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  1. 2. Elizabeth I
  2. 3. Contents: <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Early life </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth I: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabethan government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabeth I: “ To Be a King ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Elizabeth I (1533-1603), queen of England and Ireland (1558-1603). Elizabeth was the longest-reigning English monarch in nearly two centuries and the first woman to successfully occupy the English throne. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace in London on September 7, 1533. </li></ul><ul><li>Her parents, Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, wanted a son as heir and were not pleased with the birth of a daughter. </li></ul><ul><li>When she was two her mother was beheaded for adultery, and Elizabeth was exiled from court. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn
  6. 7. <ul><li>She was later placed under the protection of Catherine Parr , Henry’s sixth wife, and educated in the same household as her half-brother, Edward . </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth underwent rigorous training in Greek, Latin, rhetoric, and philosophy and was an intellectually gifted pupil. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>When her half-sister, Mary I, inherited the crown in 1553, Elizabeth faced different dangers. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1554 Mary had Elizabeth imprisoned in the Tower of London. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth lived quietly at her family’s country retreat north of London until she became queen upon her sister’s death in 1558. </li></ul>Mary I
  8. 9. <ul><li>Coronation of Elizabeth </li></ul>
  9. 10. Elizabethan government <ul><li>The difficulties Elizabeth experienced governing the English state were enhanced by prejudices against women rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>She made extensive use of the Privy Council and summoned ten parliaments. </li></ul><ul><li>The House of Lords and the House of Commons both grew in size. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>At the center of her government, Elizabeth was fortunate in having a succession of capable ministers: Sir Nicholas Bacon, Sir Francis Walsingham, and Robert Dudley, who was her personal favorite. </li></ul><ul><li>She favored Dudley so extensively their relationship became the subject of rumors. </li></ul>Robert Dudley
  11. 12. Elizabeth I: “To Be a King” <ul><li>The 45-year reign of Elizabeth I as queen of England and Ireland was so influential it became known as the Elizabethan Age . </li></ul><ul><li>During her rule, Elizabeth helped shaped the future of England, creating a stable monarchy, developing legal institutions, encouraging commerce, establishing the Protestant religion as England’s faith, and defending the nation against Spanish forces. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Queen Elizabeth
  13. 14. Foreign policy: The Spanish Armada. <ul><li>In an attempt to invade England in 1588, King Philip II of Spain amassed a huge armada of 130 ships carrying almost 30,000 men. They were met by an even larger fleet deployed by Queen Elizabeth I to defend England. The English fleet defeated the Spanish armada off the coast of Calais, France. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The defeat of the Spanish Armada was the high point of the queen’s reign and united the nation.” </li></ul>
  14. 15. Defeat of the Spanish Armada
  15. 16. Assessment <ul><li>When Elizabeth died, one of the great epochs of English history ended. Her 45-year rule shaped the future of England as a stable monarchy governed through the cooperation of crown and local elites. </li></ul><ul><li>The roles played by Parliament and the justices of the peace, two of the most characteristic of all English institutions, solidified during her reign and were indispensable thereafter. </li></ul><ul><li>The defeat of the Spanish Armada was a cause for national celebration, and “Glorious ’88” was spoken of generations later when Elizabeth’s birthday was still celebrated as a national holiday. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Thank you for attention! </li></ul>