also well suited to dry-heat cooking with fat and oil. These techniques—sautéing, stir-frying, panfrying, and deep-frying—require tender, portion-size pieces.  Moist-heat cooking methods such as steaming are a healthy way to prepare poultry because nutrients are not washed away or drawn out of the food during cooking.  Chicken is a natural ingredient for the combination cooking methods of stewing and braising. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 12
    • Section 6.2 Summary  The three grades of poultry are USDA A, B, and C.  The two distinct differences in poultry forms are white meat and dark meat. White meat is low in calories and fat content and cooks faster. Dark meat is generally higher in calories and fat.  Domestic poultry is readily available and is less costly than most other meats.  The first basic step in purchasing poultry is to decide on the type and quality of product that is needed for the particular menu item.  Many of the same guidelines for poultry purchasing are similar to those for meat purchasing.  Poultry is a durable meat that lends itself to multiple cooking methods, such as dry-heat, dry-heat with fat or oil, moist-heat, and combination cooking methods. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 13
    • Seafood Inspections and Grades  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) monitors interstate fish shipments and also requires fish processors to adopt a HACCP program.  Many processors participate in a voluntary seafood inspection program conducted by the U.S. Department of Commerce (USDC). Products that have been inspected under this program carry a Processed Under Federal Inspection (PUFI) mark.  The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) publishes grades for seafood that has been inspected. Items are typically graded as A, B, C, or Below Standard. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 14
    • Forms of Seafood  Fin fish have a backbone and can live in fresh water or in the ocean. They are classified according to their shape, either round or flat:  Round fish have a round body shape and one eye on each side of the head, and they swim upright in salt water or fresh water.  Flatfish are oval and flat in shape and have two eyes on the front part of the head.  Shellfish have an outer shell but no backbone and live primarily in salt water:  Crustaceans have an outer skeleton and jointed appendages.  Mollusks have one or two hard shells.  Cephalopods have a single internal shell and tentacles. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 15
    • Purchasing Seafood  The guidelines for purchasing fresh seafood include:  Market form: Vendors can supply seafood to an operation in a number of ways.  Storage capabilities: Fresh seafood is highly perishable; therefore, adequate storage facilities are a must for seafood items to ensure as long a shelf life as possible.  Vendor selection: Considering the vast variety of seafood available, a reliable, reputable supplier is crucial.  Processed seafood might be an appropriate choice for an operation if it does not market menu items as “fresh caught.”  The market forms of fin fish include whole or round, drawn, dressed, butterfly fillet, fish fillet, and steak. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 16
    • Fabricating and Storing Seafood  Fin fish fabrication techniques consist of scaling, trimming, gutting, and filleting the fish.  Though shellfish do not have bones or a skeletal system, they still need to be fabricated.  Shucking is the opening or removing of a mollusk’s shell.  Shrimp are cleaned by removing the shell and deveining them. Deveining is the process of removing a shrimp’s digestive tract.  Fresh fish is very sensitive to time-temperature abuse and can spoil quickly if it isn’t handled correctly.  Fish items are highly perishable, and so proper storage is very important. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 17
    • Cooking Techniques for Seafood  The best way to pair a fish with a cooking technique is to consider the flesh of the fish.  Fatty fish cut into fillets or steaks are the best cooked by baking, broiling, and grilling.  Lean fin fish and shellfish are best when using dry-heat cooking with fat and oil, such as sautéing, stir-frying, panfrying, and deep-frying.  When deep-frying, the fish should be very fresh; the fat used to deep-fry should be of high quality; and the item should be served immediately after cooking.  Moist-heat cooking techniques—poaching, simmering, and steaming—are excellent ways to cook fish, especially the lean varieties. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 18
    • Determining Doneness  Guidelines for determining seafood doneness include:  Flesh turns from translucent to opaque: Raw flesh of most fish is translucent. When the flesh turns a denser, more opaque shade, the fish is done.  Flesh becomes firm: As flesh cooks, it becomes firmer and springs back to the touch when done.  Flesh pulls easily away from bone: As fish cooks, flesh loosens and can be effortlessly separated from bone when done.  Flesh begins to flake: As fish cooks, connective tissue breaks down and muscle fibers begin to separate from each other, or flake. Fish is done as soon as flaking starts to occur.  It is better to undercook the fish slightly and allow carryover cooking to bring it to doneness. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 19
    • Section 6.3 Summary  Many processors participate in the voluntary seafood inspection program conducted by the U.S. Department of Commerce (USDC).  The two main forms of seafood are fin fish and shellfish. Fin fish have a backbone and can live in fresh water or in the ocean. Shellfish have an outer shell but no backbone and live primarily in salt water.  The most important step in purchasing seafood is deciding on the type and quality of seafood that is needed for particular menu items.  Fin fish fabrication techniques consist of scaling, trimming, gutting, and filleting the fish.  Fish items are highly perishable, and so proper storage is very important.  Cooking methods for seafood include dry-heat, dry-heat cooking with oil or fat, moist-heat, and combination techniques. 6.3 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 20
    • Definitions of Charcuterie and Garde Manger  Charcuterie refers to specially prepared pork products, including sausage, smoked ham, bacon, pâté, and terrine.  Garde manger is the department typically found in a classical brigade system kitchen and/or the chef who is responsible for the preparation of cold foods, including salads and salad dressings, cold appetizers, charcuterie items, and similar dishes. 6.4 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 21
    • Types of Charcuterie  Traditionally, sausages were ground pork that the preparer forced into a casing made from the lining of animal intestines.  Today, many ingredients are used to make sausage including game, beef, veal, poultry, fish, shellfish, and even vegetables.  The three main types of sausage are:  Fresh sausage  Smoked or cooked sausage  Dried or hard sausage  Forcemeat is a mixture of lean ground meat and fat that is emulsified, or forced together, in a food grinder and then pushed through a sieve to create a very smooth paste. 6.4 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 22
    • Section 6.4 Summary  The term charcuterie refers to specially prepared pork products, including sausage, smoked ham, bacon, pâté, and terrine.  Garde manger is the department typically found in a classical brigade system kitchen and/or the chef that is responsible for the preparation of cold foods, including salads and salad dressings, cold appetizers, charcuterie items, and similar dishes.  Charcuterie consists of two main categories: sausages and forcemeat.  The three main types of sausage are fresh, smoked, and dried.  The two main types of forcemeat are straight and country-style forcemeat. 6.4 Chapter 6 | Meat, Poultry, and Seafood 23