Question 7Below are some common leadership style :Define each one briefly• Visionary• Coaching• Democratic• Affialitive• Pace Setting• CommandingOh Sim Hu 811577
IntroductionDaniel Goleman - a leading authority on emotional intelligence –has identified six effective leadership styles:Visionary “Let’s remind ourselves ofthe larger purpose”Coaching “Let me help you develop”Democratic “Let’s work it out together”Affiliative “People first, task second”Pacesetting “Do it my way”Commanding “Do it because I say so”
1. Visionary Style – “Let’s remind ourselves ofthe bigger purpose”Primary Objective: Inspiring others by providinglong-term direction and vision for individuals.
A leader using this style:1. Takes responsibility for facilitating the development andcommunication of a clear vision of how things can be.2. Solicits individuals’ perspectives on the vision withoutsurrendering authority or undermining the integrity of thevision.3. Sees selling the vision as part of the leader’s job.4. Influences others by explaining, exploring anddescribing the vision.5. Ensures that others align the vision with their jobs andobjectives.6. Uses a range of methods (both positive and negative)to enhance other’s motivation and performance.
The Visionary Style is most effective when:1. A new vision or clear direction is needed, e.g.when in a period of change – at an individual ororganisational level.2. The leader believes in the vision; and sees it asbeing in tune with his / her own values andthose of the organisation.3. The leader is self-confident, self-aware andempathic to others.
The Visionary Style is least effective when:1. The leader is not regarded as credible, i.e. othersfeel they know more about the organisation thanthe leader.2. When overplayed, i.e. if trying to steal power froma team-based approach.
SummaryWhen used effectively the Visionary Style motivatesindividuals by focussing their attention on the long termgoals of the organisation; and how each individualcontributes to its delivery.When not used effectively this style fails to take intoaccount the natural talents and experience of theknowledgeable team members.
2. The Coaching Style –“Let me help you develop”Primary Purpose: Long-term professionaldevelopment of individuals.
A leader using this style:1. Helps individuals identify their individual strengthsand weaknesses in the light of their aspirations.2. Reaches agreement with individuals on both themanager’s and the individual’s roles in thedevelopment process.3. Provides on-going support, challenge and feedback.May trade-off short-term performance for longer termdevelopment.4. Share exciting assignments for development purposes.
The Coaching Style is most effective when:1. The team member acknowledges adiscrepancy between where they are andwhere they would like to be.2. Individuals are motivated to take initiative,be innovative, take risks and seekprofessional development.
The Coaching Style is least effective when:1. In crisis and there is no time to invest inlonger-term development of individuals.2. The leader lacks personal credibility; orcoaching skills, e.g. empathy, emotionalintelligence etc.3. When individuals are seeking direction andfeedback – they will be uncomfortable with theself-management aspect of the coaching style.
SummaryWhen used effectively the Coaching Style motivatesindividuals by linking their daily work to theirpersonal development intentions and long-termcareer plans. It helps individuals develop soundthinking strategies that build their confidence infunctioning more autonomously and at a higherlevel.When used ineffectively the Coaching Style causesconfusion, delays and conflict because individualsare unsure what to do.
The Democratic Style –“Let’s work it out together”Primary Objective: Building commitment andgenerating new ideas.
A leader using this style:1. Trusts that individuals have the capability to developthe appropriate direction for themselves and theirteam.2. Invites individuals to make decisions affectingtheir work.3. Reaches decisions by consensus.4. Holds many meetings and listens to others’ concerns.5. Rewards adequate performance and rarely givesnegative feedback or punishes others.
The Democratic Style is most effective when:1. The team members are competent.2. When individual contributions must be co-ordinated.3. The leader is unclear about the best way forward andwants to hear others’ ideas and contributions beforedeciding.4. Used after the Visionary Style has set the outline ofthe vision and the leader now seeks engagement andparticipation.
The Democratic Style is least effective when:1. In crisis and there is no time to hold long meetings.2. Individuals are incompetent or need close supervision
SummaryWhen used effectively the Democratic Stylemotivates individuals by empowering them tomake decisions about their own work. It isdesigned to create teamwork andcommitment.When used ineffectively the Democratic Stylecauses confusion, delays and conflict amongstindividuals due to lack of focus and direction.
Affiliative Style –“People first, task second”Primary Purpose: Creating harmony amongindividuals and between leaders andindividuals.
A leader using this style:1. Places more emphasis on the individuals thanthe task in hand.2. Cares for the whole person.3. Shares his or her emotional challenges withthe team members in an appropriate manner.4. Rewards personal characteristics andbehaviours (the hows) as much as the deliveryof the task.
The Affiliative Style is most effective when:1. The individual requires direct assistance, e.g.counselling and emotional support.2. Seeking harmonious relationships betweendiverse and conflicting groups.3. When used as part of a repertoire of styles, e.g.coaching, visionary etc.4. Recovering trust and loyalty amongst a team.
The Affiliative Style is least effective when:The leader lacks empathy – the ability to sense the feelings,needs and perspectives of others.Individual performance is weak or inadequate; and correctivefeedback is necessary.In crises or complex situations needing clear direction.Used alone, i.e. not in conjunction with other styles.With individuals who are task-orientated and see relationshipswith the leader as inappropriate / unnecessary or distracting.
SummaryWhen used effectively, the Affiliative Style motivatesindividuals by supporting them during highly routineor stressful times. By strategically and explicitlyfocussing on the human element, this style succeedsin gaining loyalty and support – and getting the taskdone.When not used effectively this style can lead to lowstandards, a sense of favouritism and frustration.
Pacesetting Style – “Do it my way”Primary objective: Accomplishingtasks to high standards of excellence.
A leader using this style:1. Holds and exemplifies high standards for performance.2. Is obsessive about doing things faster and better.3. Asks others to do things to a high standard; and do themfaster / better.4. Pinpoints poor performers, demands more from them.5. Rescues the situation if others don’t perform, by assumingresponsibility for the task or giving detailed instruction on“how to do it”.
Has little sympathy for poor performance.Seeks co-ordination with others only if it has an impact onan immediate task.Sees development of others as “showing them how to doit”.A leader using this style:
The Pacesetting Style is most effective whenindividuals are:Highly motivated, competent and know their jobs.Need little direction or co-ordination.Individual contributors, e.g. scientistsQuick results are required, e.g. in a “sink or swim”situation.Similar to their managers (and the organisation needsmore of the same).
The Pacesetting Style is least effective when:1. The leader can no longer do all his / her own workpersonally.2. Individuals need or want vision, personal developmentand / or co-ordination amongst themselves or others.3. Employees seek a trusting / empowering relationshipwhere they can influence how they deliver the objectives.4. Employees are looking for some sense that the leader isinterested in them as an individual not as a means togetting things done.
SummaryWhen used effectively the Pacesetting Style works forindividuals who are completely self-motivated andunderstand their objectives. The style is less effectivein times of change – when an explicit discussionaround the mission and role of each individual isrequired.It can also make extreme demands on the leader ass/he takes on more and more of the tasks of his / herdirect reports.
Commanding Style –“Do it because I say so”Primary Objective: Immediate compliance.
A leader using this style:Gives lots of directives by telling people what to do.Rarely seeks any input from the individual.Controls tightly through constant monitoring.Relies on negative, corrective feedback to emphasise what iswrong and achieve compliance.Motivates others by emphasising the consequences of getting itwrong.Can be closed to other styles of working; and may ridicule themas “soft”.
The Commanding Style is most effective when:Dealing with relatively straightforward tasks.In crisis situations when individuals need clear direction and theleader has more information than the individuals concerned,e.g. in a hostile takeover situation or serious emergency.When deviations will result in serious consequences, e.g. safeand healthy issues.With under-performing individuals where all else has failed.Leaders know when to stop using it, e.g. immediately the crisishas passed.
The Commanding Style is least effective whenapplied:To complex situations.To highly skilled, competent staff.Over the medium to long-term because individualsare not being developed or listened to and theytend to rebel or leave.
SummaryWhen used effectively, the Commanding Styledraws an immediate and willing response fromstaff. However, used outside of a crisis it createsmedium term resistance; and may seriously damagethe organisation.
RememberVisionary “Let’s remind ourselves ofthe larger purpose”Coaching “Let me help you develop”Democratic “Let’s work it out together”Affliative “People first, task second”Pacesetting “Do it my way”Commanding “Do it because I say so”