Bioinformatics

5,937 views
5,646 views

Published on

A description of how technology has changed the face of Biology, specially in the fields of genetics, proteomics, and evolution.

It includes a brief history, examples of usage, and a look into the future.

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,937
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,108
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
316
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Bioinformatics

  1. 1. BioInformatics by Nuno Barreto SHiFT08
  2. 2. What this presentation is • A general description of what bioinformatics is • A voyage in most aspects involved • A view of the technologies used • A view of the future
  3. 3. What this presentation is not • An exhaustive explanation of what Bioinformatics is
  4. 4. Bioinformatics?
  5. 5. Bioinformatics = Molecular Biology + IT
  6. 6. So, that excludes other interesting applications of IT in the Biology related fields
  7. 7. The democratization of Biological Information
  8. 8. Geographic information systems
  9. 9. So... What is Bioinformatics? What is it used for? Why has it changed the face of Biology?
  10. 10. It’s all about DNA
  11. 11. • DNA is a nucleic acid that contains a “blueprint” • This “blueprint” is used to construct every part of the organism, it is all Nature needs to reproduce an organism and keep it functioning correctly
  12. 12. image from Wikipedia
  13. 13. How is it captured?
  14. 14. Photo from http://www.flickr.com/photos/gravitywave/7715395/
  15. 15. Image from http://www.dna11.com
  16. 16. images from Wikipedia
  17. 17. image from Wikipedia
  18. 18. Made at http://www.baekdal.com/web2dna
  19. 19. In fact, it’s all about String Manipulation image from Wikipedia
  20. 20. Alignment of 27 avian influenza hemagglutinin protein sequences image from Wikipedia
  21. 21. Genomes
  22. 22. • Genomes are the complete set of chromosomes of organism, which contain its full DNA • It includes genes • Delimitations • And also “junk DNA”
  23. 23. Genes • “a gene is a portion of an organism's DNA which contains both quot;codingquot; sequences that determine what the gene does, and quot;non-codingquot; sequences that determine when the gene is active” (from Wikipedia)
  24. 24. image from Wikipedia
  25. 25. Human Genome • 23 chromosome pairs • 3.2 billion DNA base pairs • 20 500 genes image from Wikipedia
  26. 26. Chicken Genome • 1 billion DNA base pairs • 20-23 000 genes Photo from http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/31562846/
  27. 27. Amoeba dubia Genome • 670 billion DNA base pairs photo from www.behav.org/GENE/org/org_040_C.htm
  28. 28. Only 79 eukaryotic genomes Only ~400 prokaryotic genomes Only 27 archaeal genomes
  29. 29. Still a lot of genomes to be sequenced, considering the 1.8 million classified species, and the possibility of existing 10 to 100 million unknown.
  30. 30. Proteomics
  31. 31. • It’s all about discovering the sets of proteins of an organism, knowing it’s function
  32. 32. Protein Folding
  33. 33. • RNA is the blueprint of Proteins • Proteins structure is very important for it’s functioning • Therefore, it is crucial to know its shape in order to know its function
  34. 34. Protein Folding image from Wikipedia
  35. 35. Hemoglobin image from Wikipedia
  36. 36. Folding @home http://folding.stanford.edu/
  37. 37. Tree of Life
  38. 38. All info available through websites
  39. 39. http://www.uniprot.org
  40. 40. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/clustalw2/index.html
  41. 41. What can we do with all this information?
  42. 42. Better understand all organisms
  43. 43. Most importantly, we can understand our bodies better
  44. 44. It is a great advancement in medicine
  45. 45. • Helps in disease diagnosis and prevention • Helps understand our response to treatments, creating the possibility of customized ones • Identification of drug targets • Gene Therapy
  46. 46. Future
  47. 47. • More advances in specific treatment • A better comprehension of our bodies • A better comprehension of the relationships between organisms • Who knows? :)
  48. 48. nbarreto@gmail.com

×