Sustainable Design for Occupants to Achieve High Performance and Low Energy Buildings

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A Brief Study case that shows Sustainable Design Strategies for Occupants to achieve better performance and Low energy consupmtion Building in the comercial sector. The Studied case is 30 The Bond …

A Brief Study case that shows Sustainable Design Strategies for Occupants to achieve better performance and Low energy consupmtion Building in the comercial sector. The Studied case is 30 The Bond Sydney - Australia

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  • 1. FACULTY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability Course Lecturer: Paul Osmond Essay Topic: Evaluating a study case where designing for occupants with sustainable criteria and an adequate site analysis, allowed achieving a high performance and low energy consumption building. Nicolas Carbone Gamarra – Student Number: z3281988 Jun 11 – 2010
  • 2. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability Paul Osmond 11-06-2010 UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 2 of 11
  • 3. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW Energy efficient design and occupant well-being: Case studies in the UK and India (Koen Steemers, Shweta Manchanda – 2010) Introduction The purpose of this literature review is to analyse the mentioned paper and from this reading to get some values, data and structure to develop a comprehensive research relating occupants wellbeing, comfort and performance in an office building ambience. First, this literature review presents the main purpose of the selected paper, the one is summarized and described; later a brief critique is offered to understand the main points of the selected reading. Finally the conclusions will offer a way to structure the definitive research. First it is possible to sustain that the main objective of the reading proposed is to demonstrate the relationship between sustainable building design and occupant wellbeing. It starts with a definition of sustainable design and wellbeing. Then several case study office buildings from UK and India are presented. Then the results demonstrate that increasing energy use in the case study buildings is associated with increasing mechanisation (e.g. centralised air conditioning) and reduced occupant‟s control. The result of this situation is that the reduced control also reduces occupant comfort and satisfaction therefore, deteriorating performance. Finally, the paper reveals that the reported health conditions of occupants correlates strongly with their levels of satisfaction. The overall conclusion is that energy use in typical office buildings is opposite to the wellbeing of the occupants which means that while increasing energy use does not improve wellbeing satisfaction or performance moreover it decreases them. Summary and main purpose of the selected reading In this article the author presents findings showing that there has been a shift in the direction of scientific research related to the energy and environmental performance of buildings towards a focus on human-centred concern where people are demanding the best indoor environmental quality for their wellbeing and productivity. Many international standards are also now beginning to move towards people-centric regulations and guidelines for building design and engineering, recognizing that some of the older ideas of sustainability have ignored significant psychological, cultural and sociological dimensions. According to Steemers 2010, the most effective way to determine comfort is through a combination of measurable parameters of the environment and their correlation with reported occupants comfort. This investigation shows that lighting, job satisfaction, thermal conditions, and noise are among the top factors dominating the occupant responses. However, air quality and degree of control are also important. This correlation is critically influenced by the perception of control that the users has over their own environment, particularly when the physical conditions become distracting or extreme. Also it is mentioned that is common to assume that outdoor environment and the weather affect indoor perceptions hence natural ventilation design tend to have better results than mechanically ventilated ones. For instance some of the presented findings show that sickness is reported higher in India than in UK and this could be explained by the use of naturally ventilated building in UK. Despite the fact that the tendency has been to diminish the occupants ability to control their own environment, some studies reflect that it should be the opposite because a key linking variable between energy consumption and occupant happiness is the degree of control that the occupants have. Steemers exposes when increasing control is given to occupants it does not only improve their physical and psychological sense of comfort and well-being but it also can result in significantly lower levels of energy consumption. The relationships between energy efficient design and the occupants are multifaceted and of key importance to the performance of buildings. UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 3 of 11
  • 4. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 The article exposes that increased energy use is typically associated with increased mechanical equipment and centralized control. It also shows that air-conditioned buildings emit 2 to 3 times CO2 compared to mixed mode and naturally ventilated ones for no significant improvement of comfort, neither a positive direct relationship between the energy use (or CO2 emissions) and occupant satisfaction. Nevertheless, the observations established that low energy buildings could provide good levels of satisfaction in many cases even in different contexts. Moreover low energy buildings can be, and often are, perceived by their occupants to be more satisfactory which leads to conclude that increasing energy intensity does not reflect an improvement in comfort. Finally, the author states that people affect and are affected by the built environment, thus it is possible to suggest that the „human-dimension‟ of design requires the application of existing and new research methodologies to ensure truly sustainable design where „people-focus‟ is the main concern of it to enhance better spaces addressing productivity, comfort, and wellbeing. Critique and conclusions Although Steemers, have shown a comprehensive analysis in occupants and well being, it is also true that he has not mentioned the triple bottom line that supports the basis of sustainability, therefore some of the concepts related to it are not present in the reading. Some of these are the correlation between occupants, wellbeing and economic productivity. To extend this idea it is necessary to complement the reading with other literature that can exploit the concepts of space productivity, and occupant performance. It is also remarkable to sustain that the triple bottom line of sustainable development is structured in Economics, Environmental and Social. Therefore, not to include any of them in the further analysis will not lead into sustainable practises or sustainable designing criteria. A complementary reading should be considered to enhance a better understanding of Lighting, natural air flows, interior air quality, materials selection, waste management, water consumption, building management process and adequate site analysis; in order to define ESD criteria and therefore to reach better buildings. But these further researches should not underestimate either occupants‟ aspiration or economic inputs. The selected paper offers a very interesting starting point to develop a more deeply research focus in occupants, wellbeing, but also misses the correlation between exposed ideas with the concept of building performance, both complementary in the pursuit of an economical and productive sustainable office building. Reference List Steemers K. (2010) Energy efficient design and occupant well-being: Case studies in the UK and India. Building and Environment, number 45(3–4) pages 270–278. Accessed 16 /05/ 2009 from Sciencedirect database. **** UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 4 of 11
  • 5. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 EVALUATING A STUDY CASE WHERE DESIGNING FOR OCCUPANTS WITH SUSTAINABLE CRITERIA AND AN ADEQUATE SITE ANALYSIS, ALLOWED ACHIEVING A HIGH PERFORMANCE AND LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION BUILDING. Nicolas Carbone-Gamarra UNSW - SUSD0004 | Master of Sustainable Development **** It is broadly accepted that architectural design is more development to experience rapid growth during the last effective when designing for future occupants two centuries. Examples of this could be the enormous addressing their needs and challenges, but also it is well advances in transportation, building structures and known that currently, functional modern architecture by power supplies. Accordingly it is equally important to itself is not necessary sustainable over the long term. notice how energy consumption rate has increased due Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to to poorly constructed buildings. This was illustrated by review the architectural design criteria along with a the Worldwatch Institute Report which explains that clear understanding of the natural processes and their buildings in the United States for example use 17% of interactions with human needs incorporating the concept the total freshwater flows and 25% of harvested wood. of sustainable development and ESD criteria In addition, they are responsible not only for the 50% of (Environmental Sustainable Design). In the pursuit of (CFC) production and 40% of the total energy these qualities, many commercial buildings are being consumption, but also for generating 33% of CO2 designed to become sustainable identifying the energy emissions in the country (Mendler & Odell 2000). uses and proposing more effective materials according to the specific site and climate condition in which they Moreover, as populations grow energy consumption are immerse. Although a variety of approaches have also increases, driving societies to deplete natural being reviewed, this essay will focus on evaluating a resources that could severely compromise our study case where designing for occupants with development in the near future (Sachs 2004, p.1). That sustainable criteria and an adequate site analysis, is why researchers have shown increasing concern about allowed achieving a high performance and low energy the world energy demand rate, which is expected to consumption building also delightful, functional, climb 50 % to 80 % above 1990, levels (Omer 2008, productive and regenerative by design. The information p.2266). Naturally, it is becoming increasingly given in this essay will be structured in several sections. necessary to consider the designing and promotion of The first will expose the energy problem and the low-energy buildings in a cost-effective and increasing tendency of energy consumption rates. Then, environmentally responsible way to achieve not only the a description of the building situation among the more effective, but also the least expensive sustainable perceptive analysis and space ambience will be strategy as possible. Passive and low energy architecture followed by an evaluation of some site conditions. has been proposed and investigated in different Later, an architectural critique is offered in order to locations of the world addressing in all cases the understand the main strategies for functionality. In concept of sustainable development. Therefore, by addition a review of the main ESD criteria used during incorporating design strategies that exploit these the design phase will be exposed. Finally the results of principles may be the way of moving in the pursuit of the analysis will lead to suggestions and conclusions for economical and environmental sustainability. improving the architectural designing process in the pursuit of sustainability. The case of „30 The Bond‟ reflects a sustainable building rated with 5 stars achieved from the Green Star First of all it is important to understand that energy has Office as Built rating tool (Green Star), in which not only been part of sustainable development, but it sustainability, performance and economical aspects also represents development itself. It is widely known where key issues to design, not only addressing site that, high levels of energy inputs have allowed human conditions and climate variables but also expectations, UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 5 of 11
  • 6. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 necessities and aspirations of future occupants. familiar place. The Atrium not only reflect the Lend According to the (OECD., 2002) in (Godfaurd 2005), Lease aspirations in terms of image and elegance, but “Sustainable buildings can be defined as those buildings also represents the community needs and wishes to that have minimum adverse impacts on the built and create a warm and lovely office building meaning a natural environment striving for integral quality; more productive and efficient place to work. including economic, social and environmental performance in a broad way”. 30 The Bond is located in As it was mentioned before, “Site Analysis” played a 30-34 Hickson Road, Millers Point Sydney; and is a huge role in determining which strategies were the most leading example of social and environmental suitable to implement in the design. In the case of 30-34 sustainability within commercial objectives, being the Hickson Rd for instance, it is a very constricted site, first CBD office building in Australia to commit to a 5 with only three exposed facades being the fourth a star energy rating with lower CO2 emissions than a heritage hand hewn listed sandstone wall built by typical office building (Bovis Lend lease – “The Bond convicts in early 1840‟s (Moreton 2006). The Project Data Sheet” - June 06). incorporation of this feature into the building is one of the highlights of the development because it gives When analysing the „30 the Bond‟ it is inevitable to talk thermal mass, humidity control and natural lightning about how the space affect people‟s perception of representing also a commitment with heritage and wellbeing. It not only shelters occupants but also it history. But before using the historic element in the welcomes them and this produce satisfaction and design, some previous actions were required to fix and happiness between workers, and visitors. It is an iconic clean the original drainage cavity and also the building with a very extended and open atrium that surrounding soil full of bitumen residues from the old invites to use the space in a comfortably and relax way. construction. According to Moreton 2006 “Complex Some of the main characteristics of this atrium are that contamination both in liquid and solid forms had existed the open space reflects a commitment with heritage and for many years on the site after the Gasworks ceased site interaction. Also it produces a very interesting operations in 1921”. In early periods for example, a ambience creating the effect of being in an inside-out chemical DPC was introduced into the connection space. points between the rock face and the stone walls of the building to form a barrier against further seepage but A large corridor with natural sky light offers a very unfortunately this chemical product is not only toxic but clear vision of what the rest of the building will be when also hazardous for people. Therefore, before using the moving through it. It is a delightful space full of light historic wall it was necessary to clean deeply the area and warm ambience. The sandstone hand hen wall also affected and moreover to remove all the toxic and provides a clear and not humid air because it de- hazardous materials. humidifies the air by natural absorption. The natural element brings into the space the organic component Opposite to this sandstone wall is the main façade and due to the adequate balance between glass facing west which orientation is very complicate to deal transparency and light creates the feeling of being in a with, when designing for sustainability due to the lack very equilibrated and organic space. It is also elegant of shading, the constant direct insolation and glare. In and provides a constant and fluid transitory trespass the urban design context for instance, the building between interior and exterior well defining the envelope played a huge role to achieve certain levels of intermediate space. sustainability because it transmit daylight, direct solar radiation and fresh air; all qualities that improve life at It represents not also the main strategy of the building the interior of the building itself. Therefore, designers by generating the offset from the main wall, but also should carefully investigate the full potential of site, creates the connexion between people, site and urban building organisation, shape and climate influences to space. The spatial considerations were to produce a maximise the desired levels of comfort or protection to continuous space that links both functionality and future occupants from unwanted influences. The connectivity through views and visual contact. The building skin for instance, should be designed for sensation of control over the dense emptiness and the adaptation to the specific climate, orientation or natural eye control through people and built spaces give an conditions of the individual site and by doing this to apparent safety feeling of walking into a known or achieve better performance to the specific site UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 6 of 11
  • 7. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 conditions identifying possible potentials and may work to profit everyone involved achieving not diminishing the uses of artificial sources for interior only technical sustainability but also social development climate. In this case: continuously sun exposition from in an urban scale. For instance, an agreement between early hours until sunset and strong West and South West Lend Lease, Deutsche Office Trust and the residents winds affected the full height glazing. So the external involving the public areas of the development, ends in a shading system had to deal with those difficulties to be commitment between the three parties to modify the certain to response and be reliably even through periods rooftop by lowering it within the building envelope and of high winds. On the other hand, day lighting, shading, also creating a space used to grow a native wildflower air flows or solar radiation along with protection from garden improving the views for residents in the noise and air pollution can become important factors in surrounding buildings. the designing of any building skin. Here is where double facades may come into play with intelligent solar As well as the consultation and involvement of the local control systems or mechanical operable devices that community, owners and developers looked for inputs may enable to fairly reduce the energy consumption and from their own staff. The result was a series of ESD at the same time to improve internal performance of the „Aspirations‟ rated in order of importance and building significance. These inputs, lead to some design definitions and built an accurate brief which included; in Finally the studied site is connected with three heritage first place wide open floor plans, with services cores buildings from the 1840s that have been preserved as sitting on the edge to enhance high levels of planning part of the cultural and social project. Due to the efficiencies, and day lighting effectiveness. These particular location, the project confronts several features are complemented with building balconies and challenges to address. However, not only site open areas to achieve versatility and to improve the restrictions but also communal consultation where the interior air quality securing constant integration of main sources of inputs that were taken into views and human contact. An example of it could be the consideration for achieving the final design. atrium which is a public space encouraging interaction between the building‟s occupants and the community. It More than 300 people participated actively during the contains internal stairs, glass lifts and double storey design process, being consulted in several occasions “pods” which are used for shared activities creating a from conceptualization to completion. The answers great sense of connection (Moreton 2006). The design obtained, provided the main architectural input which features also incorporates glass lifts, open stairs, was that the building should not be designed to achieve balconies and terraces all the ones, which contribute to certain level of sustainability according to a specific enhancing visibility and connectivity, maximising rating tool; but that it should be planed to secure the functionality and achieving great levels of commitment desire levels of comfort, and performance in accordance and comfort. to the sustainable criteria hence, achieving better standards and reduced energy consumption rates. This Addressing the open and clear lines of sight within the statement is very important because it sets “people‟s building, modular and flexible workstation units were comfort” as the most important issue, when deciding provided and installed within the office areas to ensure strategies to be addressed. “By putting people at the efficiency and practicality maintaining the quality of the heart of their project „30 The Bond‟, intended to working environment. The environmental credentials of develop a process whereby the project reflects the this workstations supplied, were also tested to ensure aspirations of the people who will ultimately be using they met with the strict criteria for all materials and and interacting with it on a daily basis” (Moreton 2006). processes used throughout the development. It is clear An integration of the new development into the existing that the internal performance as well as the occupants community with a minimum of disruption or friction comfort and wellbeing was an important factor to define was achieved by incorporating and respecting the the designing strategy and specifications, enhancing a human environment, local residents, community groups productive and high quality working space. This shows and other businesses in the area. the importance of designing for occupants in first place rather than designing for achieving certain ratting or 30 the Bond, shows a good example in which recognition; at the end, occupants will be using the collaboration between developers and the community space and they required to fulfil their needs in terms of UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 7 of 11
  • 8. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 comfort, happiness and wellbeing to develop efficiency, beams also increase the usable space reducing the productivity and economical effectiveness without overall height of the building to maximize the natural compromising their own health. Accordingly to Lend day lighting and views but this enlargement of spaces Lease CEO (Asia Pacific) Ross Taylor “this new work also requires external shading device to minimize environment, with the internal building design and afternoon sun radiation and therefore, air conditioning layout will be a place for „our people‟ that will inspire load and drive our distinct culture in years to come” (Lend Lease 2003). As it was mentioned before several aspirations were identified by the workshops including greenhouse gas Another relevant input delivered from the internal reduction, indoor environment quality, water consultations, was the aspiration to use excellence in management, materials selection, waste management, materials selection that could achieve strict pollution and biodiversity environmental guidelines improving interior fitout and also air quality. To achieve this high level of Applied ESD criteria to develop the design project expectations, materials selection included bamboo, involved the commitment with the environment but also wool, sisal, goat hair, linen, cotton, and leather; all these a strong effort to provide a better place for future users. natural materials are well known for their high qualities, In this sense as it was expressed, a reduction of environmental credentials and their contribution to greenhouse gas emissions was a defining principle in improve healthy environments. The sense of quality can the designing process. Indoor environment quality also be recognized due to the constant testing and quality represented one of the main goals to achieve. That is measurements. For instance in the selection of bamboo, why fresh air is continually provided to the workplace Lend Lease not only looked at a range of factors and exhausted out of the building without being including the manufacturing process, coatings and the recirculated increasing the air quality and reducing the glues used but also at practicalities such as the hardness risk of sick building syndrome. Another important and durability. Other important factor to choose high feature was water management to reduce overall quality materials was the fact that the building should consumption. In order to accomplish this, not only water get important levels of versatility and openness AAA-rated fixtures, and water sub metering were therefore the possibility to re-arrange spaces was a incorporated to allow any leak detection but also, constant. A great example of this are the eastern crafted, rainwater collection and storage for sub soil drip timber slatted panels, which give the impression of irrigation system was implemented on the roof to being a single partition forming part of a wall but when maximise water conservation. In terms of materials, opened, either individually or in any combination, over 80% of construction material considering finishing reveal the expansive west views, over the harbour and and fitout presented a high percentage of recycled docks. sources or waste diverted from landfill. Also, in louvers and shading devices for instance it is considerable the Finally but equally important, is the desire to reduce the use of recycled wharf timbers and patinated aged green house gas emissions, goal accomplished by the copper. Meanwhile in interiors low CFC paints reduction of a 30% of CO2 emissions compared with a complement the timber decking from sustainable common office building (Moreton 2006). This has been sources and low VOC carpets. Finally the rooftop achieved through the use of natural ventilation in incorporates a roof garden increasing biodiversity. wintergardens and meeting rooms, passive chilled beam Lend Lease CEO Ross Taylor said, “Creating the Bond for cooling, fully operable shading on the facades and has allowed Lend Lease to again push the boundaries of natural daylight through the skylight over the atrium. what is possible” (Lend Lease design 2009). More specifically, chilled beams reduce the needs of air But To understand the reasons that had „30 The Bond‟ conditioning by pumping chilled water through cooling to push over the common benchmarks, first it is elements in the ceiling, the ones that creates a natural necessary to understand the implications of building convection process of hot air rising and cold air falling. environment in occupants performance and how low This process allows natural control of temperature thus energy consumption buildings could affect reducing the load of air conditioning systems systematically occupants health and economical minimizing the external energy requirements. Chilled effectiveness. Accordingly to Steemers (2010) “low UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 8 of 11
  • 9. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 energy design cannot be limited to the technical issues also gives interesting economical returns in the that impact on our planet”. midterm; based in the high efficiency and performance of occupants and working force involved. Also occupants affect the energy performance of buildings and are affected by building environment “Occupants and developers of office buildings itself. This is supported by evidence given in several continuously ask for healthy and stimulating working studies like the document presented by ASHRAE in environments” (Gratia E, 2003) 2001 where clearly appears that people spend about 80– 90% of their time indoors and therefore various comfort In this particular study case the occupants wellbeing and health effects are to be associated with the building was always the engine to pre-establish a design criteria characteristics such as, ventilation, conditioning in order to achieve better performance in accordance to systems, and the indoor air quality. Addressing the fact better perception of the working space. of this result, “it has been naturally between researchers to shift in the direction from energy and environmental Based on the studied case it is possible to conclude that performance of buildings towards a focus on human- the challenge is then, to design buildings that can be centred concerns” (Steemers 2003). responsive to users in terms of aspirations and needs to enhance better environments and more comfortable Evidence in EPA Indoor air quality and student spaces. But also to create sustainable buildings which performances, shows that when individuals experience can identify the energy uses and propose more effective at least two symptoms of discomfort they begin to materials according to the specific site and climate perceive a reduction in their performance. Consequently condition. occupants are demanding the best indoor environmental quality for their wellbeing and productivity. Therefore In this aspect „30 The Bond‟ enhance a balance between Well-being has become an integral concern for sustainability, performance and occupants aspirations sustainable design. representing the accomplished goal and demonstrating that a clear and strong occupants-focus strategy could To confirm this assumption, Steemers (2010) suggest lead into a sustainable building not only with better that “Most important, is the fact that low energy design performance but also recognised for its design, can achieve some of the highest levels of occupant representing a delightful, functional, productive and satisfaction”. This Provide clear evidence that regenerative building. promotion and achievement of low energy buildings is not only sustainable in the environmental aspects but 4410 words **** UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 9 of 11
  • 10. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 Reference List [1] ASHRAE. (2001)Indoor air quality: position document. [8] Moreton Jhon. (2006) Lean Clean Green Machine “How Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, Bovis Lend Lease latest eco masterpiece has stirring and Air-Conditioning Engineers; 2001. the building industry”. Sydney-Australia. PDF [2] EPA. (2000) Indoor air quality and student performance. document downloaded 03-05-10 402-K-03-006. Washington D.C: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor [9] OECD. 2002, 'Design of Sustainable Building Policies: Environments Division Office of Radiation and Scope for improvement and barriers', Head of Indoor Air; 2000. Publications Serv., vol.5, pp.39, accessed 02/04/ 10 [3] John Godfaurd, 2005, 'Sustainable building solutions: a review of lessons from the natural world,' Elsevier epoc-wpnep(2001)5-final - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.40, pp.319 - 328, [10] Omer, A 2008, „Energy environment and sustainable accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW development‟, Renewable and Sustainable Energy [4] Gratia E. (2003) Design of low energy office building. Reviews, No. 12, pp. 2265-2300, accessed 16 May Energy and Buildings, No. 35,pp.473-491, accessed 2009 from Sciencedirect database. 16 May 2009 from Elsevier-Sciencedirect database. [11] Sachs, J 2004, „Sustainable Energy Systems for the 21st [5] Lend Lease Design. (2007) The Bond Project Data Sheet Century‟, The Earth Institute at Columbia June 06. Sydney-Australia. PDF document University, accessed 22 July 2009, downloaded and accessed on 03-05-10 /pubs/DSDS020404.pdf [6] Lend Lease Design. (2009) 30 The Bond, 30 Hickson [12] Steemers K.(2003) Towards a research agenda for Road, Millers Point, Sydney-Australia. Web adapting to climate change. Building Research and document by “Whitaker Hadenham Openshaw”, Information Journal number 31(3–4) pages 291–301. accesed 17-03-10 on=showaward&entryno=20052019 [13] Steemers K. (2010) Energy efficient design and occupant well-being: Case studies in the UK and India. [7] Mendler, S & Odell, W 2000, HOK Guidebook to Building and Environment, number 45(3–4) pages sustainable Design, J.Willey, New York 270–278. Accessed 16 /05/ 2009 from Sciencedirect database. UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 10 of 11
  • 11. SUSD0004. S1 – 2010 – Human Factors, Sustainability and Habitability 2010 ANNEXE 1 PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY Clements-Croome, D. (2004) Intelligent buildings: design, construction and operation., London, Thomas Telford, pp.408 Fazia Ali-Touder, Helmut Mayer. 2006, 'Numerical study on the effects of aspect ratio and orientation of an urban street canyon on outdoor thermal comfort in hot and dry climate,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.41, pp.94-108, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Fernandez-Gonzales, A. 2007, 'Analysis of the thermal performance and comfort conditions produced by five passive solar heating strategies in the United States midwest,' Elsevier - Journal of Solar Energy, vol.81, pp.581-593, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW John Godfaurd, Derek Clemens-Croome, George Jeronimidis. 2005, 'Sustainable building solutions: a review of lessons from the natural world,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.40, pp.319 - 328, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Kontoleon KJ, Eumorfopoulou EA. 2010, 'The effect of orientation and proportion of a plant-covered wall layer on the thermal performance of a building zone,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.45, pp.1287-1303, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Melchert, L. 2007, 'The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.42, pp.893-901, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Morel N, Faist A. 1993, 'Design tools for building Thermal Analysis: The significance of Integration,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.28, pp.465-473, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW OCDE. 2002, 'Design of Sustainable Building Policies: Scope for improvement and barriers', Head of Publications Service, OECD, vol.5, pp.39 final, accesed. 02 April 2010 Pushkar S, Becker R, Katz A. 2005, 'A methodology for design of environmentally optimal buildings by variable grouping,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.40, pp.1126-1139, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Roulet, C.A. 2001, 'Indoor environment quality in buildings and its impact on outdoor environment,' Elsevier - Journal of Energy and Buildings, vol.33, pp.183-191, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Sam C.M., Hui. 2010, 'Low Energy building design in high density urban cities,' Elsevier - Journal of Renewable Energy, vol.24, pp.627-640, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Santamouris M, et. al,. 2010, 'On the efficiency of night ventilation techniques applied to residential buildings,' Elsevier - Journal of Energy and Buildings, pp.5, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Tombazis + AN, Preuss S.A. . 2001, 'Design of Passive Solar buildings in Urban Breas,' Elsevier - Journal of Solar Energy, vol.70, pp.311-318, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Tove Malmqvist, Mauritz Glaumann. 2009, 'Environmental Efficiency in residential buildings - A simplified comunication approach,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.44, pp.937-947, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Tzu-Ping Lin, Matzarakis A, Ruey-Lung Hwang. 2010, 'Shading effect on long-term outdoor thermal comfort,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.45, pp.213-221, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW **** UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 11 of 11