Don Miguel Hidalgo . Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, San Diego Corralejo, Guanajuato, 1753 - Chihuahua, 1811) Mexican Patriot also known by the nickname "El Father Hidalgo. Considered the father of the Mexican nation, was the initiator of the fight for independence.
At age 12 he went to the Mexican city of Valladolid (now Morelia), where he studied at the Colegio de San Nicolás in 1773 graduated with a degree in philosophy and theology, and obtained a chair as opposed to the same College of San Nicolás . During the following years made a brilliant academic career that culminated in 1790 when he was appointed rector of St. Nicholas
In 1778 he was ordained priest to receive Holy Orders he held several parishes, until the death of his brother Joaquin, in 1803, he was replaced as parish priest of Dolores, Guanajuato. Very cultured man and a thorough knowledge of the ideas of the Enlightenment, put them into practice among his parishioners, mostly indigenous, in an attempt to improve their economic and living conditions. To do this they taught to cultivate vineyards, raising bees and running small industries, which earned him the unconditional support of his parishioners.
The invasion of Spain
In 1808, the invasion of Spain by Napoleones troops and the subsequent deposition of King Carlos IV and his son Ferdinand VII, generated strong opposition in Spain and America. Then came many groups of intellectuals who discussed about the problems of sovereignty and how to govern. In 1809 Hill joined one of those secret societies formed in Valladolid, whose purpose was to assemble a congress to govern the Viceroyalty of New Spain on behalf of King Ferdinand VII, who at that time was a prisoner of Napoleon, and ultimately achieve independence.
After the invasion
The conspirators planned to take up arms against the viceroy of New Spain on October 1810, but were discovered in mid-September. Hidalgo and a few other conspirators were able to get to safety thanks to the notice of Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez and moved to Queretaro, where he met with Ignacio Hidalgo Allende
Grito de Dolores
On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo hoisted a banner bearing the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, patroness of Mexico, which could read: "Long live religion. Long live our Holy Mother of Guadalupe. Viva Fernando VII. Viva America and death to bad government. " Hidalgo launched a so-called Grito de Dolores, which marked the beginning of the revolt, along with Allende, brought together an army of more than 40,000 members.
After on Grito de Dolores
On 21 September, the army captured Celaya Hidalgo and Allende, as Hidalgo was named captain general of the Liberation Army and Ignacio Allende was promoted to lieutenant general. The bishop-elect of Michoacán issued an edict on September 24 in which they were excommunicated Hidalgo, Allende, Aldama and Abasolo. Then took the cities of Salamanca, Irapuato and Silao, Guanajuato to reach.
His final start
On November 17 he went to Valladolid Hidalgo seven thousand two hundred and forty cavalry and infantry, all poorly arme, entering 26 in Guadalajara, but failed to reach Mexico City. At Guadalajara, Hidalgo issued a declaration of independence and formed a provisional government, also decreed the abolition of slavery, the abolition of taxes paid by the Indians to the Crown and the restitution of lands by the estate. By year's end had lost Guanajuato and Valladolid.
On January 11, 1811 was defeated negar Guadalajara by a contingent of soldiers realistic. Hidalgo fled to Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, with the intention of reaching the United States to seek support for their cause, but was betrayed by Ignacio Elizondo
caught in the Bajan Acatita Norias of the May 21, 1811. Led to Chihuahua, Hidalgo was tried in court martial and sentenced to death. Demoted as a priest and shot him in the morning of July 30, 1811. His head, along with that of Allende and other insurgents, was shown as a punishment in the corn exchange Granaditas of Guanajuato.