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Distance Protection
 

Distance Protection

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    Distance Protection Distance Protection Presentation Transcript

    • POWER TRANSMISSION LINE FAULT IDENTIFICATION AND LOCATION
    • ABOUT THE PROJECT Our project aim is to identify the fault in the transmission line and find the location. This is achieved through a Micro controller, in the Micro controller we will have the Predefined set values. We will have the predefined set values for all the three lines and Look up table values to find the location
    • ABOUT THE PROJECT All the three lines R,Y and B connected to the CT, Current Transformer. It will check the incoming current and through rectifier - Instrument Rectifier Circuit, it will convert it into Analog value and the Analog value will be checked with the Micro controller pre set values.
    • ABOUT THE PROJECT Like this all the three lines will be monitored and if the preset values exceeds fault will be identified and the same will be displayed in the LCD. We will have a three different preset values for each and every line so the fault line will be identified individually .
    • ABOUT THE PROJECT Similarly to find our the fault location, reference values will be referred from the look up table stored in the Micro controller. The location will be identified based on minimum to maximum set values and the same will be displayed in the LCD
    • ABOUT THE PROJECT The lines will be connected to the CT, Current Transformer and the CT is connected to the Instrument Rectified Circuit. The Instrument Rectified Circuit will be connected to the Micro controller through ADC. LCD unit will be connected to the Micro controller to display the fault and location details. The Micro controller will have the Preset values and Look up table Reference values.
    • LIST OF COMPONENTS Atmel 89C51 Microcontroller ADC CT – Current Transformer Power Supply Unit PCBs Instrument Rectifier Circuit Relay Driver Circuit
    • SOFTWARE REQUIRED Keil Software – Assembly Coding Easy PC – for PCB Design
    • BLOCK DIAGRAM
    • R CT1 PHASE INS LOAD TRU R& MEN Neutral T REC ADC TIFI CT2 ER LOAD CIR CUI Y& T Neutral CT3 LOAD B& Neutral ATMEL MICRO LCD CONTROLLER DISPLAY TO LOADS RELAY DRIVER RELYAS CIRCUIT
    • BLOCK EXPLNATION All the three lines R,Y,B are connected to the corresponding current transformer. Current transformer measures the amount of current flowing in the particular line. All the currents are alternating current so we need to convert it into dc. For that we are using instrument rectifier circuit.
    • BLOCK EXPLNATION Output of the instrument rectifier circuit is dc current which is analog signal.so we need to convert this analog signal into digital signal. So that we are using analog to digital converter and the output is given to micro controller
    • BLOCK EXPLNATION Controller displays the amount of current in the corresponding ling in the lcd . Relay is used to trip the line whenever this action is required. Relay driver is used to drive the electro mechanical relay.
    • CIRCUIT EXPLANATION THREE current transformer are connected with instrument rectifier circuit which converts the ac to dc current. Out put of the three rectifier circuit are connected with analog to digital converter. Analog to digital converter is connected with one of the port of the controller.
    • CIRCUIT EXPLANATION In this project we are using atmel micro controller. LCD is connected in one of the port of the controller. Relay is connected in one of the port pin of the controller. Relay driver is connected in one of the port pin of the controller.
    • Power supply unit Power supply to the circuit is given using regulated power supply. Regulated power supply consists of following components • Step down transformer • Bridge rectifier • Filter • regulator
    • STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer it can either be stepped down or up depending on the value of DC needed. In our circuit the transformer of 230v/12-0-12v is used to perform the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 12V AC across the secondary winding .
    • STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER One alteration of input causes the top of the transformer to be positive and the bottom negative. The next alteration will temporarily cause the reverse. The current rating of the transformer used in our project is 2A. Apart from stepping down AC voltages , it gives isolation between the power source and power supply circuitries.
    • RECTIFIER UNIT In the power supply unit, rectification is normally achieved using a solid state diode. A commonly used circuit for supplying large amounts of DC power is the bridge rectifier. A bridge rectifier of four diodes (4*IN4007) are used to achieve full wave rectification. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the other two will conduct during the positive half cycle.
    • FILTER UNIT Filter circuits which is usually a capacitor acting as a surge arrester always follow the rectifier unit. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling capacitor or a bypassing capacitor, is used not only to ‘short’ the ripple with frequency of 120Hz to ground but also to leave the frequency of the DC to appear at the output. A load resistor R1 is connected so that a reference to the ground is maintained . C1R1 is for bypassing ripples. C2R2 is used as a low pass filter, i.e. it passes only low frequency signals and bypasses high frequency signals
    • REGULATOR The primary purpose of a regulator is to aid the rectifier and filter circuit in providing a constant DC voltage to the device. Power supplies without regulators have an inherent problem of changing DC voltage values due to variations in the load or due to fluctuations in the AC liner voltage. With a regulator connected to the DC output, the voltage can be maintained within a close tolerant region of the desired output. IC7805 and 7812 is used in this project for providing +5v and +12v DC supply.
    • ATMEL CONTROLLER • The AT89C51 is a low-power, high- performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). • The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51™ instruction set and pin out
    • FEATURES • Compatible with MCS-51™ Products • 4K Bytes of In-System Re- programmable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Three-Level Program Memory Lock
    • FEATURES • 128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters • Six Interrupt Sources • Programmable Serial Channel • Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes
    • CURRENT TRANSFORMER Current transformers are used so that ammeters and the current coils of other instruments and relays need not be connected directly to high voltage lines. In other words, these instruments and relays are insulated from high voltages. CT's also step down the current in a known ratio. The use of CT means that relatively small and accurate instruments, relays and control devices of standardized design can be used in circuits
    • PRECISION RECTIFIER The CT and PT outputs are relatively very low when compared with the primary voltage and current. The outputs of the CT’s and PT are sine wave in nature. We must rectify it properly without any loss and there should be provision for amplification
    • PRECISION RECTIFIER For the above mentioned problems we cannot use a DIODE based rectifiers due to following reasons: 1. Diode based rectifiers require a minimum of 1.4V for its operation. 2. Only 90% efficiency can be achieved . 3. Output can neither be tuned nor amplified. 4. Impedance matching cannot be achieved. To avoid the above problems we go for Op-Amp based full wave precision rectifiers. We use Op-Amp full wave Precision rectifier – IC 1458 for our application.
    • ADC Features 1. Easy interface to all microprocessors 2. Operates ratio metrically or with 5 VDC or analog span adjusted voltage reference 3. No zero or full-scale adjust required 4. 8-channel multiplexer with address logic 5. 0V to 5V input range with single 5V power supply
    • ADC 6. Outputs meet TTL voltage level specifications 7. Standard hermetic or molded 28-pin DIP package 8. 28-pin molded chip carrier package 9. ADC0808 equivalent to MM74C949 10. ADC0809 equivalent to MM74C949-1
    • LCD In this project we are using 16x2 lcd. It means LCD has 2 lines of 16 characters each. Many other LCDs like 20×2, 24×2, 32×2, 20×4 etc. are available. Functionally all these LCDs are same . These displays contains two internal byte-wide registers, one for command and second for characters to be displayed. There are three control signals called R/W, DI/RS and En.
    • LCD LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. The most commonly used LCDs found in the market today are 1 Line, 2 Line or 4 Line LCDs which have only 1 controller and support at most of 80 characters. Instruction Register (IR) and Data Register (DR) There are two 8-bit registers controller Instruction and Data register. Instruction register corresponds to the register where you send commands to LCD
    • LCD e.g. LCD shift command, LCD clear, LCD address etc. and Data register is used for storing data which is to be displayed on LCD. When send the enable signal of the LCD is asserted, the data on the pins is latched in to the data register and data is then moved automatically to the DDRAM and hence is displayed on the LCD
    • RELAY Relays are electromagnetic switches, which provides contact between two mechanical elements. Relays have a coil which works on 12V dc power supply and provides DPDT action as an output. In general relays provide potential free contacts which can be used for universal function like DC, AC voltage switching and to control bigger electrical switch gears. The electromechanical relays are based on the comparison between operating torque/force and restraining torque/force.
    • RELAY The VA burden of such relays are high. The characteristics of these relays have some limitations. Each relay can perform only one protective function. Such relays are used for simple and less costly protection purposes. For important and costly equipment installation static relays are preferred. Protective relaying is necessary for almost every electrical plant and no part of the power system is left unprotected.
    • RELAY Relays are electromagnetic switches, which provides contact between two mechanical elements. Relays have a coil which works on 12V dc power supply and provides DPDT action as an output. In general relays provide potential free contacts which can be used for universal function like DC, AC voltage switching and to control bigger electrical switch gears. The electromechanical relays are based on the comparison between operating torque/force and restraining torque/force.
    • RELAY The VA burden of such relays are high. The characteristics of these relays have some limitations. Each relay can perform only one protective function. Such relays are used for simple and less costly protection purposes. For important and costly equipment installation static relays are preferred. Protective relaying is necessary for almost every electrical plant and no part of the power system is left unprotected.
    • EMBEDDED SYSTEMS EMBEDDED SYSTEM is a combination of Software and Hardware. An Embedded system is a system, that has a computing device embedded into it. These are the controllers, processors, arrays or other hardware using dedicated (embedded) logic or programming (code) called “firmware” or a “micro kernel Embedded systems are designed around a C which integrates Memory & Peripherals
    • WHY EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Avoids lots of Electronics Components Built in rich Features Reduces the cost, space Less Down Time for Maintenance Probability of Failure is reduced Easy interface with Computers
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM Sophisticated functionality Real-Time Operation Low Manufacturing Cost Low Power Consumption Eliminates Necessity of Complex Circuitry Smarter Products Smaller Size User Friendly State of the Art Technology