Nutrient Flux and Contaminants in the Isipingo Estuary, South Africa

  • 1,158 views
Uploaded on

My thesis on the Nutrient Flux and Contaminants in the Isipingo Estuary, South Africa

My thesis on the Nutrient Flux and Contaminants in the Isipingo Estuary, South Africa

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,158
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. By: Nazeer Jamal BSc Honours Environmental Science Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 2. “ Estuaries are happy land , rich in the continent itself, stirred by the forces of nature like the soup of a French chef; home of myriad forms of life from bacteria and protozoans to grasses and mammals; the nursery , resting place , and refuge of countless things.” -Stanley A. Cain. Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • Kalicharran (1990) states that estuaries are widely recognized as being amongst one of the most productive and diverse ecosystems.
    • Beer (1983) defines an estuary as “a semi enclosed body of water having a free connection with the open sea and within which seawater is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage”.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 4. ESTUARY STUDIES
    • Estuarine environment:-
      • Sediments, nutrients & low turbidity.
      • Wetlands, mangroves & lagoons.
    • Estuaries provide :-
      • Habitat – variety of organisms.
      • Nursery – for pelagic and river organisms.
      • Productivity – organic matter for food web.
      • Water filtration – cleaner water.
      • Flood control – barrier zone.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 5. ESTUARY STUDIES
    • Anthropocentric influences on estuaries:
      • Industrial
      • Residential
      • Agricultural
      • Recreational
    • Water quality is the most affected:-
      • Contaminants flow down-river and enter the estuary
    • Nutrients either:
      • Collect in the estuary and get flushed out during a flood.
      • Tidal cycling/chemical flux - continuous exchange.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 6. CASE STUDY: Isipingo Estuary
    • Situated on the east coast of KZN.
    • Approximately 1.4km long and 50m wide at its widest point.
    • Fed by the Isipingo , Umlazi , Umbokidwini Rivers.
    • The diversion of the Umlazi River had various implications on the estuary.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 7. Isipingo River & Mangroves AREA OF STUDY
  • 8. AREA OF STUDY The Pipe
  • 9. Anthropocentric influences Sapref Umlazi Canal Prospecton Industrial Basin Engen Durban Airport Isipingo Estuary Isipingo Beach
  • 10. CASE STUDY: Isipingo Estuary
    • Previous research by George Begg in 1984 showed:-
      • Dark sediments.
      • Low oxygen.
      • Low species diversity.
      • High levels of chloride, ammonia, nitrates, sodium & sulphates.
    • In March 2008,a one-in-50 years flood and storm caused heavy damage to sewage pipelines forcing approximately 30 million liters of sewage to be discharged through the estuary and out to sea.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 11. AIM
    • This research undertaking is aimed at studying and assessing the
    • water quality
    • of the Isipingo Estuary Mouth and also to determine the specific pollutants or contaminants that are
    • exchanged
    • between the estuarine and marine environments.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 12. OBJECTIVES
    • Review impacts of developments.
    • Assess the water quality using predetermined variables ( Nitrates, Ammonia, Chloride and Total Dissolved Solids ).
    • Determine the net flux of these nutrients by:-
      • Measuring the velocity and area of pipe ;
      • Measuring concentrations of the predetermined variables throughout the tidal cycle.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 13. METHODOLOGY
    • Neap and Spring tides
    • In situ collection:-
      • Samples taken at the mouth of the pipe.
      • Depth and width recorded.
      • Velocity recorded using a Flow-Tracker Handheld Acoustic Doppler Veloci-meter , over a 30 second period.
      • Water collected in a sterilized bottle and kept away from sunlight.
      • This was completed every 2 hours throughout the tidal cycle.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 14.  
  • 15. METHODOLOGY
    • Laboratory testing:-
      • Water quality was tested using a YSI 6920 V2 - Compact Multi-Parameter Sonde with a YSI 650 – Multi-Parameter Display System , over a 30 second period.
    • Data transferred into Eco Watch and later into Microsoft Excel for analysis and for the calculation of the net flux.
    • Total of 650 water samples.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 16. YSI 650 – Multi-Parameter Display System YSI 6920 V2 - Compact Multi-Parameter Sonde Flow-Tracker Handheld Acoustic Doppler Veloci-meter Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 17. RESULTS : Observation
    • 44 dead fish on Spring tide.
    • 63 dead fish on Neap tide.
    • Floating raw sewage .
    • Overpowering chemical smell around 14h00 on both days.
    • Neap & Spring tide:-
      • Higher concentrations during high tide.
      • Higher concentrations during Spring tide
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 18. Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 19. RESULTS: Water Quality Ranges Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Site specific <1000 <10 <100 1996 acceptable levels 24 % 38375 % 2443 % - Percentage Change (1964-2008) 170 - 560 8300 – 23200 12 – 19 486 – 813 2008 320 – 480 Chloride (mg/l) 240 – 350 Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l) 0.32 – 0.90 Nitrates (mg/l) - Ammonia (mg/l) 1964 Year Nutrient Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 20. RESULTS
    • Net flux:-
      • Ammonia: - 133925 mg/s
      • Nitrates: - 3220 mg/s
      • Chloride : -2165450 mg/s
      • Total Dissolved Solids: - 4222 mg/s
    • Net flux values show a net negative discharge:-
      • Estuary has good flushing capabilities .
      • Nutrients move out during neap and low tides, and re-enter during spring and high tides.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 21. CONCLUSION
    • Importance of Estuaries
      • High species diversity
      • Ecological value
      • Tourism potential
    • Management Strategies
      • Implementation of the laws governing water resources.
      • Constant monitoring by the municipality.
      • Polluter-pays principle.
    Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth Used or Abused? The Study of the Water Quality and Chemical Flux at the Isipingo Estuary Mouth
  • 22. Pipe Outlet
  • 23. LAGOON
  • 24. [email_address] www.myspace.com/waahidsa +27 72 562 0648 By: Nazeer Jamal Honours Research Project - 08 UKZN Supervisor: Dr S. Pillay
  • 25. [email_address] www.myspace.com/waahidsa +27 72 562 0648 PACT STALL