Sports Supplements

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Presentation discussing the cons of using a wide variety of sports supplements.

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Sports Supplements

  1. 1. An Overview of Sports SupplementsType of dietary supplement used to enhance athleticperformanceCan include vitamins, minerals, herbs, plants, and/or amino acidsMost are available as OTCs and do not require FDA approval Expected to follow FDA’s good manufacturing practices to ensure quality and safety of the product Not enforced as well as the quality control of prescription drugsNFL, NCAA, and IOC have developed polices about sportssupplements Have banned use of steroids, ephedra, and androstenedione
  2. 2. Androstenedione and DHEAProhormones: broken down into testosterone in the bodyResearch shows that they do not increase muscle size, improvestrength, or enhance overall athletic performanceSide effects include ones similar to those of anabolic steroids: Cause hormone imbalances Lead to testicular cancer, infertility, stroke, and an increased risk of heart disease Teens may not reach full adult height if they use prohormones Can cause breast development and shrunken testicles in males
  3. 3. Creatine Formed in protein metabolism by the liver, kidneys, and pancreas Supplements are taken to improve strength Majority of users are teens Has not been found to increase endurance or aerobic performance Most common side effects are weight gain, diarrhea, and muscle cramps Can effect kidney function in people with kidney problems
  4. 4. Fat Burners/ThermogenicsAct as stimulants that increase metabolismEphedra-based products are extremelydangerous & have been known to causeheart problems, stroke, and death Has since become banned due to the severity of its side effectsEphedra-free products are still known tocause high blood pressure, heart attack,stroke, and seizuresMany also contain high amounts of caffeine
  5. 5. Stimulants: Caffeine Caffeine Commonly used, but is regulated: limit is 12mg/mL in urine (approx. 3 to 6 cups of strong coffee) Side effects include increased heart rate, cardiac output, metabolic rate, and urine output High doses cause anxiety, insomnia, nervousness, and a decrease in EPO production
  6. 6. Stimulants: Amphetamines Used to increase muscular strength and endurance, acceleration, aerobic enzyme activity, as well as to play through painful injuries Side effects include headaches, sleeplessness, anxiety, cardiac rhythm disturbances, stroke, hypertension, coronary events, coma, and sometimes death These risks are increased in high temperatures due to the body not being able to cool itself effectively
  7. 7. Androgenic Anabolic SteroidsSynthetic version of testosteronePrescribed to treat medical conditions such as muscle atrophy or delayedpubertyNot allowed to be prescribed to enhance athletic performanceIn 2005, AAS were classified as a controlled substance if held withoutprescriptionMale side effects: breast development, shrunken testicles, decreased spermcount, and increased risk of becoming infertile or impotentFemale side effects: excessive facial and body hair, reduced breast size,deepened voice and increased risk of masculinized female fetusBoth genders can experience acne, oily skin, jaundice, balding, tendonrupture, heart attack, enlarged heart, increased bad cholesterol levels, moodswings, rage, delusions or paranoia, and increased risk of liverdisease/cancer
  8. 8. Banned Substances andRestricted Procedures Substances: Other Drugs and Procedures: Stimulants Blood doping Anabolic agents Local anesthetics Alcohol and beta blockers Manipulation of urine samples (banned for rifle only) Beta-2 agonists permitted by Diuretics and other masking prescription and inhalation agents Caffeine concentration in urine is Street drugs regulated Peptide hormones and analogues Anti-estrogen Beta-2 agonists
  9. 9. NCAA Nutritional DietarySupplement Warning Review the product and its label with your AD staff Supplements are not well regulated, some may cause a positive drug test result Many dietary supplements are contaminated with banned drugs that are not listed on the label Any product containing a dietary supplement ingredient is taken at your own risk If a student athlete tests positive for drugs as a result of taking a dietary/nutritional supplement, the athlete puts their eligibility, reputation, and their future in jeopardy
  10. 10. Drug Testing by NCAA Director is not notified any earlier than 2 days before testing Athlete usually only finds out the day before or just hours before they are tested Student athlete must sign a compliance form after being tested Confirm they understand the drug policy and consequences of failed drug tests Failure to turn the form in results in deeming the athlete as ineligible Must be accompanied by a witness during testing What if the student athlete tests positive? Suspension from athletic participation Second offense results in a year’s suspension from participation Third offense results in athlete being banned from NCAA competition
  11. 11. US Anti-Doping Agency$9.5 million in funding since 2001 in attempts to deter theuse of prohibited sport supplements: Detection of exogenous growth hormone and its analogs, mimetics, and secretagogues Detection of O2 transport-enhancing substances and methods Detection of synthetic anabolic steroids Doping with genetic technology Ethical considerations Improved detection of naturally compounds Any many other facets of the field
  12. 12. Misrepresentation ofActive Ingredients Underrepresentation Unsafe because level of true intake is unknown Done in an attempt to get repeat customers because of effective product Overrepresentation Financial loss Done to cut production costs and increase profit Example: Quality Control of Dehydroplandrosterone Dietary Supplement Products Less than 50% contained 90-110% of amount on label
  13. 13. Unintentional Contamination Not following Good Manufacturing Processes (GMP) set by the FDA ~20% of OTC supplements in the US contain adrogens Mostly prohormones in low concentrations Health risk still relatively low Major risk is for athletes in terms of failing drug tests
  14. 14. Intentional ContaminationClassified as containing more than 1mg/g of androgens Health risk is high, especially for pregnant women, women, and children spontaneous abortion, solidifying of growth plates, deepening of voice, and sterilization Example: Parabolan-S (fizzy tablets) by Senesco-Pharma Said to contain prohormones, contains 17mg of Metandienone (Dianabol) per tablet More than 3 per day would total to a higher load than what intentional steroid users view as the highest acceptable daily dosage (50mg/day) Example: Gaspari Nutrition by Novedex Extreme Claims to be “non-anabolic and non-androgenic supplement” Contains androstatrienedione and 6-oxo-androstendione Converted to 1,4,6-testosterone Aromatase inhibitors and androgen receptor agonist
  15. 15. DSHEARegulates dietary supplements for the FDACan remove dietary supplements from the marketThe DSHEA is responsible for: Dietary supplements on the market that do not label all of the contents within them Supplements that have non-FDA approved ingredients
  16. 16. Obtaining “Clean” Supplements Purchase products that are certified by US Pharmacopeia Ensured that it is produced under GMP Tested for quality, purity, and potency CONTENT tested National Science Foundation supplement certification Developed with NFL and NFLPA Product is produced under GMP Does not contain substances and/or metabolites banned by the NFL
  17. 17. FDA RecommendationsConsumers should protect Avoid the following claims/phrases:themselves from harm “Easy” fix for problems like excessSupplements are DRUGS weight, hair loss, or impotency “Scientific breakthrough”, Consult Health Care Professional “miraculous cure”, “secret before and during use ingredient”, and “ancient remedy”Check the FDA’s Tainted Weight Impressive-sounding terms, suchLoss Supplements list as “hunger stimulation point” and “thermogenesis” Product is safe because it is “natural” Undocumented studies or personal testimonials by consumers/doctors Promises of no-risk, money-back guarantees
  18. 18. Labeling of Multivitamins Not very accurate Percentages on label do not reflect absorption Absorption does not reflect biological effect and function at active site Lack of labeling of bioavailability makes it impossible to compare products Bioavailabilty is not standardized over all multivitamins or specific MVMs Due to inaccurate labeling, assumed dietary intake can be off by 25-50%
  19. 19. Compromisers of Bioavailability Homeostatic control To maintain homeostasis, the body will react to large doses of minerals/vitamins by increasing excretion Ingested amount will not effect utilization at site of action positively Definitions of bioavailability vary by individual Sex, age, physiological state
  20. 20. Inactive Ingredients Fillers, coatings, surfactants effect: Release of Ca, folic acid, and B12 Absorption Metabolic processes Nutrient-nutrient reactions: Vitamin C with inorganic iron increases iron absorption Decrease magnesium and calcium to increase iron absorption
  21. 21. Testing of Vitamins Human testing is required Dissolution and disintegration standards are set by USP Not mandatory to abide by standards Acid solubility Not all vitamins and minerals apply to this test Lack of coverage, i.e. calcium solubility Drug interaction Little testing or research completed in this area Not required Interactions are not required to be posted or reviewed by the FDA
  22. 22. A Quick Comparison… Whole Foods Supplements Advantageous for athletes Little variety Support an active lifestyle Isolated nutrients Contain essential nutrients to maintain optimal health and Can do more harm than top performance during an endurance event good More complexity and variety “Food Synergy” – whole foods influence our health in complex and highly interactive ways
  23. 23. Whole Foods to Supportan Active Lifestyle Diverse and nutrient-dense sources of proteins and carbs Proteins Major structural component of muscle and other tissues in the body Help produce hormones, enzymes, and hemoglobin Carbohydrates Energy currency of the body Fuel muscle contractions
  24. 24. Whole Food Sources of ProteinEggs Complete protein BV = 100 Thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, folic acids, vitamin B12, biotin, vitamin D, vitamin E, and phosphorusSoy: Complete protein Fiber, iron, calcium, zinc, B vitamins, antioxidantsOthers Fish, chicken, beef, and milk are also great source of food protein Contain essential amino acids and many useful vitamins and minerals
  25. 25. Whole Food Sources of Carbs Best sources are: Whole grain foods Whole fruits and whole vegetables Whole food carbs can be used to: Provide the energy the body needs during exercise Support hydration of the body Contain electrolytes, fiber, and an array of vitamins and minerals
  26. 26. SummaryMost of the popular sports supplements carry heavy healthrisks and bad side effectsMany sport organizations have banned a number of sportssupplements; if an athlete tests positive for a bannedsubstance they put their eligibility and their future in jeopardyLack of regulation of these supplements results in evenhigher risk due to misrepresentation of the products andcontaminationWhole foods, such as fruits and vegetables, are a greatalternative to manufactured supplements and are much safer

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