Protestant Reformation Mrs. Boyd 12th grade Global Studies Thomas Jefferson High School
The Protestant Reformation: Roots• Great Schism of the West (1054) – First break within the Catholic Church• John Huss – 100 yrs. before Martin Luther – The first reformer – Beat off five crusades against the Catholic Church – Excommunicated and burned at the stake• Northern Renaissance
Causes of the Reformation• Problems with the church – Greedy - $$ – Popes = Politicians – Warriors instead of moral leaders. – Many officials were unmoral and corrupt.• It starts in Germany – Not unified – No strong leader to hold religion together
Lutheranism• Salvation comes from God and faith alone. – No ceremonies, relics, good deeds • Sacraments – baptism and communion – Key is the Bible • Wants people to be able to read the Bible • Religious education for all – Priest do not have special powers• Broke away from the Catholic Church because it was not pure – Traditional Lutherans have many similarities to Catholics
The Breaking Point!Martin Luther Vs. Johann Tetzeland the fight over indulgences
What helps to spread Luther’s ideas?
Diet of the Worms
Luther says NO!!!!!!!!!! Hier stehe ich. Ich kann nicht anders. Gott helfe mir. Amen." ("Here I stand. I can do nothing else. God help me. Amen.")• He is excommunicated from church andforced into hiding for the rest of his life•Worked banned – Stopped by Frederick theWise
Luther’s Legacy• Permanent split in the Christian faith between Catholicism and Protestantism• A number of different sects of Protestantism:: – Methodist – Presbyterian – Baptist• Today - approximately 590 million Protestants worldwide
John Calvin - Calvinism• French lawyer - moved to religious community in Geneva, Switzerla nd• Founder of Calvinist faith• 1536 – The Institutes of the Christian Religion – Code = all religious questions
Beliefs• “Faith Alone” saves you• The Bible holds the truth – Religious Education• Calvinism = Calvinists• PREDESTINATION – God has already decided who is saved/condemned. – “ the elect” – expected to follow a high moral standard
Calvinism Spreads• Official religion – Geneva – Theocracy – government ruled by religious leaders who claim God authority. – Outlawed dancing, cards, bad language, etc. – Created appeal – people knew how to act – Are the elect people????
Calvinism Spreads• Spreads to France, Germany, Netherlands, Scan dinavia, Scotland• France – Huguenots – Civil Wars (1562) – King Henry IV – Edict of Nantes • Freedom of religion • Some political rights
Henry VIII of England • Wished to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn – Pope refused to grant it • Henry declares himself head of the Church of England in the “Act of Supremacy” 1534 • Henry is the head of the Church of England not the Pope – In America we call this the Anglican Church
End of a united ChristendomBloody wars of religion, religiouspersecutionReligious, Social, Political conflictsintermingledEstablishment of modern languages(German, English) not LatinConfiscation of Church lands increasedpower for rulers