Susd0001 Nicolas Carbone Individual Assignment (2)

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  • 1. FACULTY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT SUSD0001. S1 - 2010 Sustainable Development & the Urban Environment Course Convenor: Professor James Weirick Tutors: Vivien Chow - Marika Hahn - Kathleen McDowell Essay Topic: Evaluating a study case where designing for occupants with sustainable criteria and an adequate site analysis, allowed achieving a high performance and low energy consumption building. Nicolas Carbone Gamarra – Student Number: z3281988 May 24 – 2010
  • 2. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 24-05-2010 UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 2 of 10
  • 3. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 EVALUATING A STUDY CASE WHERE DESIGNING FOR OCCUPANTS WITH SUSTAINABLE CRITERIA AND AN ADEQUATE SITE ANALYSIS, ALLOWED ACHIEVING A HIGH PERFORMANCE AND LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION BUILDING. Nicolas Carbone-Gamarra UNSW - SUSD0001 | Master of Sustainable Development **** It is broadly accepted that architectural design is more two centuries. Examples of this could be the enormous effective when designing for future occupants advances in transportation, building structures and addressing their needs and challenges, but also it is well power supplies. Accordingly it is equally important to known that currently, functional modern architecture by notice how energy consumption rate has increased due itself is not necessary sustainable over the long term. to poorly constructed buildings. This was illustrated by Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to the Worldwatch Institute Report which explains that review the architectural design criteria along with a buildings in the United States for example use 17% of clear understanding of the natural processes and their the total freshwater flows and 25% of harvested wood. interactions with human needs incorporating the concept In addition, they are responsible not only for the 50% of of sustainable development and ESD criteria (CFC) production and 40% of the total energy (Environmental Sustainable Design). In the pursuit of consumption, but also for generating 33% of CO2 these qualities, many commercial buildings are being emissions in the country (Mendler & Odell 2000). designed to become sustainable identifying the energy uses and proposing more effective materials according Moreover, as populations grow energy consumption to the specific site and climate condition in which they also increases, driving societies to deplete natural are immerse. Although a variety of approaches have resources that could severely compromise our being reviewed, this essay will focus on evaluating a development in the near future (Sachs 2004, p.1). That study case where designing for occupants with is why researchers have shown increasing concern about sustainable criteria and an adequate site analysis, the world energy demand rate, which is expected to allowed achieving a high performance and low energy climb 50 % to 80 % above 1990, levels (Omer 2008, consumption building also delightful, functional, p.2266). Naturally, it is becoming increasingly productive and regenerative by design. The information necessary to consider the designing and promotion of given in this essay will be structured in five sections. low-energy buildings in a cost-effective and The first will expose the energy problem and the environmentally responsible way to achieve not only the increasing tendency of energy consumption rates. Then, more effective, but also the least expensive sustainable a description of the building situation and an evaluation strategy as possible. Passive and low energy architecture of some site conditions will be presented. Later, an has been proposed and investigated in different architectural critique is offered in order to understand locations of the world addressing in all cases the the main strategies for functionality. In addition a concept of sustainable development. Therefore, by review of the main ESD criteria used during the design incorporating design strategies that exploit these phase will be exposed. Finally the results of the analysis principles may be the way of moving in the pursuit of will lead to suggestions and conclusions for improving economical and environmental sustainability. the architectural designing process in the pursuit of sustainability. The case of „30 The Bond‟ reflects a sustainable building rated with 5 stars achieved from the Green Star First of all it is important to understand that energy has Office as Built rating tool (Green Star), in which not only been part of sustainable development, but it sustainability, performance and economical aspects also represents development itself. It is widely known where key issues to design, not only addressing site that, high levels of energy inputs have allowed human conditions and climate variables but also expectations, development to experience rapid growth during the last necessities and aspirations of future occupants. UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 3 of 10
  • 4. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 According to the (OECD., 2002) in (Godfaurd 2005), should carefully investigate the full potential of site, “Sustainable buildings can be defined as those buildings building organisation, shape and climate influences to that have minimum adverse impacts on the built and maximise the desired levels of comfort or protection to natural environment striving for integral quality; future occupants from unwanted influences. The including economic, social and environmental building skin for instance, should be designed for performance in a broad way”. 30 The Bond is located in adaptation to the specific climate, orientation or natural 30-34 Hickson Road, Millers Point Sydney; and is a conditions of the individual site and by doing this to leading example of social and environmental achieve better performance to the specific site sustainability within commercial objectives, being the conditions identifying possible potentials and first CBD office building in Australia to commit to a 5 diminishing the uses of artificial sources for interior star energy rating with lower CO2 emissions than a climate. In this case: continuously sun exposition from typical office building (Bovis Lend lease – “The Bond early hours until sunset and strong West and South West Project Data Sheet” - June 06). winds affected the full height glazing. So the external shading system had to deal with those difficulties to be As it was mentioned before, “Site Analysis” played a certain to response and be reliably even through periods huge role in determining which strategies were the most of high winds. On the other hand, day lighting, shading, suitable to implement in the design. In the case of 30-34 air flows or solar radiation along with protection from Hickson Rd for instance, it is a very constricted site, noise and air pollution can become important factors in with only three exposed facades being the fourth a the designing of any building skin. Here is where double heritage hand hewn listed sandstone wall built by facades may come into play with intelligent solar convicts in early 1840‟s (Moreton 2006). The control systems or mechanical operable devices that incorporation of this feature into the building is one of may enable to fairly reduce the energy consumption and the highlights of the development because it gives at the same time to improve internal performance of the thermal mass, humidity control and natural lightning building representing also a commitment with heritage and history. But before using the historic element in the Finally the studied site is connected with three heritage design, some previous actions were required to fix and buildings from the 1840s that have been preserved as clean the original drainage cavity and also the part of the cultural and social project. Due to the surrounding soil full of bitumen residues from the old particular location, the project confronts several construction. According to Moreton 2006 “Complex challenges to address. However, not only site contamination both in liquid and solid forms had existed restrictions but also communal consultation where the for many years on the site after the Gasworks ceased main sources of inputs that were taken into operations in 1921”. In early periods for example, a consideration for achieving the final design. chemical DPC was introduced into the connection points between the rock face and the stone walls of the More than 300 people participated actively during the building to form a barrier against further seepage but design process, being consulted in several occasions unfortunately this chemical product is not only toxic but from conceptualization to completion. The answers also hazardous for people. Therefore, before using the obtained, provided the main architectural input which historic wall it was necessary to clean deeply the area was that the building should not be designed to achieve affected and moreover to remove all the toxic and certain level of sustainability according to a specific hazardous materials. rating tool; but that it should be planed to secure the desire levels of comfort, and performance in accordance Opposite to this sandstone wall is the main façade to the sustainable criteria hence, achieving better facing west which orientation is very complicate to deal standards and reduced energy consumption rates. This with, when designing for sustainability due to the lack statement is very important because it sets “people‟s of shading, the constant direct insolation and glare. In comfort” as the most important issue, when deciding the urban design context for instance, the building strategies to be addressed. “By putting people at the envelope played a huge role to achieve certain levels of heart of their project „30 The Bond‟, intended to sustainability because it transmit daylight, direct solar develop a process whereby the project reflects the radiation and fresh air; all qualities that improve life at aspirations of the people who will ultimately be using the interior of the building itself. Therefore, designers and interacting with it on a daily basis” (Moreton 2006). UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 4 of 10
  • 5. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 An integration of the new development into the existing that the internal performance as well as the occupants community with a minimum of disruption or friction comfort and wellbeing was an important factor to define was achieved by incorporating and respecting the the designing strategy and specifications, enhancing a human environment, local residents, community groups productive and high quality working space. This shows and other businesses in the area. the importance of designing for occupants in first place rather than designing for achieving certain ratting or 30 the Bond, shows a good example in which recognition; at the end, occupants will be using the collaboration between developers and the community space and they required to fulfil their needs in terms of may work to profit everyone involved achieving not comfort, happiness and wellbeing to develop efficiency, only technical sustainability but also social development productivity and economical effectiveness without in an urban scale. For instance, an agreement between compromising their own health. Accordingly to Lend Lend Lease, Deutsche Office Trust and the residents Lease CEO (Asia Pacific) Ross Taylor “this new work involving the public areas of the development, ends in a environment, with the internal building design and commitment between the three parties to modify the layout will be a place for „our people‟ that will inspire rooftop by lowering it within the building envelope and and drive our distinct culture in years to come” (Lend also creating a space used to grow a native wildflower Lease 2003). garden improving the views for residents in the surrounding buildings. Another relevant input delivered from the internal consultations, was the aspiration to use excellence in As well as the consultation and involvement of the local materials selection that could achieve strict community, owners and developers looked for inputs environmental guidelines improving interior fitout and from their own staff. The result was a series of ESD also air quality. To achieve this high level of „Aspirations‟ rated in order of importance and expectations, materials selection included bamboo, significance. These inputs, lead to some design wool, sisal, goat hair, linen, cotton, and leather; all these definitions and built an accurate brief which included; in natural materials are well known for their high qualities, first place wide open floor plans, with services cores environmental credentials and their contribution to sitting on the edge to enhance high levels of planning improve healthy environments. The sense of quality can efficiencies, and day lighting effectiveness. These be recognized due to the constant testing and quality features are complemented with building balconies and measurements. For instance in the selection of bamboo, open areas to achieve versatility and to improve the Lend Lease not only looked at a range of factors interior air quality securing constant integration of including the manufacturing process, coatings and the views and human contact. An example of it could be the glues used but also at practicalities such as the hardness atrium which is a public space encouraging interaction and durability. Other important factor to choose high between the building‟s occupants and the community. It quality materials was the fact that the building should contains internal stairs, glass lifts and double storey achieve important levels of versatility and openness “pods” which are used for shared activities creating a therefore the possibility to re-arrange spaces was a great sense of connection (Moreton 2006). The design constant. A great example of this are the eastern crafted, features also incorporates glass lifts, open stairs, timber slatted panels, which give the impression of balconies and terraces all the ones, which contribute to being a single partition forming part of a wall but when enhancing visibility and connectivity, maximising opened, either individually or in any combination, functionality and achieving great levels of commitment reveal the expansive west views, over the harbour and and comfort. docks. Addressing the open and clear lines of sight within the Finally but equally important, is the desire to reduce the building, modular and flexible workstation units were green house gas emissions, goal accomplished by the provided and installed within the office areas to ensure reduction of a 30% of CO2 emissions compared with a efficiency and practicality maintaining the quality of the common office building (Moreton 2006). This has been working environment. The environmental credentials of achieved through the use of natural ventilation in this workstations supplied, were also tested to ensure wintergardens and meeting rooms, passive chilled beam they met with the strict criteria for all materials and for cooling, fully operable shading on the facades and processes used throughout the development. It is clear natural daylight through the skylight over the atrium UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 5 of 10
  • 6. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 More specifically, chilled beams reduce the needs of air But To understand the reasons that had „30 The Bond‟ conditioning by pumping chilled water through cooling to push over the common benchmarks, first it is elements in the ceiling, the ones that creates a natural necessary to understand the implications of building convection process of hot air rising and cold air falling. environment in occupants performance and how low This process allows natural control of temperature thus energy consumption buildings could affect reducing the load of air conditioning systems systematically occupants health and economical minimizing the external energy requirements. Chilled effectiveness. Accordingly to Steemers (2010) “low beams also increase the usable space reducing the energy design cannot be limited to the technical issues overall height of the building to maximize the natural that impact on our planet”. day lighting and views but this enlargement of spaces also requires external shading device to minimize Also occupants affect the energy performance of afternoon sun radiation and therefore, air conditioning buildings and are affected by building environment load itself. This is supported by evidence given in several studies like the document presented by ASHRAE in As it was mentioned before several aspirations were 2001 where clearly appears that people spend about 80– identified by the workshops including greenhouse gas 90% of their time indoors and therefore various comfort reduction, indoor environment quality, water and health effects are to be associated with the building management, materials selection, waste management, characteristics such as, ventilation, conditioning pollution and biodiversity systems, and the indoor air quality. Addressing the fact of this result, “it has been naturally between researchers Applied ESD criteria to develop the design project to shift in the direction from energy and environmental involved the commitment with the environment but also performance of buildings towards a focus on human- a strong effort to provide a better place for future users. centred concerns” (Steemers 2003). In this sense as it was expressed, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was a defining principle in Evidence in EPA Indoor air quality and student the designing process. Indoor environment quality also performances, shows that when individuals experience represented one of the main goals to achieve. That is at least two symptoms of discomfort they begin to why fresh air is continually provided to the workplace perceive a reduction in their performance. Consequently and exhausted out of the building without being occupants are demanding the best indoor environmental recirculated increasing the air quality and reducing the quality for their wellbeing and productivity. Therefore risk of sick building syndrome. Another important Well-being has become an integral concern for feature was water management to reduce overall sustainable design. consumption. In order to accomplish this, not only water AAA-rated fixtures, and water sub metering were To confirm this assumption, Steemers (2010) suggest incorporated to allow any leak detection but also, that “Most important, is the fact that low energy design rainwater collection and storage for sub soil drip can achieve some of the highest levels of occupant irrigation system was implemented on the roof to satisfaction”. This Provide clear evidence that maximise water conservation. In terms of materials, promotion and achievement of low energy buildings is over 80% of construction material considering finishing not only sustainable in the environmental aspects but and fitout presented a high percentage of recycled also gives interesting economical returns in the sources or waste diverted from landfill. Also, in louvers midterm; based in the high efficiency and performance and shading devices for instance it is considerable the of occupants and working force involved. use of recycled wharf timbers and patinated aged copper. Meanwhile in interiors low CFC paints “Occupants and developers of office buildings complement the timber decking from sustainable continuously ask for healthy and stimulating working sources and low VOC carpets. Finally the rooftop environments” (Gratia E, 2003) incorporates a roof garden increasing biodiversity. In this particular study case the occupants wellbeing Lend Lease CEO Ross Taylor said, “Creating the Bond was always the engine to pre-establish a design criteria has allowed Lend Lease to again push the boundaries of in order to achieve better performance in accordance to what is possible” (Lend Lease design 2009). better perception of the working space. UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 6 of 10
  • 7. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 In this aspect „30 The Bond‟ enhance a balance between Based on the studied case it is possible to conclude that sustainability, performance and occupants aspirations the challenge is then, to design buildings that can be representing the accomplished goal and demonstrating responsive to users in terms of aspirations and needs to that a clear and strong occupants-focus strategy could enhance better environments and more comfortable lead into a sustainable building not only with better spaces. But also to create sustainable buildings which performance but also recognised for its design, can identify the energy uses and propose more effective representing a delightful, functional, productive and materials according to the specific site and climate regenerative building. condition. 3039 words **** Reference List [1] ASHRAE. (2001)Indoor air quality: position document. [8] Moreton Jhon. (2006) Lean Clean Green Machine “How Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, Bovis Lend Lease latest eco masterpiece has stirring and Air-Conditioning Engineers; 2001. the building industry”. Sydney-Australia. PDF [2] EPA. (2000) Indoor air quality and student performance. document downloaded 03-05-10 402-K-03-006. Washington D.C: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor [9] OECD. 2002, 'Design of Sustainable Building Policies: Environments Division Office of Radiation and Scope for improvement and barriers', Head of Indoor Air; 2000. Publications Serv., vol.5, pp.39, accessed 02/04/ 10 [3] John Godfaurd, et.al. 2005, 'Sustainable building solutions: www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2001doc.nsf/LinkTo/env- a review of lessons from the natural world,' Elsevier epoc-wpnep(2001)5-final - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.40, pp.319 - 328 www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv, [10] Omer, A 2008, „Energy environment and sustainable accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW development‟, Renewable and Sustainable Energy [4] Gratia E. (2003) Design of low energy office building. Reviews, No. 12, pp. 2265-2300, accessed 16 May Energy and Buildings, No. 35,pp.473-491, accessed 2009 from Sciencedirect database. 16 May 2009 from Elsevier-Sciencedirect database. [11] Sachs, J 2004, „Sustainable Energy Systems for the 21st [5] Lend Lease Design. (2007) The Bond Project Data Sheet Century‟, The Earth Institute at Columbia June 06. Sydney-Australia. PDF document University, accessed 22 July 2009, downloaded and accessed on 03-05-10 www.earth.columbia.edu/sitefiles/File/about/director www.lendlease.com.au /pubs/DSDS020404.pdf [6] Lend Lease Design. (2009) 30 The Bond, 30 Hickson [12] Steemers K.(2003) Towards a research agenda for Road, Millers Point, Sydney-Australia. Web adapting to climate change. Building Research and document by “Whitaker Hadenham Openshaw”, Information Journal number 31(3–4) pages 291–301. accesed 17-03-10 http://www.architecture.com.au/awards_search?opti on=showaward&entryno=20052019 [13] Steemers K. (2010) Energy efficient design and occupant well-being: Case studies in the UK and India. [7] Mendler, S & Odell, W 2000, HOK Guidebook to Building and Environment, number 45(3–4) pages sustainable Design, J.Willey, New York 270–278. Accessed 16 /05/ 2009 from Sciencedirect database. UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 7 of 10
  • 8. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW Energy efficient design and occupant well-being: Case studies in the UK and India (Koen Steemers, Shweta Manchanda – 2010) Introduction The purpose of this literature review is to analyse the mentioned paper and from this reading to get some values, data and structure to develop a comprehensive research relating occupants wellbeing, comfort and performance in an office building ambience. First, this literature review presents the main purpose of the selected paper, the one is summarized and described; later a brief critique is offered to understand the main points of the selected reading. Finally the conclusions will offer a way to structure the definitive research. First it is possible to sustain that the main objective of the reading proposed is to demonstrate the relationship between sustainable building design and occupant wellbeing. It starts with a definition of sustainable design and wellbeing. Then several case study office buildings from UK and India are presented. Then the results demonstrate that increasing energy use in the case study buildings is associated with increasing mechanisation (e.g. centralised air conditioning) and reduced occupant‟s control. The result of this situation is that the reduced control also reduces occupant comfort and satisfaction therefore, deteriorating performance. Finally, the paper reveals that the reported health conditions of occupants correlates strongly with their levels of satisfaction. The overall conclusion is that energy use in typical office buildings is opposite to the wellbeing of the occupants which means that while increasing energy use does not improve wellbeing satisfaction or performance moreover it decreases them. Summary and main purpose of the selected reading In this article the author presents findings showing that there has been a shift in the direction of scientific research related to the energy and environmental performance of buildings towards a focus on human-centred concern where people are demanding the best indoor environmental quality for their wellbeing and productivity. Many international standards are also now beginning to move towards people-centric regulations and guidelines for building design and engineering, recognizing that some of the older ideas of sustainability have ignored significant psychological, cultural and sociological dimensions. According to Steemers 2010, the most effective way to determine comfort is through a combination of measurable parameters of the environment and their correlation with reported occupants comfort. This investigation shows that lighting, job satisfaction, thermal conditions, and noise are among the top factors dominating the occupant responses. However, air quality and degree of control are also important. This correlation is critically influenced by the perception of control that the users has over their own environment, particularly when the physical conditions become distracting or extreme. Also it is mentioned that is common to assume that outdoor environment and the weather affect indoor perceptions hence natural ventilation design tend to have better results than mechanically ventilated ones. For instance some of the presented findings show that sickness is reported higher in India than in UK and this could be explained by the use of naturally ventilated building in UK. Despite the fact that the tendency has been to diminish the occupants ability to control their own environment, some studies reflect that it should be the opposite because a key linking variable between energy consumption and occupant happiness is the degree of control that the occupants have. Steemers exposes when increasing control is given to occupants it does not only improve their physical and psychological sense of comfort and well-being but it also can result in significantly lower levels of energy consumption. The relationships between energy efficient design and the occupants are multifaceted and of key importance to the performance of buildings. UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 8 of 10
  • 9. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 The article exposes that increased energy use is typically associated with increased mechanical equipment and centralized control. It also shows that air-conditioned buildings emit 2 to 3 times CO2 compared to mixed mode and naturally ventilated ones for no significant improvement of comfort, neither a positive direct relationship between the energy use (or CO2 emissions) and occupant satisfaction. Nevertheless, the observations established that low energy buildings could provide good levels of satisfaction in many cases even in different contexts. Moreover low energy buildings can be, and often are, perceived by their occupants to be more satisfactory which leads to conclude that increasing energy intensity does not reflect an improvement in comfort. Finally, the author states that people affect and are affected by the built environment, thus it is possible to suggest that the „human-dimension‟ of design requires the application of existing and new research methodologies to ensure truly sustainable design where „people-focus‟ is the main concern of it to enhance better spaces addressing productivity, comfort, and wellbeing. Critique and conclusions Although Steemers, have shown a comprehensive analysis in occupants and well being, it is also true that he has not mentioned the triple bottom line that supports the basis of sustainability, therefore some of the concepts related to it are not present in the reading. Some of these are the correlation between occupants, wellbeing and economic productivity. To extend this idea it is necessary to complement the reading with other literature that can exploit the concepts of space productivity, and occupant performance. It is also remarkable to sustain that the triple bottom line of sustainable development is structured in Economics, Environmental and Social. Therefore, not to include any of them in the further analysis will not lead into sustainable practises or sustainable designing criteria. A complementary reading should be considered to enhance a better understanding of Lighting, natural air flows, interior air quality, materials selection, waste management, water consumption, building management process and adequate site analysis; in order to define ESD criteria and therefore to reach better buildings. But these further researches should not underestimate either occupants‟ aspiration or economic inputs. The selected paper offers a very interesting starting point to develop a more deeply research focus in occupants, wellbeing, but also misses the correlation between exposed ideas with the concept of building performance, both complementary in the pursuit of an economical and productive sustainable office building. Reference List Steemers K. (2010) Energy efficient design and occupant well-being: Case studies in the UK and India. Building and Environment, number 45(3–4) pages 270–278. Accessed 16 /05/ 2009 from Sciencedirect database. **** UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 9 of 10
  • 10. SUSD0001 – Sustainable Development & The Urban Environment 2010 ANNEXE 1 PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY Clements-Croome, D. (2004) Intelligent buildings: design, construction and operation., London, Thomas Telford, pp.408 Fazia Ali-Touder, Helmut Mayer. 2006, 'Numerical study on the effects of aspect ratio and orientation of an urban street canyon on outdoor thermal comfort in hot and dry climate,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.41, pp.94-108 www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Fernandez-Gonzales, A. 2007, 'Analysis of the thermal performance and comfort conditions produced by five passive solar heating strategies in the United States midwest,' Elsevier - Journal of Solar Energy, vol.81, pp.581-593 www.elsevier.com/locate/solener, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW John Godfaurd, Derek Clemens-Croome, George Jeronimidis. 2005, 'Sustainable building solutions: a review of lessons from the natural world,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.40, pp.319 - 328 www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Kontoleon KJ, Eumorfopoulou EA. 2010, 'The effect of orientation and proportion of a plant-covered wall layer on the thermal performance of a building zone,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.45, pp.1287-1303 www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Melchert, L. 2007, 'The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.42, pp.893-901 www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Morel N, Faist A. 1993, 'Design tools for building Thermal Analysis: The significance of Integration,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.28, pp.465-473 www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW OCDE. 2002, 'Design of Sustainable Building Policies: Scope for improvement and barriers', Head of Publications Service, OECD, vol.5, pp.39 http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2001doc.nsf/LinkTo/env-epoc-wpnep(2001)5- final, accesed. 02 April 2010 Pushkar S, Becker R, Katz A. 2005, 'A methodology for design of environmentally optimal buildings by variable grouping,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.40, pp.1126-1139 www.elsevier.com/locate.buildenv, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Roulet, C.A. 2001, 'Indoor environment quality in buildings and its impact on outdoor environment,' Elsevier - Journal of Energy and Buildings, vol.33, pp.183-191 www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Sam C.M., Hui. 2010, 'Low Energy building design in high density urban cities,' Elsevier - Journal of Renewable Energy, vol.24, pp.627-640 www.elsevier.nl/locate/renene, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Santamouris M, et. al,. 2010, 'On the efficiency of night ventilation techniques applied to residential buildings,' Elsevier - Journal of Energy and Buildings, pp.5 www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Tombazis + AN, Preuss S.A. . 2001, 'Design of Passive Solar buildings in Urban Breas,' Elsevier - Journal of Solar Energy, vol.70, pp.311-318 www.elsevier.com/locate/solener, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Tove Malmqvist, Mauritz Glaumann. 2009, 'Environmental Efficiency in residential buildings - A simplified comunication approach,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.44, pp.937-947 www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW Tzu-Ping Lin, Matzarakis A, Ruey-Lung Hwang. 2010, 'Shading effect on long-term outdoor thermal comfort,' Elsevier - Journal of Building and Environment, vol.45, pp.213-221 www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv, accesed. 01 April 2010, UNSW **** UNSW. Fbe Master in Sustainable Development. | Nicolas Carbone Gamarra. 2010 Page 10 of 10