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Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country
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Matt Bullwinkel: Solar Hot Water Systems for the North Country

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Using solar hot water heaters for energy savings in cold climates.

Using solar hot water heaters for energy savings in cold climates.

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  • 1. Solar Hot Water Systems North Country Sustainable Energy Fair 2007 Matt Bullwinkel Alternative and Renewable Energy Applications Program SUNY Canton April 28, 2007
  • 2. Video
  • 3. Systems PV Panel to Power Pump HelioStat Solar II Kramer Valley CA Power Plant
  • 4. Jets Stadium NYC
    • “ 1000 of Thermomax tubes..”
    http://www.thermotechs.com/NY%20Jet%20Stadium.php
  • 5. Why not solar water heating?
    • Capital cost ($5K vs. $200-$1K for conventional electric or gas heater)
    • System failures
      • Freezing
      • Overheating
      • Leaks
    • Aesthetics
    • Perception: not enough sun/ too cold
    • Finding qualified designers/installers
  • 6. Why solar water heating?
    • Free Fuel*
    • High Fuel Costs
    • Modest capital cost (vs. PV, wind)
    • Big Bang for Buck: DHW ~30% energy bill
    • Well established: retro fit, “just works”
    • Favorable economics to provide fraction of DHW 60-70%
    • Federal &State Tax credits
    • Renewable
    *We have a fuel crisis, not an energy crisis, energy always conserved (kinda)
  • 7.  
  • 8. Too Cold /Not Enough Sun Florida Solar Research Center NC State Solar Center Univ Wiscosin Solar Research ! http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/index.htm
  • 9. Applications
    • DHW (Domestic Hot Water)
    • Pool Heating
    • Space Heating
    • Cooling
    • Process hot water
    • Electric Power
  • 10. Outline
    • System Types
    • Solar Resource
    • Operating Principles
    • Background
    • Example Installations
    • Economics
    • Organizations:
    • Promoting Solar, Incentives, Training
  • 11. System Components
    • Solar Collector:
      • absorb radiation and transfer heat to fluid (water/air/glycol)
    • Mounting Hardware
      • Holds collector: wind & seals roof
    • Plumbing & Pumps
      • Move fluid to/from collector
    • Controls
      • Turn pump on/off
        • Freezing
        • Over temperature
    • Heat Exchanger
    • Storage Tank
  • 12. Heat Transfer Conduction Loss Back & Sides Conduction, Radiation and Convection Loss Top Cold Fluid (Water) IN Hot Fluid (Water) OUT ABSORBER PLATE (Metal) Radiation Insolation IN COVER PLATE (Glass/Polymer) “ Good” Greenhouse Effect ~Transparent to Incoming radiation ~Opaque to Outgoing radiation Trap Energy and Transfer to Fluid
  • 13. Sun Earth/AET Collector
  • 14. Thermomax http://www.thermotechs.com/Downloads/How%20Works.pdf
  • 15. Thermomax
    • “ heat pipe”
    • high conductance thermal conductor.
    • Heat transfer rate is thousand's times greater than solid heat
    • conductor
    • closed container consisting of a capillary wick structure and a small amount of vaporizable fluid.
    • employs an evaporating-condensing cycle
      • accepts heat from an external source
      • uses this heat to evaporate the liquid (latent heat)
      • releases latent heat by condensation (water header)
      • return condensed fluid back to the heat zone.
    http://www.thermotechs.com/Downloads/How%20Works.pdf
  • 16. Differential Control
  • 17. Collector Types
    • Flat Plate
      • with Cover
      • w/o cover (pool)
    • Evacuated Tube “Thermomax”
    • Concentrating Collector
      • Parabolic Trough
  • 18. Selective Surface Absorber Plate absorbs large fraction (>.9) of energy But doesn’t emit a lot of energy (>.1)
  • 19. Direct (open loop) Pumped
      • Circulate Potable water
      • Pump turns on when water in collector 15-20 deg warmer than tank
      • Turns off when 3-5 deg warmer than tank
      • Couple of freezes/year OK
      • Recirculates warm water if collector starts to freeze
    http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/solar_hot_water/homes/system_types.htm
  • 20. PV operated system
    • Pump turns on when enough sun to run pump
    • Collector
    • is warm too
    • South
    http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/solar_hot_water/homes/system_types.htm
  • 21. Indirect Pumped System
    • Closed Loop
    • Northern climates
    • Circulate Antifreeze solution
    • Heat Exchanger
    • Differential Controller
    http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/solar_hot_water/homes/system_types.htm
  • 22. Drain Back System
    • Remove all water from collector when freezing
    • When pump off, collectors drain by gravity to inside tank
  • 23. Integral Collector Storage (ICS) System
    • Collector is storage
    • Cold water supply flows directly to collector where heated
    • Then into tank with aux heater
    • Florida etc.
  • 24. Thermosiphon System
    • Tank above collector
    • Circulate by density differences
    • Hot water rises from collector into tank
    • Cold water in tank flows down into collector be heated
    • Need to protect from freezing
  • 25. Drain back system Installed Basement Collector
  • 26. How much Energy required?
    • BTU saved is BTU doesn’t have to be generated
      • Low flow shower heads
      • Cold water laundry
  • 27. Available Solar Resource
    • Sun Position
    • Time
      • Hour
      • Month
    • Latitude
    • Longitude
    • Incident radiation
      • Beam
      • Diffuse
      • Reflected
    • Clouds
    • Collector Tilt
    • Ground Conditions
      • Albedo
    • Shading
      • Solar Pathfinder
  • 28. Available Solar Resource
    • Combination
      • Weather Data
      • Empirical Results
      • Computer simulation
  • 29. NREL
  • 30. F Chart: Fraction from Solar F Avg=0.65
  • 31. Thermomax
    • Burlington VT (simulation)
  • 32. System Economics
    • 1 sqft/gal storage@80 gal=
    • 80 sq ft collector
    • North Country weather (Massena)
    • Electric bill $0.15 kWh
    • Paid by 20 yr mortgage
  • 33. System Cost
  • 34. Simple Payback
    • $5000/$500- 10 years
    • BUT
      • Payback on Couch?
      • Payback on Elec Water heater? need hot water!
    • Need better model of usage
    • Did not include incentives
    • CO2 reduction
  • 35. Incentives: DSIRE
    • http://www.dsireusa.org/
    • tracks federal financial incentives for renewables
    • Especially residential
  • 36. Federal Tax Incentives
  • 37. NYS Tax Incentives
  • 38. System Economics Breakeven!
  • 39. Organizations
    • NYSERDA-NYS Incentives, R&D, Edcn
    • ISPQ-Training and Certification
    • NABCEP Training and Certification
    • IREC
    • SRCC- Solar Rating Certification Center Industry -Testing of Collectors
    • DSIRE- Incentive database
  • 40. IREC
    • http:// www.irecusa.org /
    • Trade organization
    • Consumer Protection
    • Education
    • Quality
    • Installation Skills
    • Installers
    • Trainers
    • Master Trainers
  • 41. IREC: Task Analysis
  • 42. Training and Certification
    • SUNY Canton
      • AREA Program
    • NYSERDA
      • ISPQ Certification
      • NABCEP Certification
  • 43. Questions?

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