Lecture 5.2 art of explanation lecture student notes
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Lecture 5.2 art of explanation lecture student notes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. InformativeCommunicationLecture 5.2University of AlbertaALES 204Nancy Bray 1
  • 2. HousekeepingNext week labs: Arts 118 2
  • 3. Lecture Outline1. What is informative communication?2. The art of explanation3. Learning a new genre (Example: fact sheets) 3
  • 4. 1. What is informativecommunication? 4
  • 5. Beaufort model ofwriting expertise Writing Subject process matter knowledge knowledge Discourse community knowledge Rhetorical Genre knowledge knowledge 5
  • 6. What isrhetoric? 6
  • 7. What is informativecommunication? 7
  • 8. You will haveto.. Give diabetics instructions on how to follow a good diet Explain ecosystems and conservation principles to tourists Instruct new employees on how to conduct food science experiments Explain complicated medical conditions to pet owners 8
  • 9. Audience and goal Representation of real world Expert Lay Audience 9
  • 10. Why bother?Textbooks written usingresearch-proven principleshelp students learn betterBy practising good informingand explaining techniques,medical professional are able todiagnose better 10
  • 11. If it goes wrong... Mars Climate Orbiter 1999 Lockheed Martin engineers sent navigation information in “pounds of force” NASA computers were programmed for “newtons” Orbiter flew too close to surface and disintegrated 11
  • 12. Types of informativecommunication Informatory = Explanatory = 12
  • 13. Genres of informativecommunication Explanatory Informatory 13
  • 14. Four components of effectiveinstructions (informatory)1. Desired state =2. Prerequisite state =3. Interim state =4. Unwanted states =Based on Farkas (1999) 14
  • 15. Example: Desired State 15
  • 16. Example: Prerequisite State 16
  • 17. Example: Interim State 17
  • 18. Example: Unwanted State 18
  • 19. 2. The art of explanation 19
  • 20. Steps for an effective explanation1. Define concepts by their essential, not associated, meaning2. Give an array of varied examples3. Offer “non-examples”, i.e., closely related, but distinct concepts4. Encourage learners to practice 20
  • 21. 1. Essentialmeaning Explain what familiar, but misunderstood, concepts mean and don’t mean Example: 21
  • 22. 2. Give a variety of examples Example: 22
  • 23. 3. Offer non-examplesExample: 23
  • 24. 4. Encourage learners to practice Workbooks Online tutorials Apply a concept in different contexts 24
  • 25. Things that can go wrongSource: LeFever (2012) The Art of Explanation 25
  • 26. 4. Learning a new genre 26
  • 27. What to think about 27
  • 28. Purpose and audience: fact sheet Representation of real world Expert Lay Audience 28
  • 29. Expectations of genre: fact sheet Paper document (now can be found on web) Can be informatory or explanatory Combines texts and visuals Uses plain language 29
  • 30. OrganizationOrganizationname & logo name & logo Title Title Sub-titles Sub-titlesCopy / text Visuals Visuals For more information For more information 30
  • 31. OrganizationnameEvery organization you workfor will have a style sheet onhow to include its logoDon’t need this for yourassignment 31
  • 32. Title / Point ofEntry Visual starting point of the fact sheet Shouldn’t be empty, i.e. “fact sheet” Text near point of entry should explain why reader should care 32
  • 33. BodyIncludes visual and textelementsShould not overpower title 33
  • 34. Subtitles Short and direct Should be able to understand the purpose of the fact sheet by looking at subtitles alone Should have some sort of order Can be used as a tool to “make it stick” 34
  • 35. Copy / text Written in plain English Limited to only the essential Usually formal tone, but not impersonal Avoid large blocks of text 35
  • 36. VisualelementsEnhance message, but do notoverwhelmDraw in the eye so should tellthe reader the topic of a factsheet at a glanceNeed to be relevant 36
  • 37. For moreinformation Always give reader a place to get more information Can make this up for your assignment 37
  • 38. Process: fact sheet Writecopy & Revise Test Designconsider Finalize copy visuals Proofs Publication 38
  • 39. Take awayWhat is informativecommunicationWhat is the difference betweeninformatory and explanatoryElements of good instructionsand good explanationsSteps to follow when learning anew genreElements of a fact sheet 39
  • 40. Photo CreditsAristotle from Wikipediatextbooks by greenasiandoctor by edenpicturesMars Climate Orbiter from WikipediaExplanation by Wonderlaneag inspectors by CIMMYTman at computer by Victor1558 40