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The Productive Role of Material Design Artefacts in Participatory Design Events

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slides from my presentation at NordiCHI 2012. Paper is available soon, or by requesting it :)

slides from my presentation at NordiCHI 2012. Paper is available soon, or by requesting it :)

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  • \n
  • Sketching, cards, probes, props, mockups\nWe all use them - and the reason for using them, is probably because they work rather well. We thus want to understand why and how they work well. We thus investigate the role of physical materials and their \nMotivated by desire to generate insights for deeper understanding of collaboration in design- Crucial to understanding of multidisciplinarity, which is increasingly important in design workEmployed in a wide range of design situations\n
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  • Rogers argues that ‘Designers and researchers need to begin to engage in more dialogues, identifying areas of conceptual “richness” and design “articulation”’ [23, p. 33]. \nwe must judge the value of our theories on the basis of practice, this does not mean that it is fixed and stable. On the contrary, it continuously evolves and unfolds, partly because we transform it through our behaviour.\nOur work may be construed as a combination of importing and developing a conceptual framework, in that we build on a set of general pragmatist concepts, develop them for a specific area of study, and develop a series of considerations for design on this basis.\nthat theory and practice are not separate entities; rather, they are intertwined, as theories arise from practice and must be evaluated on the basis of how they scaffold our understanding of, and actions in practice. \n
  • Situation: We always find ourselves in some kind of situation - sometimes one of these will be problematic and stick out. This is reminiscnent of design - which is why we use pragmatism. A design process can be considered a problematic situation to be resolved - we are interested in changing the future - by drawing on the materials on the parts of the situation \nInquiry is the process by which we deliberately try to improve and reshape a situation, so it becomes increasingly desirable or stable\nDynamic and intertwined\nTransformation: The deliberate changing of the parts of a problematic situation\nCan constitute changing both the self (learning), others (teaching), physical elements\nInquiry is thus a distributed activityTechnology: Drawn into design in order to scaffold the process of inquiry\nPhysical materials that are part of the design inquiry undertaken by participants\nConstrains and enables certain kinds of transformations\n\n
  • Situation: We always find ourselves in some kind of situation - sometimes one of these will be problematic and stick out. This is reminiscnent of design - which is why we use pragmatism. A design process can be considered a problematic situation to be resolved - we are interested in changing the future - by drawing on the materials on the parts of the situation \nInquiry is the process by which we deliberately try to improve and reshape a situation, so it becomes increasingly desirable or stable\nDynamic and intertwined\nTransformation: The deliberate changing of the parts of a problematic situation\nCan constitute changing both the self (learning), others (teaching), physical elements\nInquiry is thus a distributed activityTechnology: Drawn into design in order to scaffold the process of inquiry\nPhysical materials that are part of the design inquiry undertaken by participants\nConstrains and enables certain kinds of transformations\n\n
  • Situation: We always find ourselves in some kind of situation - sometimes one of these will be problematic and stick out. This is reminiscnent of design - which is why we use pragmatism. A design process can be considered a problematic situation to be resolved - we are interested in changing the future - by drawing on the materials on the parts of the situation \nInquiry is the process by which we deliberately try to improve and reshape a situation, so it becomes increasingly desirable or stable\nDynamic and intertwined\nTransformation: The deliberate changing of the parts of a problematic situation\nCan constitute changing both the self (learning), others (teaching), physical elements\nInquiry is thus a distributed activityTechnology: Drawn into design in order to scaffold the process of inquiry\nPhysical materials that are part of the design inquiry undertaken by participants\nConstrains and enables certain kinds of transformations\n\n
  • Situation: We always find ourselves in some kind of situation - sometimes one of these will be problematic and stick out. This is reminiscnent of design - which is why we use pragmatism. A design process can be considered a problematic situation to be resolved - we are interested in changing the future - by drawing on the materials on the parts of the situation \nInquiry is the process by which we deliberately try to improve and reshape a situation, so it becomes increasingly desirable or stable\nDynamic and intertwined\nTransformation: The deliberate changing of the parts of a problematic situation\nCan constitute changing both the self (learning), others (teaching), physical elements\nInquiry is thus a distributed activityTechnology: Drawn into design in order to scaffold the process of inquiry\nPhysical materials that are part of the design inquiry undertaken by participants\nConstrains and enables certain kinds of transformations\n\n
  • Situation is the assemblage of a subject, and his/her environment, including other people, things, spaces, and social constructs, Stable/Satisfying/Understandable/”Determinate”/Unproblematic : Unstable/Unsatisfying/Mysterious/”Indeterminate”/Problematic\n\nInquiry is the process by which we deliberately try to improve and reshape a situation, so it becomes increasingly desirable or stable\nDynamic and intertwined\n\nTransformation: The deliberate changing of the parts of a problematic situation\nCan constitute changing both the self (learning), others (teaching), physical elements\nInquiry is thus a distributed activity\nTechnology: Drawn into design in order to scaffold the process of inquiry\nPhysical materials that are part of the design inquiry undertaken by participants\nConstrains and enables certain kinds of transformations\n\n
  • Inquiry is the process by which we deliberately try to improve and reshape a situation, so it becomes increasingly desirable or stable\nUnfolds through a dynamic interplay of problem framing, hypothesizing of how to resolve the problem, and trying out the problem in practice\nDynamic and intertwined\n
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  • Broad term - anything that can support inquiry\n Shapes and is shaped by use\n
  • a largescale projekt to help develop the new public library of Aarhus, Denmark\n\nShould be “more than just a library” - it should reflect the role of the library in the 21st century - and be a technology-augmented experience\n
  • a largescale projekt to help develop the new public library of Aarhus, Denmark\n\nShould be “more than just a library” - it should reflect the role of the library in the 21st century - and be a technology-augmented experience\n
  • a largescale projekt to help develop the new public library of Aarhus, Denmark\n\nShould be “more than just a library” - it should reflect the role of the library in the 21st century - and be a technology-augmented experience\n
  • Involving librarians in understanding the future building\n\nCreate a deeper understanding of the future building - laying the ground for ideation\n\nResults were a series of recorded future scenarios, which served to identify interesting areas of the library for further ideation work as well as creating an enhanced embodied experience of the future library\n\nCaveat about them not being users - purpose was not to have them substitute users, but rather utilize the future scenarios as drivers to discuss salient aspects of the future building\n\n\n
  • Involving librarians in understanding the future building\n\nCreate a deeper understanding of the future building - laying the ground for ideation\n\nResults were a series of recorded future scenarios, which served to identify interesting areas of the library for further ideation work as well as creating an enhanced embodied experience of the future library\n\nCaveat about them not being users - purpose was not to have them substitute users, but rather utilize the future scenarios as drivers to discuss salient aspects of the future building\n\n\n
  • Involving librarians in understanding the future building\n\nCreate a deeper understanding of the future building - laying the ground for ideation\n\nResults were a series of recorded future scenarios, which served to identify interesting areas of the library for further ideation work as well as creating an enhanced embodied experience of the future library\n\nCaveat about them not being users - purpose was not to have them substitute users, but rather utilize the future scenarios as drivers to discuss salient aspects of the future building\n\n\n
  • Involving librarians in understanding the future building\n\nCreate a deeper understanding of the future building - laying the ground for ideation\n\nResults were a series of recorded future scenarios, which served to identify interesting areas of the library for further ideation work as well as creating an enhanced embodied experience of the future library\n\nCaveat about them not being users - purpose was not to have them substitute users, but rather utilize the future scenarios as drivers to discuss salient aspects of the future building\n\n\n
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  • So, now we move on to discussing the specific design considerations, that were the result of our investigation of the role of material design artifacts using our pragmatist foundation\n
  • Family arriving at library, at entrance area; when placing cc on board, realize would be stressful; write/draw/post-it characteristics down - can focus on inquiry moving along. \n
  • participants used design artefacts to create physical manifestations of agreements. Grounded in currently imagined situations in the scenario, enabling them to have detailed discussions \nthe path cc take to second floor several solutions discussed - decided that cc would take the stairs. This decision was then documented, meaning that further inquiry took place in a newly transformed situation. \n
  • participants constantly needed to agree on the specifics of the scenario. This was valuable, as it prompted fruitful discussions that might otherwise have been overlooked.\n\nAllowed participants to focus on the here-and-now of the future scenario\n
  • The ongoing transformations of the design space meant that the detailed and updated design space provoked reflection. By this, we refer to instances where participants through their work created situations that forced them to reflect on whether the current solutions were the best ones, or whether something else should be attempted - or whether they lacked knowledge of a specific subject\n\nWhen the father ascended the Mediaramp, the participants started drawing his route onto the blueprint. Iniating inquiry on the subject of "what should happen when ascending the media ramp?" - "nothing" (needs to be special engaging place) - "place of books?" - boring - interactive technology and exhibitions of new things and ideas\n\n
  • how to navigate the projected building - stressful place / hard to get overview of the many new activities - lots of different hypothesizes tried out, one that was selected was the creating of an interactive overview and planning system integrating with mobiles at the entrance area\n
  • Contributed in inquiry which produced a series of very concrete and specific future scenarios, outlining several interesting aspects (Moving of the tween area, identification of areas for new design concepts)\n\nit was possible for participants to start with a highly detailed design space, which was then kept updated, detailed, and relevant by enabling rapid, documented, and collaborative transformations\n
  • Contributed in inquiry which produced a series of very concrete and specific future scenarios, outlining several interesting aspects (Moving of the tween area, identification of areas for new design concepts, media ramp)\n\nit was possible for participants to start with a highly detailed design space, which was then kept updated, detailed, and relevant by enabling rapid, documented, and collaborative transformations\n
  • Contributed in inquiry which produced a series of very concrete and specific future scenarios, outlining several interesting aspects (Moving of the tween area, identification of areas for new design concepts, media ramp)\n\nit was possible for participants to start with a highly detailed design space, which was then kept updated, detailed, and relevant by enabling rapid, documented, and collaborative transformations\n
  • We have examined the role of material design artifacts and their productive qualities in order to help us understand design work we all do. To this end we have used pragmatist philosophy in a generative role - to generate insights useful in this project and others\nDraws our attention to the dynamic interplay of materials and design work, that is valuable both with regards to understand the qualities of this material, as well as in helping us go on with classifying the uses of other kinds of materials.\n
  • \n
  • Transcript

    • 1. THE PRODUCTIVE ROLE OF MATERIAL DESIGN ARTEFACTS IN PARTICIPATORY DESIGN EVENTS Nicolai Brodersen Hansen - imvnbh@hum.au.dk Peter Dalsgaard - dalsgaard@cavi.dk Aarhus University CAVI Participation Information Technology centre
    • 2. MATERIAL DESIGN ARTEFACTS !
    • 3. THEMES• Material artefacts in design• Theoretical foundation - pragmatism• Urban Media Space and the Living Blueprint Workshop• Design considerations
    • 4. RELATED WORKBertelsen, O. W. Elements of a Theory of Design Artefacts – a contribution to critical systems developmentresearch. (PhD dissertation), Aarhus University (1998).Brandt, E. & Grunnet, C. Evoking the future: drama and props in User Centered Design. Proc. PDC (2000),11-20Ehn, P. & Kyng, M. Cardboard computers: mocking-it-up or hands-on the future. Design at work. L. ErlbaumAssociates Inc (1992), Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 169-196Eriksen, MA. Material Matters in Co-Designing. (PhD dissertation), Malmø University, (2012).Gedenryd, H. How designers work: Cognitive studies. (PhD dissertation). (1998), Lund University, Sweden.Kyng, M. Making representations work. Communications of the ACM, 38, (1995), 46-55.Lim, Y-K., Stolterman, E. & Tenenberg, J. The anatomy of prototypes: Prototypes as filters, prototypes asmanifestations of design ideas. TOCHI, ACM (2008), 15, 7:1-7:27.Mattelmäki, T. Design probes,. (PhD Dissertation). (2006), University of Art and Design, Helsinki, Finland Ch3 pp 39-63Olesen, F. & Markussen, R. Working with Material Things: From Essentialism to Material-Semiotic Analysis ofSociotechnical Practice. Doing Things with Things : The Design and Use of Everyday Objects. Aldershot:Ashgate (2006), 1st ed., 167-192
    • 5. PRAGMATISM• Theory as generative• Primacy of practice• Importing theoretical concepts: situation, inquiry, transformation & technology
    • 6. PRAGMATISM
    • 7. PRAGMATISM• Situation
    • 8. PRAGMATISM• Situation• Inquiry
    • 9. PRAGMATISM• Situation• Inquiry• Transformation
    • 10. PRAGMATISM• Situation• Inquiry• Transformation• Technology
    • 11. URBAN MEDIA SPACE
    • 12. URBAN MEDIA SPACE
    • 13. URBAN MEDIA SPACE
    • 14. URBAN MEDIA SPACE
    • 15. “LIVING BLUEPRINT WORKSHOP”
    • 16. “LIVING BLUEPRINT WORKSHOP”
    • 17. “LIVING BLUEPRINT WORKSHOP”
    • 18. “LIVING BLUEPRINT WORKSHOP”
    • 19. “LIVING BLUEPRINT WORKSHOP”
    • 20. “LIVING BLUEPRINT WORKSHOP” Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Creating Creating future Presenting future cardboard- scenarios on scenarios in characters blueprint plenum
    • 21. AN EXAMPLE OF MATERIALDESIGN ARTEFACTS IN USE
    • 22. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS• Which actions were supported by the material design artifacts?• Why?
    • 23. RAPID TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE DESIGN SPACE• Transformationsof the Rapid changes problematic design situations are manifested immediately Dynamic Design space• Inquirycan move along effortlessly
    • 24. DOCUMENTATION OF DESIGN MOVES• Creatingphysical manifestations Rapid changes Documenting moves of agreements• Documents currently imagined Dynamic Design space situations in the scenario
    • 25. ALIGNING COLLABORATIVE EFFORTS• Constant need to agree on Rapid changes Documenting moves Aligning collaboration specifics of scenario• Prompts reflections Dynamic Design space• Keeps design artefact relevant
    • 26. PROVOKING REFLECTIONS• Transformationsof the Rapid changes Documenting moves Aligning collaboration problematic design situations are manifested immediately Dynamic Design space• Forcedto reflect through (created) problematic situations Provoking reflections
    • 27. SUGGESTING DESIGNS• Participantscould use design Rapid changes Documenting moves Aligning collaboration artefacts to manifest design suggestions Dynamic Design space• Resolve problematic situations through using the Provoking reflections Suggesting designs material design artefacts in a generative role
    • 28. MATERIAL DESIGN ARTEFACTS IN THE LIVING BLUEPRINT WORKSHOP• Tools for specific inquiries• Constrains and enables specific kinds of inquiry• Keeping collaborative inquiry on track• Highly detailed and updated design space• Keptconstant focus on the combination of bodies, building and future use of the library
    • 29. MATERIAL DESIGN ARTEFACTS IN THE LIVING BLUEPRINT WORKSHOP• Very specific future scenarios• Insights into previously undiscussed subjects• Specific and engaged understanding of the projected library
    • 30. FUTURE WORK• Pragmatistframework in a generative role• Materials in generative roles• Software materials• High fidelity materials
    • 31. SUMMARY• Material design artefacts and their productive qualities• Pragmatism in a generative role: • Rapid transformations • Documenting design moves • Aligning collaboration • Provoking reflections • Suggesting designs• Future work and challenges
    • 32. THANK YOU!Nicolai Brodersen Hansen - imvnbh@hum.au.dk Peter Dalsgaard - dalsgaard@cavi.dk