OCCURANCE AND CLASSIFICATION OF ALKALOIDS
OCCURENCE OF ALKALOIDS. <ul><li>Naturally occurring chemical compounds containing basic nitrogen atoms </li></ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>Common amino acid precursors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenylalanine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyrosine </li></ul></...
Important general reactions involved: <ul><ul><li>Decarboxylation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of removing a...
CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>THERE ARE  FOUR TYPES OF BASIC ALKALOIDS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOALKALOIDS </li></ul><ul><li>TRUE AL...
PROTO ALKALOIDS  <ul><li>It is derived from PHENYLALANINE or TYROSINE </li></ul><ul><li>The Methyl group originate from ME...
 
TRUE ALKALOIDS <ul><li>It is derived from the aminoacid and have nitrogen in the heterocyclic ring.e.g; ATROPINE </li></ul>
 
Derivatives of True Alkaloids <ul><li>Pyrrolidine derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrrolizidine derivative </li></ul><ul><li...
Pseudo Alkaloids <ul><li>These are not derived from amino acids but have nitrogen in heterocyclic ring.e.g;Caffeine </li><...
CLASSIFICATION. <ul><li>Classification based on the ring structure or nucleus of the chief alkaloid group in the plant dru...
<ul><li>contain the isoquinoline ring structure </li></ul>Sources: Alkaloid(s) Ipecac  emetine hydrastis berberine, hydras...
 
<ul><li>BIOSYNTHESIS OF OPIUM ALKALOIDS: </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrosine ------- L Dopa ------ Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>+ </l...
 
<ul><li>IPECAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rhizomes and roots of  Cephaelis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ipecacuanha </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>Biosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptamine    ajmaline   </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>contain imidazole (glyoxaline) rings </li></ul><ul><li>PILOCARPINE </li></ul><ul><li>PILOCARPUS </li></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>THANKS…… </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Occurance and classification of alkaloids

17,059 views
16,274 views

Published on

this presentation brifly explains the occurance and classification of alkaloids.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
1 Comment
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
17,059
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
494
Comments
1
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Occurance and classification of alkaloids

  1. 1. OCCURANCE AND CLASSIFICATION OF ALKALOIDS
  2. 2. OCCURENCE OF ALKALOIDS. <ul><li>Naturally occurring chemical compounds containing basic nitrogen atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Physiologically active </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble or sparingly soluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>Crystalline solids; a few are amorphous </li></ul><ul><li>Usually classified according to the nature of the basic chemical structures from which they are derived </li></ul><ul><li>Form double-salts with compounds of Hg, Au, Pt, and other heavy metals . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Common amino acid precursors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenylalanine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyrosine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tryptophan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histidine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthranilic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ornithine </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Important general reactions involved: <ul><ul><li>Decarboxylation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of removing a carboxyl group from a chemical compound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of transposing an amino group within a chemical compound </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF BASIC ALKALOIDS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOALKALOIDS </li></ul><ul><li>TRUE ALKALOIDS </li></ul><ul><li>PSEUDOALAKLOIDS </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE ALKALOIDS </li></ul>
  6. 6. PROTO ALKALOIDS <ul><li>It is derived from PHENYLALANINE or TYROSINE </li></ul><ul><li>The Methyl group originate from METHEIONINE </li></ul><ul><li>The Methylating enzyme TYRAMINE METHYLEPHERASE appear in the root of germinating barley. </li></ul>
  7. 8. TRUE ALKALOIDS <ul><li>It is derived from the aminoacid and have nitrogen in the heterocyclic ring.e.g; ATROPINE </li></ul>
  8. 10. Derivatives of True Alkaloids <ul><li>Pyrrolidine derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrrolizidine derivative </li></ul><ul><li>Pyridine derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Piperidine derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Quinolizidine derivative </li></ul><ul><li>Isoquinoline derivative </li></ul><ul><li>Indole derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Quinoune derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Imidazole derivatives </li></ul>
  9. 11. Pseudo Alkaloids <ul><li>These are not derived from amino acids but have nitrogen in heterocyclic ring.e.g;Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative </li></ul><ul><li>Terpenoid derivative </li></ul>
  10. 12. CLASSIFICATION. <ul><li>Classification based on the ring structure or nucleus of the chief alkaloid group in the plant drug: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyridine-Piperidine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quinoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isoquinoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imidazole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaloidal amines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purine </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>contain the isoquinoline ring structure </li></ul>Sources: Alkaloid(s) Ipecac emetine hydrastis berberine, hydrastine sanguinaria sanguinarine curare tubocurarine opium morphine, codeine, thebaine
  12. 15. <ul><li>BIOSYNTHESIS OF OPIUM ALKALOIDS: </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrosine ------- L Dopa ------ Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>3,4 – dipydroxyphenylpyruvic acid </li></ul><ul><li>PAPAVERINE ----------------- norlaudanosoline </li></ul><ul><li>( ket intermediate) </li></ul><ul><li>Reticuline </li></ul><ul><li>Saluteridine </li></ul><ul><li>Saluteredinol </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>THEBALNE </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Codeinone </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CODEINE </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>MORPHINE </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>IPECAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rhizomes and roots of Cephaelis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ipecacuanha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains 5 alkaloids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 principal alkaloids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.emetine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. elphaeline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.psychotrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ipecac syrup </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>treatment of drug overdose and some poisonings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>procedure emesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>central medullary effect by stimulation of chemoreceptor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ipecac fluidextract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14x stronger than the syrup </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Biosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptamine  ajmaline  </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Corynanthe-type </li></ul><ul><li>(monoterpenoid precursor) </li></ul><ul><li>Serpentine reserpine </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>contain imidazole (glyoxaline) rings </li></ul><ul><li>PILOCARPINE </li></ul><ul><li>PILOCARPUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA jaborandi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of leaflets of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilocarpus jaborandi Holmes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilocarpus pinatifolius Lamaire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous to Brazil </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>THANKS…… </li></ul>

×