Instructional Design
the approach of Robert Gagne
(Conditions of Learning, 1985)
Instructional Design
concerned with arranging
external events (external to the mind)
that support internal processes
(inte...
Instructional Design
how to organise instruction to achieve
specific learning objectives
critical aspects of instruction
-...
Instructional Design (Gagne)
consider the outcome to be achieved
- what kind of objective/outcome?
organise specific instr...
Events of Instruction (Gagne)
Gaining attention
Informing the learner of the objective
Stimulating recall of prerequisite ...
The teacher
Provokes interest through
statement or question or
use of media
Makes it clear where the
session is going and ...
The teacher
Concepts and principles
presented in organised
structured way
Explanations provided
Links suggested back to
ot...
The teacher
Checks that the students
have learned what was to
be learned
Provides corrective/
supplementary guidance
as re...
Instructional Design
- the Schema Theory approach
Schema activation
helping the learner to “tune-in” to the
correct wavelength
encouraging the learner to bring to
mind rele...
Schema construction
Helping the learner to make sense of the
new material by:
linking it to existing knowledge
making it r...
Schema construction
Recognising the nature of the learning
that needs to take place and facilitating
such learning accordi...
Schema refining
reviewing the topic to give the learner
a chance to check his/her construction
reviewing what has been pre...
Essentially a learning hierarchy
analysis
Diagrammatic representation of the
learning-prerequisite relations among
the com...
Task Analysis
Procedural-prerequisite relations:
The performer must do X before
he can do Y
Procedural-decision relations:...
Events of Instruction (Gagne)
Gaining attention
Informing the learner of the objective
Stimulating recall of prerequisite ...
http://www.authorstream.com/Presen
tation/aSGuest71459-578593-teaching/
http://www.authorstream.com/Presen
tation/harishku...
Instr design
Instr design
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Instr design

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Instr design

  1. 1. Instructional Design the approach of Robert Gagne (Conditions of Learning, 1985)
  2. 2. Instructional Design concerned with arranging external events (external to the mind) that support internal processes (internal to the mind) a guide for organising what teachers and learners do that influences what goes on inside learners’ minds so that they can learn
  3. 3. Instructional Design how to organise instruction to achieve specific learning objectives critical aspects of instruction - the kind of outcomes to be learned - the events of instruction - the sequence of instructional events - the appropriate activities within each event
  4. 4. Instructional Design (Gagne) consider the outcome to be achieved - what kind of objective/outcome? organise specific instructional events - provide information, activities, and interactions to facilitate learning
  5. 5. Events of Instruction (Gagne) Gaining attention Informing the learner of the objective Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning Presenting stimulus material Providing learning guidance Eliciting the performance Providing feedback about performance correctness Assessing the performance Enhancing retention and transfer
  6. 6. The teacher Provokes interest through statement or question or use of media Makes it clear where the session is going and what should be achieved Refers to earlier relevant learning and indicates its links with the new topic Tunes in to the correct wavelength Recalls relevant prior knowledge Starts to shape up for new learning (create ideational scaffolding) Gaining attention Informing learners of objectives The student Stimulating recall of prior learning
  7. 7. The teacher Concepts and principles presented in organised structured way Explanations provided Links suggested back to other subjects Links projected forward to application Builds up his/her knowledge structure Exercises thinking abilities to work things out, find meaning, and build links between ideas Tries to envisage how the new knowledge can be applied Presenting the Content The student Providing Learner Guidance
  8. 8. The teacher Checks that the students have learned what was to be learned Provides corrective/ supplementary guidance as required Confirms that learning has taken place Summarises and encourages thinking about application Responds to questions by checking his/her understanding Corrects misunderstanding Monitors understanding (metacognition) Thinks about how knowledge can be applied Elicits Performance The student Assesses Performance Provides Feedback Enhances Transfer
  9. 9. Instructional Design - the Schema Theory approach
  10. 10. Schema activation helping the learner to “tune-in” to the correct wavelength encouraging the learner to bring to mind relevant prior knowledge assisting the learner to prepare his/her prior knowledge to be the foundation on which new knowledge will now be constructed
  11. 11. Schema construction Helping the learner to make sense of the new material by: linking it to existing knowledge making it relevant to learning need highlighting its significance to future practice presenting it in an organised and structured way providing appropriate explanations
  12. 12. Schema construction Recognising the nature of the learning that needs to take place and facilitating such learning accordingly: learning of concepts learning of principles learning of problem-solving learning of skills & procedures learning of attitudes
  13. 13. Schema refining reviewing the topic to give the learner a chance to check his/her construction reviewing what has been presented to let the learner reflect upon what had been learned reviewing the topic and projecting forward to situations that let the learner make application of what has been learned
  14. 14. Essentially a learning hierarchy analysis Diagrammatic representation of the learning-prerequisite relations among the components of the subject matter Topic Analysis Blood Pressure Systolic Pressure Diastolic Pressure
  15. 15. Task Analysis Procedural-prerequisite relations: The performer must do X before he can do Y Procedural-decision relations: Given condition A, the performer must do X rather than Y or Z
  16. 16. Events of Instruction (Gagne) Gaining attention Informing the learner of the objective Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning Presenting stimulus material Providing learning guidance Eliciting the performance Providing feedback about performance correctness Assessing the performance Enhancing retention and transfer
  17. 17. http://www.authorstream.com/Presen tation/aSGuest71459-578593-teaching/ http://www.authorstream.com/Presen tation/harishkulkarni-383273-teaching- methods-evaluation-law-learning- education-ppt-powerpoint/ http://www.authorstream.com/Presen tation/aSGuest74317-632990-micro- teaching/-mt

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