What's in my backyard? Invasive Plants and animals of Maui

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Learn about some of the newest invasive plant and animal threats on the island of Maui, and how some of them might be lurking in your backyard. This presentation was originally presented by NBII Pacific Basin Information Node and the Maui Invasive Species Committee to the Pacific Whale Foundation on August 13, 2008.

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  • All of the unique plants and animals which live here with us. - Animals that live in the ocean such as the monk seal (bottom left), one of only 2 native mammals that made it to Hawaii without human intervention - The Hawaiian honeycreepers, such as this iwi’i (top middle), which evolved from a single finchlike species that scientists estimate arrived on the Hawaiian Islands about 5 million years ago into as many as 57 different species of honeycreepers - Strange insects like the carnivorous geometrid larvae, aka inchworms ( Eupithecia genus)‏ (bottom right) - The striking plants from the sunflower family,the silversword alliance, which came to Hawaii millions of years ago as a tarweed, then adapted to strange places such as 10,000 feet up in alpine deserts, or in bogs like as these greenswords (top right). (Slide source: P. Thomas, www.hear.org)
  • Many of the plants and animals found in Hawaii are found only in Hawaii. This is called endemism. (Slide source: P. Thomas, www.hear.org)
  • To give you an idea of how special these plants and animals are, look at some of these figures. Of the flowering plants, around 90% are only found in Hawaii. Of the invertebrates (i nsects, spiders, worms, snails, millipedes, crabs, etc.), almost 100% are found here and no where else. Of the few mammals that made it here are 100% Hawaiian. There are only 2 native land mammals- the monk seal and the Hawaiian Hoary bat. (Slide source: P. Thomas, www.hear.org)
  • The Hawaiian freshwater animals: - opae ula, Hawaii’s native analchaline shrimp, which are the size of sea monkeys and can live for over 20 years - hihiwai, freshwater snails whose young grow up in the ocean, then climb up the freshwater streams to live their lives in pools up the 1,200 feet up - gobies, which have strong pectoral fins which allow them to swim UP waterfalls up to 1,000 feet tall! Their young are also born in the ocean. (Slide source: P. Thomas, www.hear.org)
  • "...24.3% are endemic to Hawaii.... This is the highest percentage of endemism for warm-water marine fishes." -John E. Randall, "Shore fishes of Hawaii" (1996/repr. 1998)‏ (Slide source: P. Thomas, www.hear.org)
  • Many of these unique creatures are in your backyard.
  • Hawaii's native ecosystems once extended  from the mountains to the sea. Today, the vast majority of Hawaii's native plants and animals find refuge in the upland forests. Image: An Ecoregional Assessment of Biodiversity Conservation for the Hawaiian High Islands , Nature Conservancy Hawaii, 2006, http://www.hawaiiecoregionplan.info/CAWMA.html, accessed 2008
  • The East Maui watershed spans more than 100,000 acres across the windward slopes of Haleakala, the most intact and extensive native rainforests left in Hawaii today. This vast kao-ohia forest is the last stronghold East over 530 Hawaiian endemic species of flowering plants, 54 of which are endemic to the island, and about 30 of which are endangered as well as 13 species of birds, seven of them endangered. When spiders, snails, and insects are included, nearly 60% of Hawaii's total native flora and fauna is endangered, by far the highest percentage of any state. Text source: http://eastmauiwatershed.org/ Image used with permission: Pat Bily/ THC Maui
  • On this small island almost every ecosystem on the planet is represented. Here is a subalpine grasslands with clumping grass that live to be hundreds of years old. Invasions of pigs, cows, and non-native plants can alter these ecosystems which took hundreds of years to develop in a mere few years. Image used with permission: Bryon Steves/ HDOA-DOFAW-NARS
  • To dryland forest. This image is from Auwahi on the backside of Haleakala on the upper slopes. Image Source: © Ben Pittenger http://www.flickr.com/people/iliahi/
  • … which only can survive behind fencing to keep cows and pigs out. Image Source: © Ben Pittenger http://www.flickr.com/people/iliahi/
  • The West Maui Mountains Watershed encompasses 50,000 acres, contains 17 perennial streams whose water discharge is one of the highest in the state within an area of comparable size (West Maui Natural Area Management Plan, 1988) . This watershed provides drinking water to 80% of Maui residents (West Maui Mountain Watershed Partnership brochure, 2008). The West Maui Mountain area contains 20 native natural plant and animal communities.  West Maui supports over 150 Hawaiian endemic species of flowering plants, 12 of which are endangered (An Ecoregional Assessment of Biodiversity Conservation for the Hawaiian High Islands , Nature Conservancy Hawaii, 2006, http://www.hawaiiecoregionplan.info/home.html, accessed 2008) .  Image Copyright: Blue Hawaiian Helicopters, http://content.bluehawaiian.com/images/locations/hires/horizontal/deep_in_Waihee_3716.jpg?n=5
  • Some of the remote and rugged valleys and ridge tops support dramatic and beautiful native plants such as this Lobelia gloriamontis . In total there are 116 species of lobeliads that derived from one single introduction to the French Frigate Shoals 15 million years ago before any of the main Hawaiian Islands existed (Givnish et al., The Hawaiian lobelioids are monophyletic and underwent a rapid initial radiation roughly 15 million years ago, 1996). It is considered the most dramatic example of evolution in plants on the planet. Many species have beautiful and spectacular flowers, especially the Lobelia and Trematolobelia . Unfortunately, they are also highly vulnerable to feeding by feral ungulates such as pigs ; the stems are only partly woody, and contain few defences against herbivory. Image Copyright: National Geographic 2002 (used in accordance with US copyright fair use)
  • In these protected steep gulches are the Hawaiian forest birds, the honeycreepers. Like the lobelias, mentioned earlier, these birds are the world’s most dramatic example of adaptive radiation, or adaptive evolution in animals. 54 different species evolved from 1 ancestor. The first bird to arrive probably ate seeds. As these birds adapted to the niches available to them, they coevolved with the plants around them, such as the native haha on the left and above, and started to eat the nectar of these plants. Notice the shape of the I’iwi’s beak and the shape of the lobelias flower… Text source: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for 60 Plant Species from the Islands of Maui and Kahoolawe, HI, federal register Left Image: Hank Oppenheimer, c/o Star Bulletin 15 July 2007 Top Right Image: Cyanea macrostegia Bottom Right Image: I’iwi from wikipedia commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Iiwi.jpg
  • Or the Maui amakihi, shown here with a an ohia flower.
  • The east Maui areas is actually the home to the largest concentration of rare and endangered forest birds in the United states. Image: Po’ouli http://www.hawaiinews.com/gallery/2003/poouli
  • The Hawaiian tree snails are also a marvel of evolution. Most of them are tiny, and live around 10 years, not becoming reproductively viable until age 6 or 7. Unlike other snails which eat their host plants, these snails live their entire life on one tree eating the black sooty fungus that grows on their leaves. (Partulina_perdix_) Image: Hank Oppenheimer
  • The happy face spider. Image: Pat Bily TNC-Maui
  • This little caterpillar was discovered only a few years ago in the Makwao Forest Reserve by a fellow named Monroe Bryce. It turns out it is new to science. Hyposmocoma molluscivora, dubbed the escargot eating caterpillar, is the only caterpillar in the world known to eat mollusks of any kind or to use its silk to capture its prey. This one eats native tree snails exclusively. These caterpillars spin a silk net to immobolize the snail, them climbs in the shell and devours its prey alive. Only in Hawaii are there any carnivorous, ambushing caterpillars. All of Hawaii's 20 known species of Eupithecia blend imperceptibly into their surroundings. Some look like flecks of leaf litter, lichen, or moss. Though hundreds of species of Eupithecia exist all over the world, most feed exclusively on flowers and fruits. Hawaii is the only place where they live as carnivores
  • Hawai’s native plam, the l’oulu. East maui has several endemic lo’ulu, many of which live in the upper wet rain forest. Image copyright: J. K. Obata
  • Stenogyne haliakalae , one of the mintless mints. This east maui endemic is now extinct Image: Robert Hobdy © Smitsonian Institution
  • The Hawaiian forest also shelters thousands of native species vital to the survival of Hawaiian cultural practices. The native forest provided a foundation for the Hawaiian culture, and the uplands were held sacred as wao akua, the realm of the gods, set aside from wao kanaka, the realm of the people. This is a canoe koa, which are increasingly rare on Maui. In the early 1990s when the double-hulled Hawaiian voyaging canoe, Hawai'iloa, journeyed to Tahiti, it was the first modern canoe of its kind created as much as possible from native materials. During its conception, however, the Hawai'iloa hit a significant snag:  a year-long search through the native forests of the Big Island identified only two living koa trees large enough for her hulls.  For master navigator Nainoa Thompson, the discovery came as a shock, and he found that he could not, in good conscience, remove the trees from the forest.  (Text taken from WMMWP website: http://www.westmauiwatershed.org/explore/hawaiian-culture/nature-in-culture) Image: Pat Bily TNC-Maui
  • This is what a native Hawaiian forest looks like. Have you ever seen one? Image: West Maui Watershed Partnership http://www.westmauiwatershed.org/photos/slideshow/036/gallery_img_04.jpg
  • How the pretty flowers in your backyard… (Slide Source: Philip Thomas- www.hear.org)
  • Can take over the natural areas in Maui’s big backyard. (Slide Source: Philip Thomas- www.hear.org)
  • (Slide Source: Philip Thomas- www.hear.org)
  • Invasive species change ecosystems to a point which they no longer function. Image: Fountain grass infestation above Kona-Kailua, HI (Forest and Kim Starr, USGS)
  • What are the attributes that you look for in an plant in your backyard… (Slide Source: Tanya Baxter, Golden Gate NRA)
  • Add to a future presentation: looking to the future pollinators not yet here (viable seeds)‏ seed dispersal agents not yet here (Slide Source: Philip Thomas- www.hear.org)
  • Fountain grass is a perennial, clumping grass that can grow in a variety of habitats, from bare lava, to rangeland, to urban roadsides in drier areas of the Hawaiian islands (<127 cm rain/yr). It can reach a height of 0.2-1 m (0.5-3 ft) with bristly, cylindrical shaped purple or rose-colored flower head (100-250 mm or 4-10 in long). It is planted in gardens, where it quickly escapes through wind bourn seeds, and naturalizes. (Image Source: Forest and Kim Starr- USGS)
  • Fountain grass covers at least 200,000 acres on the big island. Large Image: Forest and Kim Starr- USGS Small Image: http://plants.thompson-morgan.com/product/2933/2
  • The most distinguishing feature of this crass is its large red flower head. The plant on the left was found growing in Kahului in an abandoned lot. Images Source: Forest and Kim Starr- USGS
  • Fountain grass has been found in plantings on golf courses and in yards. All known sites of fountain grass have been removed from Maui.
  • Red fountain grass red or purple tinted foliage grows taller (1.8-2.4 m or 6-8 ft). This is not a safe planting alternative Molasses grass Widepsread throughout maui Does not have the cylindrical bottle brush infloresence Image Sources: Forest and Kim Starr- USGS
  • Ivy gourd is native to Africa, India, Asia, and Australia. It is common in in Indian cuisine, and was probably introduced to our backyards as a food source. It is sometimes called “Thai Spinach” in Hawaii. The most distinctive features of this vine are its star shaped white flowers, and the bright red fruits that are 3 inches long and look like Christmas lights. Image Source: Forest and Kim Starr- USGS
  • The upper left shows the red ivy gourd fruit. The bottom right shows an ivy gourd infestation in Kihei. Rubber vine can grow as fast as 4 inches a day and go from being a seedling to seed bearing in as little as a month. Once the fruit produces seeds, these seeds can persist in the ground for years, meaning that once a plant is removed, it must be monitored for years to see if any new ones sprout up. Large Image Source: Maui Invasive Species Committee Small Image:
  • The alternate leaves can be variably shaped, but look like an angular heart about 2.5 inches wide. Image Source: Maui Invasive Species Committee
  • It has been found on all Hawaiian Islands with the exception of Molokai. Lahaina and is one of the hotspots for this plant on Maui. All known sites have been removed.
  • Bitter melon is a fast growing vine also in the cucumber family. It has thin stems and deeply lobed, alternate growing leaves that are often covered in hairs. It produces yellow flowers and has oblong, prickly fruits that turn from green to yellow or orange at maturity. Image copyright: Warren Wagner, Smithsonian Institution
  • Rubber vine has dark glossy green leaves that grow in an opposite leaf arrangement averaging 3” to 4” long and 1” to 2” wide. The showy flowers are purple, funnel shaped and have five petals. It was brought to Hawaii as an ornamental, drought resistant plant and has spread by humans, animals, livestock, and contaminated vehicles. Asclepidaceae family. Image Source: Forest and Kim Starr
  • Rubber vine is considered one of Australia’s worst weeds. This vine can grow up to 30 m up trees and live up to 70 years! Image © C. G. Wilson, http://www.anbg.gov.au/weeds/cryptostegia-grandiflora3.jpg
  • The purple funnel shaped flower is one of the more distinctive features of this plant. It also produces a white latex sap when broklen. This sap is extremely poisonous; it contains cardiac glycosides, chemicals that interfere with heart function in humans and animals when the plant is ingested. Contact with the plant's milky sap can cause burning rashes and blisters. When the vine is dry, a powdery dust emerges that can cause violent coughing, swelling of the nose,and painful blistering of the eyelids. Image source: Forest and Kim Starr
  • The distinctive triangular seed pods average three to four inches in length and grow in wing-like pairs. Approximately 200 days after formation, the seed pods dry out and split open. Seeds with silky hairs are released into the wind and waterways. Approximately 95% are viable - increasing the potential for rubber vine to rapidly spread. Large Image Source: Forest and Kim Starr Inset Image Source: http://www.weeds.org.au/cgi-bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.tpl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card=V07
  • This plant has only been found on residential areas. All known populations have been removed. This plant is found in residential plantings on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Hawaii, and Molokai. Molokai is the only other island to currently control its rubber vine populations.
  • Purple alamanda has similar flowers and produces a milky sap, but it’s leaves are arranged in a whorled pattern (like spokes on a wheel). This sap producing vine is considered a safe alternative to rubber vine in landscaping. It can be differentiated by its dark pink to red trumpet-shaped flowers. Left Image Source: Top tropicals.com Right Image Source: Used with permission
  • Image Source: Rogelio Doratt USDA/APHIS/WS/National Wildlife Research Center Hilo, HI, field station http://lib.colostate.edu/research/agnic/images/coquiphotos.html
  • Image Source: http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/dailypix/2004/Mar/29/ln17a_b.jpg 29 march 2004 Honolulu Advertiser, New Weapon Found to Fight Coqui
  • It would be nice to have a better image of the coqui spray process here… or the fence? Image Source: Maui Invasive Species Committee
  • On the big island of Hawaii the coqui have spread throughout the island, including in areas where horticultural plants are grown fro export. More coqui will continue to arrive… we have to keep our ears open.
  • Keevin Minami, a land vertebrate specialist with the state Department of Agriculture’s Plant Quarantine Branch, tested the temperature of the water being sprayed into the pest eradication chamber. The eradication started when the doors were closed. Image Source: RICHARD AMBO | The Honolulu Advertiser
  • Image Source: Lori Oberhofer, U.S. Department of Agriculture from 05 June 2000 Star Bulletin http://starbulletin.com/2000/06/05/news/story2.html Inset Image Source: CTAHR- Greenhouse or Coqui poster http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/coqui/differences.asp
  • All new avifauna established in the wild are a threat to the unique biota of the Hawaiian islands. As of 1992, 18% of all Hawaiian aviafauna are exotic… the highest percentage in the US. Not only are these new species a direct competitve threat to some native species, but also can be agircultural pets, and can potentially spread weed seed s further than the majority of native species. Bulbuls are slim, long-tailed passerines with small crests. Red-vented Bulbuls are native from Pakistan to southwest China, Red-whiskered Bulbuls from India and southeast China to northern Malaya. Popular cage birds, both species have been introduced to many regions of the world. Red-whiskered bulbuls released during the same time period on O‘ahu I., in the Hawaiian Archipelago, have undergone explosive growth and range expansion, although the Red-whiskered has shown a less dramatic increase in numbers and range than the Red-vented. Populations of bulbuls in the above-mentioned regions were either deliberately or accidentally released. Images Source: KW Bridges, University of Hawaii
  • They frequent agricultural and urban areas, including parks, suburban gardens, and arboreta. However, on O‘ahu I., HI, Red-whiskered Bulbuls range regularly into low-elevation forested areas, and Red-vented Bulbuls occur sparingly in forests up to the highest summits of the Ko‘olau Mtns. Both species are sedentary throughout their distribution and have protracted breeding seasons in most of their introduced and native ranges; thus pairs are able to raise 2–3 broods annually. Bulbuls are highly gregarious during the nonbreeding season and gather in large communal roosts. They are primarily frugivores but also feed on animal and plant material, including leaves, flowers, buds, and nectar. In addition, they feed on a variety of cultivated fruits, vegetables, and flowers and thus are in direct conflict with humans. Bulbuls are potential dispersers of noxious weed seeds and compete with native bird species in their introduced ranges. (Islam, Kamal and Richard N. Williams. 2000. Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/review/species/520adoi:10.2173/bna.520) Image taken in Molokai in January 2008 © Steve Ebbert http://www.flickr.com/photos/amnwr/2252803963/
  • Adults are blackish above and dark gray below with a white wash on the belly. In flight and sometimes when perched the white rump is obvious, as is the dark tail band. Exhibits a short black crest and a red vent. Immatures are similar to adults but have brown edgings to the feathers. 8.25 inches in length Calls: A repeated "kreu". Song: Scratchy notes and down-slurred whistles and warbles. At dawn gives a melodious warble. This species is one of two bulbuls that occur in Hawai‘i. The other is the red-whiskered bulbul. This bird is a noisy garden pests and eat orchid bulbs as well as many types of fruits. In 1989, it caused an estimated $300,000 in damage to the orchid industry on O‘ahu. Invasion pathways to new locations Seafreight (container/bulk): Islam and Williams (2000) describe the red-vented bulbul as nesting in some very unorthodox locations within its native range, including the motor of a ceiling fan and the end of a curtain rod, both within buildings. It could even be speculated that a pair of birds could have constructed a nest in a container on a ship that was readying to come to the Marshalls. (Vander Velde, 2002) Ship: A fishing boat, originating from an Asian or another Pacific Islands country where the red-vented bulbul is established, could have brought some birds with them. (Vander Velde, 2002) Local dispersal methods Escape from confinement: In most parts of the Pacific, introduction is usually blamed on the release, either intentional or accidental, of caged birds. (Meyer 1997, Williams 1983, in Vander Velde, 2002) Text from ISSG Global Invasive Species Database: http://www.invasivespecies.net/database/species/ecology.asp?si=138&fr=1&sts= Accessed 25 August 2008 Found on Oahu and more recently on Molokai.
  • Photographs are courtesy of the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Department of Agriculture, from http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/bbtd/deformed_fruits.asp http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/nelsons/banana/1_bunchy_top_apple_banana_2.jpg
  • Left, bunchy top and right healthy plant of a similar age. Photographs are courtesy of the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Department of Agriculture, from http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/bbtd/comparison.asp
  • Healthy, top right, larger image shows the characteristic “j”Hooks. These characteristics are the best way to identify the banana bunchy top virus. Photographs are courtesy of the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Department of Agriculture, from Larger picture: www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/nelsons/banana/ Inset picture: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/bbtd/comparison.asp
  • The virus is spread by aphids. The aphid will feed on an infected plant, then spread the virus to the next banana plant it feed on. Controlling the aphid is one of the best ways to prevent BBTV. Photographs are courtesy of the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Department of Agriculture, from http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/bbtd/closeup_photos.asp
  • There are several diseases that effect bananas in Hawaii. Some of these will cause stunted growth and discoloration of leaves. No other discease will cause the “j” hooks and morse code effect that is diagnostic of BBTV. Photographs are courtesy of the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Department of Agriculture, from www. ctahr . hawaii . edu /nelsons/banana/
  • The little fire ant is present on the Big Island (in Kapoho, Puna, Papaikou, and Panaewa) but is not known to be anywhere else in Hawaii. In addition to causing painful stings that produce silver dollar size welts that persist for several days, this little ant is blamed for “reducing species diversity in areas where it shows up, reducing overall abundance of flying and tree-dwelling insects, and eliminating (spider) arachnid populations. On the Galapagos, it eats the hatchlings of tortoises and attacks the eyes and cloacae of the adult tortoises. It is considered to be perhaps the greatest ant species threat in the Pacific” according to ISSG. Text source: http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=58&fr=1&sts Image © California Academy of Sciences
  • The little fire ant is really little… compare here to the size of a pen. This ant reaches a length of 1/16 of an inch, but is often even smaller. Think of the thickness of a penny, this is approximately 1/16 of an inch. The easiest way to distinguish this pest is by its behavior, rather than by morphology (physical features). The little fire ant is extremely slow moving and sluggish. It will sting a person only when caught under clothing or in hair. This sting will cause large welts that persist for days. This ant does not build mounds, but will nest in a variety of environments, including in leaf litter, under and in potted plants, and in trees. These ants are moved from place to place in potted plants, and dirt that is moved around. Image used courtesy of the Hawaii State Department of Agriculture
  • This is an image of little fire ant on a palm stem. These ants have been transported to/around Hawaii in landscaping palms. Once a tree is infested, the ants can fall out of the tree onto people, where the will sting once trapped in clothing and hair. The sting causes red, itchy, painful welts that last for days. These stings are painful enough that in agricultural areas that are infested, it is impossible to hire field workers to tend to plants. The entire coffeee insustry in Galapagos has collapsed, in New Caledonia- trouists and locals can not even use beaches where the little fire ant reside. In short, if the little fire ant becomes established in Hawaii… expect to no longer be able to where sandals.
  • Another picture demonstrating the size of little fire ant.
  • There are over 40 types of ants in Hawaii. Most of these ants are black to pale brown and slightly transparent. Most other ants build mounds that will have a visible opening or be surrounded by an area that is stripped of vegetation. One ant that is commonly confused with the little fire ant is the tropical fire ant, which is widespread in Hawaii. The tropical fire ant is much larger than the little fire ant. Ants in different parts of the colonies will be different sizes. Some of the workers will have proportionately large heads. This ant is restricted to dry coastal areas and nests in the soil, it does not construct mounds. Tropical fire ant stings will cause pain and irritation (red spots), but should not cause white pus filled blisters. These ants are more active than the sluggish, smaller little fire ant.
  • There are several species of red that were introduced to Hawaii in the early 70's to study their feasability for aquaculture. Thirty years later, many of these introductions are causing signifigant negative impacts on the reef ecosystems of the islands. These algae form blooms which wash up on beaches impacting tourism, property values, and our enjoyment of our beaches. You are probably familiar with the algal blooms of Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Ulva spp. in Kihei and Maalaea which wash up on the beaches and rot. These blooms produce up to 9000 kg/wk of biomass and cover 50-75% of the reef structure in Maalaea (as of 1993, Maui news, 27 may 2007, according to Russell Sparks DAR). Algal blooms have been estimated to cost up to $30 mill/yr in lost revenues from tourism and lowered property values. (Squair, C.A., J.E. Smith, C.L. Hunter, and C.M. Smith, 2003. An Introduction to Invasive Alien Algae in Hawaii: Ecological and Economic Impacts, University of Hawaii.) Image taken from: http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dar/pubs/MauiReefDeclines.pdf
  • Removing these algae from infested areas is particularly problematic. On Oahu, the supersucker is being used in Kaneohe bay to suck up dense mats of algae which then must be sorted by trained technicians. Since they are so hard to control, we are trying to have no new alien algae in Maui waters. We will cover three species to look for on Maui. Left Images: Right Images: Jennifer Smith
  • This red algae is one of the most "successful" invasive algae found in Hawaii, posing a threat to both coral and sea grass habitats. In Waikiki G. salicornia has become the single-most dominant benthic species in an area that before invasion was home to over 60 species of macroalgae (Doty 1969, in Smith et al. In Press).
  • The thalli (algal equivalent of a stem, trunk, or root- they're all the same in algae and lichens...) are solid, brittle, cylindrical to compressed branches, 2 - 5 mm in diameter. Gorilla ogo feels stiff when you brush your hand across them. The axes 3 - 18 cm long and 1.5 mm broad, with branches usually irregularly arranged. This plant is variable in both color and shape in Hawaii, though it is usually this color of yellow. It is usually sterile in Hawaiian waters, only reproducing vegetative. It thrives in calm and protected waters. Image: Jen Smith, University of Hawaii http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/gradstud/smith/websites/Gsal-home.htm
  • It is large by algal standards and grows in extremely dense mats (5-10 cm thick). Image: Honolulu Advertiser, Bruce Asato
  • [MAP] It is found in Oahu (where it was first introduced), Hawai'i, and Molokai. It was introduced to Oahu by researchers in 1974 for potentialuses in the medical industry. It can be moved about from infested fishing, scuba, and snorkel gear, infested boats, ballast water and (CHECK THE TNC FLYER). In optimal growing situations it will spread naturally at a rapid rate... in Kaneohe Bay it has moved an average of 250 m/year since its initial introduction. Image: Jen Smith, University of Hawaii http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/gradstud/smith/websites/Gsal-home.htm
  • There are native Gracilaria species, such as Limu manauea, or Gracilaria coronopifolia. This is one of the most popular edible limu. It is much thinner then gorilla ogo. Gracilaria coronopifolia is found on reef flats and eroded limestone, from mid-intertidal tidepools to shallow subtidal, up to 4 meters deep. Images: www. hawaii . edu / reefalgae /publications/ ediblelimu /
  • Limu wawai’iole is anotherpopular edible limu. It is much thicker then gorilla ogo. Images: www.hawaii.edu/reefalgae/publications/ediblelimu/
  • Kappaphycus spp. are some of the fastest growing tropical algae- they are alble to double in biomass in 15-30 days. It is grown for kappa-carrageenan, which is a homogonizer for milk products, toothpaste, and jellies. This seaweed is phenotypically plastic (ask does anyone know what this means), and can reproduce both asexually as well as vegetatively. This is the makings of a super bad weed. Can anybody think of another land plant that has these characteristics. These species grow on the reef flat ad reef edge, and can form free-floating mat. So far, it has only been found on Oahu.
  • This is an infestation in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu.
  • Algae tough, fleshy, firm; up to 2 m tall. Thalli coarse, with axes and branches 1 - 2 cm diameter; heavy, with major axes relatively straight, lacking secondary branches near apices. Frequently and irregularly branched, most branches primary, secondary branches intercalated between primary branches or mostly lacking.  Shiny green to yellow orange. These species grow on the reef flat ad reef edge, and can form free-floating mat. Image Source: http://www.hawaii.edu/reefalgae/invasive_algae/rhodo/kappaphycus_alvarezii.htm
  • So far, it has only been found on Oahu. Image Source: http://www.hawaii.edu/reefalgae/invasive_algae/rhodo/kappaphycus_alvarezii.htm
  • This is one of the species that has infested the Maalaea area and is found in Hana Bay. It can be distinguished by its hooked ends. Image Source: http://www.hawaii.edu/reefalgae/invasive_algae/rhodo/hypnea_musciformis.htm
  • This is one of the species that has infested the Maalaea area and is found in Hana Bay. Color is highly variable: can be shades of red, purple, yellow, orange, or brown. Are often very dark in color in intertidal, high motion areas. Usually lighter color in shallow areas with low water motion and reflective sandy or silty bottoms. 40 cm tall, with solid cylindrical branches, 2 - 3 mm wide . Main branches have short branches, irregularly shaped and spinose, with spines numerous and radially arranged. There are no spines on main axes. Image Source: http://www.hawaii.edu/reefalgae/invasive_algae/rhodo/acanthophora_spicifera.htm
  • Take break for bingo
  • Be the eyes and ears of Maui! Walk around your neighborhood and look for the plants and animals featured in the guide.
  • let someone know! Online- www.reportapest.org. There is even an online report form that you can let someone know about what you see, or if you are not sure that have found something that might be invasive, you can send in a report and it will be identified and assessed. Phone- 573-MISC (local) or 643-PEST (HDOA hotline)‏
  • let someone know! Online- www.reportapest.org. There is even an online report form that you can let someone know about what you see, or if you are not sure that have found something that might be invasive, you can send in a report and it will be identified and assessed. Phone- 573-MISC (local) or 643-PEST (HDOA hotline)‏
  • You can play a part in stopping the spread. Make sure to clean all diving and fishing equipment after use, especially if you are moving between islands. Clean boots and pants before and after hiking, especially when going between islands. Image source: Left- CGAPS Protect Hawaii’s Reefs Video http://www.hawaiiinvasivespecies.org/multimedia.html; Right- Maui Invasive Species Committee Kia’I Moku article Invasive Species Arrive in May Ways; prevention tips offered http://www.hear.org/misc/mauinews/pdfs/20070909_prevention.pdf
  • Hawaii Weed Risk Analysis
  • What's in my backyard? Invasive Plants and animals of Maui

    1. 1. Invasive plants and animals of Maui Elizabeth Speith, USGS Pacific Basin Information Node Lissa Fox, Maui Invasive Species Committee What’s in my backyard? Pacific Basin Information Node https://pbin.nbii.gov
    2. 2. <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>What’s in your big backyard? </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Plants and Animals in Urban Areas </li></ul><ul><li>What you can do to stop the invasion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Hawai’i is special... ...but not just because of scenes like this!
    4. 4. Hawaii is special because of...
    5. 5. Endemism <ul><li>a species is said to be ENDEMIC to an area if it lives exclusively in that area </li></ul><ul><li>usually a LIMITED AREA </li></ul>
    6. 6. Endemic species: terrestrial <ul><li>flowering plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~90% endemic to Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><li>invertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>99.9% endemic to Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><li>vertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% mammals endemic to Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% forest birds endemic to Hawaii </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>'opae 'ula </li></ul><ul><li>hihiwai </li></ul><ul><li>gobies </li></ul>Endemic species: aquatic
    8. 8. Endemic species: marine <ul><li>fishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~25% endemism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;This is the highest percentage of endemism for warm-water marine fishes.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John E. Randall, Shore fishes of Hawaii </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Natural Area Reserves Ecologically Significant Areas
    10. 26. koa
    11. 28. Threats to native Hawaiian species/ecosystems <ul><li>development </li></ul><ul><li>global warming </li></ul><ul><li>INVASIVE SPECIES </li></ul>
    12. 29. What does this have to do with my backyard?
    13. 30. Less than 4 miles as the bird (or seed) flies. Natural Area Reserves Ecologically Significant Areas
    14. 33. Definitions: INVASIVE SPECIES <ul><li>Any species not native to a particular ecosystem whose intentional or unintentional release into that ecosystem does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health . </li></ul>paraphrased from the U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13112 of February 3, 1999
    15. 34. <ul><li>Characteristics of Invasive Species </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Early Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Large Quantities of Seeds/Fruit/Offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Seed Dispersal </li></ul><ul><li>Dense Shade </li></ul><ul><li>Allelopathy (growth suppression by one plant on another plant due to the release of inhibitory or toxic chemicals) </li></ul><ul><li>Pest Free </li></ul>
    16. 35. Method of introduction of the 1150 non-native species in California How do they get here? forage, feed, erosion control ornamental seed contaminant unknown aquarium
    17. 36. How do invaders jump the fence? <ul><li>&quot;wind, water, wings&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>...and now: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds and rats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ungulates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>indirectly (as above)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intentional (horticulture, pets)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accidental (e.g. machinery, contaminants)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 37. <ul><li>Weed ID Course Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Early Detection Plant and Animal ID </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting and resources </li></ul>
    19. 38. Fountain Grass Pennisetum setaceum Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Grows in a bunch
    20. 40. Fountain Grass Pennisetum setaceum Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Red flowers shaped like a bottle-cleaning brush
    21. 42. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Fountain Grass LOOK-ALIKE! Red Fountain Grass (Pennisetum macrostachyum)‏ Molasses grass (Melinus minutiflora)‏
    22. 43. Ivy Gourd Coccinia grandis Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! - Star shaped flowers - Red Fruit 1-3 in long
    23. 45. Ivy Gourd Coccinia grandis Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Variable leaves
    24. 47. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Ivy Gourd LOOK-ALIKE! Bitter melon (Momordica charantia)‏
    25. 48. Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>- Purple funnel shaped flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Glossy leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Produce white latex sap </li></ul>
    26. 50. Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    27. 51. Rubber Vine Cryptostegia spp. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    28. 53. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Rubber Vine LOOK-ALIKE! Purple Alamanda (Allamanda violacea)‏ Brazilian jasmine (Mandevilla sanderi)‏
    29. 54. Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    30. 55. Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    31. 56. Coqui ( Eleutherodactylus coqui )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    32. 60. Coqui LOOK ALIKE! Greenhouse frog ( Eleutherodactylus planirostris )‏ Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    33. 61. Bulbul New non-native birds Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Pycnonotus cafer
    34. 62. New non-native birds Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    35. 63. New non-native birds Red-vented Bulbul Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    36. 64. Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    37. 65. Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    38. 66. Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>Morse Code </li></ul><ul><li>Green “J” Hooks </li></ul>
    39. 67. Banana Bunchy Top Virus Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! <ul><li>Spread by aphids </li></ul>
    40. 68. Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Banana Bunchy Top LOOK-ALIKE! Cucumber Mosaic Virus
    41. 70. Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    42. 71. LFA Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    43. 72. Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    44. 73. Little Fire Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    45. 74. Little Fire Ant LOOK ALIKE! Tropical fire ant ( Solenopsis geminata ) 3-5 mm (1/8-1/4 in) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    46. 75. Alien Algae Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    47. 76. supersucker Alien algae Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! SUPER SUCKER
    48. 77. Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    49. 78. Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    50. 79. Gorilla ogo Alien algae: Gorilla Ogo ( Gracilaria saliconria ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    51. 80. Gorilla ogo
    52. 81. Gorilla ogo look alike Gorilla Ogo LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Limu manauea (Gracilaria coronopifolia)
    53. 82. Gorilla ogo look alike Gorilla Ogo LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! limu wawae'iole  (Codium edule)
    54. 83. kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus spp and Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    55. 84. kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus spp and Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    56. 85. kappaphychus Alien Algae: ( Kappaphycus spp and Eucheuma denticulatum ) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    57. 86. kappaphychus Alien Algae ( Kappaphycus spp) Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!
    58. 87. kappap look alike Kappa-carrageenan LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it! Hypnea musciformis
    59. 88. kappap look alike Kappa-carrageenan LOOK ALIKE! Investigate it! Inspect it! Report it!   Acanthophora spicifera
    60. 89. <ul><li>Weed ID Course Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Early Detection Plant and Animal ID </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting and resources </li></ul>
    61. 90. BECOME MAUI’S EYES AND EARS!
    62. 91. WWW.REPORTAPEST.ORG
    63. 93. 643-PEST 573-MISC
    64. 95. <ul><li>Don’t plant a pest. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid planting any plant that may potentially become invasive. Use the HAWAII WEED RISK ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully inspect plants before purchasing to ensure they are free from unwanted pests. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove invasive plants and animals on your property. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t buy a pest. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not import, plant, sell, or move invasive plants and animals in, around, or off island. </li></ul><ul><li>Report locations where invasive species are growing or for sale. </li></ul><ul><li>Use non-invasive and native plants in your landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep pets contained. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not release pets into the wild – keep parrots and rabbits caged. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t dump aquarium pets or plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn in unwanted aquarium pets or plants to a pet store. </li></ul>What can we do?
    65. 96. What can we do? <ul><li>Protect Hawai‘i. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean your hiking boots, equipment and vehicles before you go into a native area and after hikes in infested areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Share what you learn with your friends and neighbors. </li></ul>
    66. 97. THANKS! Elizabeth Speith, USGS-Pacific Basin Information Node, espeith@usgs.gov, 984-3716 Lissa Fox, Maui Invasive Species Committee, miscpr@hawaii.edu, 573-MISC Spread the Word, Not the Weed

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