Question no 4 & 30

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  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • How you look at anger and stress?Are they give you burden?
  • Question no 4 & 30

    1. 1. SGDU 5024LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATIONQUESTIONSFOR THE PURPOSES OF REVIEWAND PREPARATIONSFOR FINAL EXAMLECTURER’S NAME: PROF. DR. ABDUL MOQIM RAHMANZAIZAKARIA BIN OTHMAN1
    2. 2. TOPIC NO.4HOW DOESA LEADER KEEP TRACKOF CRITICAL STEPS INPROJECT MANAGEMENT2OF ALL FOURCALIPH AR-RASHIDEEN,WHICH ONE HAS THE BESTLEADERSHIP PRACTICESTHAT COULD BE APPROPRIATETO THE CURRENT SITUATION?EXPLAIN.TOPIC NO.30
    3. 3. TOPIC NO.4HOW DOESA LEADER KEEP TRACKOF CRITICAL STEPS INPROJECT MANAGEMENT3
    4. 4. PROJECT MANAGEMENTProject management is the discipline of1.planning,2.organizing,3.motivating, and4.controlling resourcesto achieve specific goals. A project is a temporaryendeavor with a defined beginning and end(usually time-constrained, and often constrainedby funding or deliverables),[1] undertaken to meetunique goals and objectives,[2] typically to bringabout beneficial change or added value.4
    5. 5. PROJECT MANAGEMENTThe primary challenge of project managementis to achieve all of the project goals[4] andobjectives while honoring the preconceivedconstraints.[5] The primary constraints arescope, time, quality and budget.[6]The secondary —and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation ofnecessary inputs and integrate them tomeet pre-defined objectives.5
    6. 6. CRITICAL CHAINSCritical chain project management (CCPM) is amethod of planning and managing projectexecution designed to deal withuncertainties inherent in managing projects,while taking into consideration limitedavailability of resources (physical, humanskills, as well as management & supportcapacity) needed to execute projects.6
    7. 7. CRITICAL CHAINSCCPM is an application of the Theory ofConstraints (TOC) to projects. The goal is toincrease the flow of projects in anorganization (throughput). Applying the firstthree of the five focusing steps of TOC, thesystem constraint for all projects is identifiedas are the resources. To exploit theconstraint, tasks on the critical chain aregiven priority over all other activities. Finally,projects are planned and managed toensure that the resources are ready whenthe critical chain tasks must start,subordinating all other resources to thecritical chain. 7
    8. 8. five focusing steps of TOC1.Identify the systems constraint(s) (that whichprevents the organization from obtaining more of thegoal in a unit of time)2.Decide how to exploit the systems constraint(s) (howto get the most out of the constraint)3.Subordinate everything else to the above decision(align the whole system or organization to supportthe decision made above)4.Elevate the systems constraint(s) (make other majorchanges needed to increase the constraints capacity)5.Warning! If in the previous steps a constraint hasbeen broken, go back to step 1, but do not allowinertia to cause a systems constraint.[5]8
    9. 9. five focusing steps of TOCThe five focusing steps aim to ensureongoing improvement efforts arecentered on the organizationsconstraint(s). In the TOC literature,this is referred to as theprocess of ongoing improvement(POOGI).9
    10. 10. TOPIC NO.30OF ALL FOURCALIPH AR-RASHIDEEN,WHICH ONE HAS THE BESTLEADERSHIP PRACTICESTHAT COULD BE APPROPRIATETO THE CURRENT SITUATION?EXPLAIN.10
    11. 11.  The subject of leadership is crucial in Islam. In most circumstances in life, Muslims are urged to appoint aleader and follow him. Select a leader (imam) to lead the prayer. Choose a leader for other group activities. The husband is the leader of his family. In the absenceof her husband, the wife assumes the role of leader ofthe house.11
    12. 12. Vicegerency, the Islamic concept of Leadershipfirst emerged from the Quranic verse thatexpressed Allahs wish to appoint His vicegerenton earth soil as to maintain justice among thecreations both human beings and jinns thatwould worship Him.• I have only created Jinns and men, that theymay serve Me.• (Al-Dhariyat, 51:56)12
    13. 13. The Quranic perspective of leadership ismodelled by Prophet Muhammad. As describedby the Quran he is the greatest model for allMuslim leaders:•• You have indeed in the Apostle of God abeautiful pattern (of conduct)• (Al-Ahzab, 33:21)13
    14. 14. • Prophet Muhammad (saw) said,•• (Abu Da’ud on the authority of Abu Sa’id)14
    15. 15. Islam views leadership as a responsibility whichis shared by all adults in a Muslim society. Aspointed out clearly by Prophet Muhammad inone of the hadiths,• Sahih Bukhari, hadith 3.73315
    16. 16. 16Servant-leaderGuardian-leader
    17. 17. The servant-leader is servant first… It begins withthe natural feeling that one wants to serve, toserve first. […] The best test, and the most difficultto administer, is: Do those served grow aspersons? The leader is the servant of his followers Seek their welfare and guide them towardsgood17
    18. 18. • Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) He was nicknamed the ‘trustworthy’ by his compatriots; He provided help to those who sought his help especially thosewho were weak, old and helpless; and he placed service beforeself-interest (Ibn Hesham, 802). Hawwa (1990) narrates an incident when the Prophet (pbuh)went on a trip with a group of Muslims. They decided to cook alamb for dinner. Three men from among the group volunteeredto prepare the dinner, one volunteered to cut the sheep, thesecond volunteered to skin it, the third volunteered to cook it,and the Prophet (pbuh) volunteered to collect the wood andstart the fire. Descriptions of the interaction between the Prophet (pbuh) andhis companions show that the criteria of Greenleaf’s have beenmet by the Prophet (pbuh) and many of his companions (Al-Ghazali, 1093).18
    19. 19.  One of the constructs of modern servant leadershipis the concept that the leader should be a rolemodel for the followers. This has certainly been thecase for the Prophet (pbuh) the early Muslimleaders. The Quran commands the believers to takethe prophet as their role model. The concept of servant leadership in Islam isenhanced by the principle that leaders should not,normally, seek appointment to an office but they areusually nominated by others (Hawwa, 1990). Thesenominations are, usually, based on the track recordof the person. This provides a way to differentiatebetween candidates who want to be “servantfirst”and those who want to be “leader-first”.19
    20. 20. A commander (of the Muslims) is a shield forthem. […] To protect his community against tyranny andoppression, to encourage God-conciousnessand taqwa, and to promote justice.20
    21. 21.  In Islam every one is guardian and supervisor in his owndomain: husband is supervisor of home, wife and children; wife is guardian of house of her husband; teacher is guardian of students and so on. It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that theHoly Prophet (pbuh) said: Beware every one of you is ashepherd and every one is answerable with regard to hisflock. The Caliph is a shepherd over the people and shall bequestioned about his subjects (as to how he conductedtheir affairs).21
    22. 22.  A man is a guardian over the members of his family andshall be questioned about them (as to how he lookedafter their physical and moral well-being). A woman is a guardian over the household of herhusband and his children and shall be questioned aboutthem (as to how she managed the household andbrought up the children). A slave is a guardian over the property of his master andshall be questioned about it (as to how he safeguardedhis trust). Beware, every one of you is a guardian and every one ofyou shall be questioned with regard to his trust.(“Beware”, 2007)22
    23. 23. CALIPH AR-RASHIDEEN(632-661)were four Caliphs (leaders) ofIslam first, which is believedby Muslims as the successorof the Prophet Muhammadsleadership after he died.23
    24. 24. CALIPH AR-RASHIDEENFour people were closecompanions of Muhammadwho noted the closest andmost are in defense when hebrought the teachings of theapostolic time ofMuhammad.24
    25. 25. CALIPH AR-RASHIDEENThe fourth caliph was chosennot by lineage, but based onmutual consensus ofMuslims.25
    26. 26. CALIPH AR-RASHIDEENSystem selection for each aleader is different, it happensbecause the companionsassumes no explicit referenceleft by Prophet Muhammadabout how the Muslimleadership succession willlast.26
    27. 27. THE FOUR CALIPH AR-RASHIDEEN1. Abu Bakr - 632–6342. Umar ibn al-Khattab - 634–6443. Uthman ibn Affan - 644–6564. Ali ibn Abi Talib - 656–66127
    28. 28. 1. Abu Bakr – 632 -634Caliph Abu Bakr Al-Shiddiq has softand firm character. Stir in thenational mood, the leader of acharacter as the Caliph Abu Bakr as-Shiddiq desperately needed. Withthe softness, he can convincepeople that talked into doing trick.Meanwhile, the people who arefacing a decisive undermined by He.28
    29. 29. 2. Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644)At the time of Caliph Umar binKhattab, the more peacefulsituation. In this case, the charactermust have a leader like Umar BinKhattab, that is intelligent, decisive,and the best interests of thepeople. Umar bin Khattabintelligence is necessary to developsocial policies that islami.29
    30. 30. Uthman ibn Affan (644-656)The situation at the time of CaliphUthman bin Affan was reallypeaceful. Prosperity has beenachieved in all walks of life. In caseslike this, the pious leaders ofcharacter, kindness, and patienceare indispensable. With characterslike Caliph Uthman bin Affan, theprosperity of the people can bereached, either physical or spiritual.30
    31. 31. Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661)At the time of power transition fromthe Caliph Uthman ibn Affan to theCaliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, the chaosback occurs. In conditions like thiscountry, the character of leadershipand prioritize the truth is verynecessary. Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talibhas the right character. AssertiveCaliph Ali ibn Abi Talib in defense oftruth similar to the Caliph Umar ibnKhattab.31

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