InformativeCommunicationLecture 5.2University of AlbertaALES 204Nancy Bray                        1
HousekeepingNext week labs: Arts 118                           2
Lecture Outline1. What is informative communication?2. The art of explanation3. Learning a new genre (Example: fact sheets...
1. What is informativecommunication?                         4
Beaufort model ofwriting expertise                 Writing       Subject                 process       matter             ...
What isrhetoric?            6
What is informativecommunication?                      7
You will haveto.. Give diabetics instructions on how to follow a good diet Explain ecosystems and conservation principles ...
Audience and goal             Representation of real world    Expert                                    Lay               ...
Why bother?Textbooks written usingresearch-proven principleshelp students learn betterBy practising good informingand expl...
If it goes wrong... Mars Climate Orbiter 1999 Lockheed Martin engineers sent navigation information in “pounds of force” N...
Types of informativecommunication Informatory = Explanatory =                       12
Genres of informativecommunication       Explanatory   Informatory                                   13
Four components of effectiveinstructions (informatory)1. Desired state =2. Prerequisite state =3. Interim state =4. Unwant...
Example: Desired State                         15
Example: Prerequisite State                              16
Example: Interim State                         17
Example: Unwanted State                          18
2. The art of explanation                            19
Steps for an effective explanation1. Define concepts by their essential, not associated, meaning2. Give an array of varied...
1. Essentialmeaning Explain what familiar, but misunderstood, concepts mean and don’t mean Example:                       ...
2. Give a variety of examples Example:                                22
3. Offer non-examplesExample:                        23
4. Encourage learners to practice Workbooks Online tutorials Apply a concept in different contexts                        ...
Things that can go wrongSource: LeFever (2012) The Art of Explanation                                                25
4. Learning a new genre                          26
What to think about                      27
Purpose and audience: fact sheet             Representation of real world    Expert                                    Lay...
Expectations of genre: fact sheet Paper document (now can be found on web) Can be informatory or explanatory Combines text...
OrganizationOrganizationname & logo name & logo       Title       Title  Sub-titles  Sub-titlesCopy / text    Visuals    V...
OrganizationnameEvery organization you workfor will have a style sheet onhow to include its logoDon’t need this for youras...
Title / Point ofEntry Visual starting point of the fact sheet Shouldn’t be empty, i.e. “fact sheet” Text near point of ent...
BodyIncludes visual and textelementsShould not overpower title                             33
Subtitles Short and direct Should be able to understand the purpose of the fact sheet by looking at subtitles alone Should...
Copy / text Written in plain English Limited to only the essential Usually formal tone, but not impersonal Avoid large blo...
VisualelementsEnhance message, but do notoverwhelmDraw in the eye so should tellthe reader the topic of a factsheet at a g...
For moreinformation Always give reader a place to get more information Can make this up for your assignment               ...
Process: fact sheet  Writecopy &                 Revise            Test                    Designconsider            Final...
Take awayWhat is informativecommunicationWhat is the difference betweeninformatory and explanatoryElements of good instruc...
Photo CreditsAristotle from Wikipediatextbooks by greenasiandoctor by edenpicturesMars Climate Orbiter from WikipediaExpla...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Lecture 5.2 art of explanation lecture student notes

477 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
477
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lecture 5.2 art of explanation lecture student notes

  1. 1. InformativeCommunicationLecture 5.2University of AlbertaALES 204Nancy Bray 1
  2. 2. HousekeepingNext week labs: Arts 118 2
  3. 3. Lecture Outline1. What is informative communication?2. The art of explanation3. Learning a new genre (Example: fact sheets) 3
  4. 4. 1. What is informativecommunication? 4
  5. 5. Beaufort model ofwriting expertise Writing Subject process matter knowledge knowledge Discourse community knowledge Rhetorical Genre knowledge knowledge 5
  6. 6. What isrhetoric? 6
  7. 7. What is informativecommunication? 7
  8. 8. You will haveto.. Give diabetics instructions on how to follow a good diet Explain ecosystems and conservation principles to tourists Instruct new employees on how to conduct food science experiments Explain complicated medical conditions to pet owners 8
  9. 9. Audience and goal Representation of real world Expert Lay Audience 9
  10. 10. Why bother?Textbooks written usingresearch-proven principleshelp students learn betterBy practising good informingand explaining techniques,medical professional are able todiagnose better 10
  11. 11. If it goes wrong... Mars Climate Orbiter 1999 Lockheed Martin engineers sent navigation information in “pounds of force” NASA computers were programmed for “newtons” Orbiter flew too close to surface and disintegrated 11
  12. 12. Types of informativecommunication Informatory = Explanatory = 12
  13. 13. Genres of informativecommunication Explanatory Informatory 13
  14. 14. Four components of effectiveinstructions (informatory)1. Desired state =2. Prerequisite state =3. Interim state =4. Unwanted states =Based on Farkas (1999) 14
  15. 15. Example: Desired State 15
  16. 16. Example: Prerequisite State 16
  17. 17. Example: Interim State 17
  18. 18. Example: Unwanted State 18
  19. 19. 2. The art of explanation 19
  20. 20. Steps for an effective explanation1. Define concepts by their essential, not associated, meaning2. Give an array of varied examples3. Offer “non-examples”, i.e., closely related, but distinct concepts4. Encourage learners to practice 20
  21. 21. 1. Essentialmeaning Explain what familiar, but misunderstood, concepts mean and don’t mean Example: 21
  22. 22. 2. Give a variety of examples Example: 22
  23. 23. 3. Offer non-examplesExample: 23
  24. 24. 4. Encourage learners to practice Workbooks Online tutorials Apply a concept in different contexts 24
  25. 25. Things that can go wrongSource: LeFever (2012) The Art of Explanation 25
  26. 26. 4. Learning a new genre 26
  27. 27. What to think about 27
  28. 28. Purpose and audience: fact sheet Representation of real world Expert Lay Audience 28
  29. 29. Expectations of genre: fact sheet Paper document (now can be found on web) Can be informatory or explanatory Combines texts and visuals Uses plain language 29
  30. 30. OrganizationOrganizationname & logo name & logo Title Title Sub-titles Sub-titlesCopy / text Visuals Visuals For more information For more information 30
  31. 31. OrganizationnameEvery organization you workfor will have a style sheet onhow to include its logoDon’t need this for yourassignment 31
  32. 32. Title / Point ofEntry Visual starting point of the fact sheet Shouldn’t be empty, i.e. “fact sheet” Text near point of entry should explain why reader should care 32
  33. 33. BodyIncludes visual and textelementsShould not overpower title 33
  34. 34. Subtitles Short and direct Should be able to understand the purpose of the fact sheet by looking at subtitles alone Should have some sort of order Can be used as a tool to “make it stick” 34
  35. 35. Copy / text Written in plain English Limited to only the essential Usually formal tone, but not impersonal Avoid large blocks of text 35
  36. 36. VisualelementsEnhance message, but do notoverwhelmDraw in the eye so should tellthe reader the topic of a factsheet at a glanceNeed to be relevant 36
  37. 37. For moreinformation Always give reader a place to get more information Can make this up for your assignment 37
  38. 38. Process: fact sheet Writecopy & Revise Test Designconsider Finalize copy visuals Proofs Publication 38
  39. 39. Take awayWhat is informativecommunicationWhat is the difference betweeninformatory and explanatoryElements of good instructionsand good explanationsSteps to follow when learning anew genreElements of a fact sheet 39
  40. 40. Photo CreditsAristotle from Wikipediatextbooks by greenasiandoctor by edenpicturesMars Climate Orbiter from WikipediaExplanation by Wonderlaneag inspectors by CIMMYTman at computer by Victor1558 40

×