CH E M I CA L F OR CONSUM E R S
What is soap?A SOAP is the sodium orPotassium salt formed when aFatty acid that contains 12 to 18  carbon atoms per molecu...
W h a t is g e n e r a l f o r m u lafo r s o a p ?  The general formula of  soap is RCOO – Na + or R  COO K where R is an...
iii)State two examples of soap• Sodium palmitate• Potassium stearate
What is saponification?SAPONIFICATION is aprocess involves boiling fatsor oils with concentratedsodium hydroxidesolution o...
Explain the preparation of soap asshown in the diagram
• Oil or fat is boiled with  concentrated sodium  hydroxide to produce  glycerol and soap
What is detergent? DETERGENT is the salt formed when an alkyl hydrogen sulphate is neutralized by an alkali
The general formula ofdetergents arewhere R represent aLong-chain hydrocarbon
State two examples of detergent • Sodium alkyl sulphate • Sodium alkyl benzene   sulphonate
How is detergent prepared?
• A long chain hydrocarbon  obtained from petroleum  fractions is converted into  organic acid.• The organic acid is neutr...
QUESTION 3Describe the cleansing action ofsoap or detergent.a) State 3 abilities of both soapand detergent that enable the...
i. A b ilit y t o    lo w e r t h e s u r f a c e t e n s io n o fiw aTto re m u l s i f y o i l o r  i.    eg re a s e , ...
STRUCTURE OF SOAP PARTICLE•the organic part   •the ionic part•the hydrophobic    •the hydrophilic part               part ...
• Which part is soluble in water?  Defend your answer              B part             because         it is ionic part
• Which part is soluble in grease?  Defend your answer           A part     because it is covalent             part
•Redraw the structure above so that     it may look like a tadpole
STRUCTURE OF DETERGENT PARTICLE
STRUCTURE OF DETERGENT PARTICLE•the organic part   •the ionic part•the hydrophobic    •the hydrophilic part               ...
• Which part is soluble in water?  Defend your answer            B part     because it is ionic part
• Which part is soluble in grease?  Defend your answer           A part     because it is covalent             part
•Redraw the structure above so that     it may look like a tadpole
HOW SOAP /DETERGENT REMOVES DIRT
Describe the cleansing action of soap            and detergent Soap dissolves in water and lowers…S u rfa c et……………………  e ...
–The hydrophobic part ( tail part) dissolves   G re a s e (in……………………,   d ir t ) the hydrophilic part ( head part) dissol...
•     M o ve me nt o f  c)…………………………………     w a te r   during scrubbing helps   to loosen the grease   and lift off the su...
d)The droplets do not    coagulate and redeposit    on the surface of the    cloth because      r e p u ls io    ………………………...
R in s in g• …………………………….washes away thesedroplets and leavesthe surface clean
d)Compare and contrast the cleansing    action of soap and detergents  Propert    Soap   Detergent     y1 sources Made fro...
P rop     S oap     D e te rg  e rty                 e nt2 M o le R – C O O R S O 4 –  c u la   –                 Na +    ...
P rope      S oap       D e te r3 Effective    rty        Forms       g e nt                          Does not   ness in  ...
P rope       S oap        D e te rg4 Effectiv    rty        Forms        Does tnot                              en   eness...
P rope rt S oa p     D e te rg5 C ley n in L e s s      a                   e nt                        MOR      g      p ...
P rope r      S oap    D e te rg e nt6      ty     Effect Biodegrad        Some     to the able and         detergents    ...
What does hard water contains?• Hard water contains  calcium ion, Ca or                 2+  magnesium ion, Mg  2+.
Why do soaps form scum with         hard water?• Soap reacts with calcium  ion, Ca or magnesium ion,          2+  Mg2+ in ...
Why is soap not effective in hard            water?• Because formation of scum  reduce the amount of soap  for cleaning an...
Why is detergent more effective than        soap in hard water?• Detergent form soluble salt with  calcium ion, Ca2+ or  m...
Below are some additives in detergents.         Fill in missing words   Additives             Functions 1 Drying agents   ...
Additives    Function                 s2   Builders ( such                    softe    as Sodium       ……………              ...
Additives    Functions3 Biological   to digest  enzymes( s   P R O T E IN ,  uch as       FAT OR  amylase,     C A R B O H...
Additives Functions4   Such as     Convert    sodium    perborate   stains into                colourles                ……...
Additives Functions5 Perfumes Make clothes           smell           fres           ……………. And           h           clean
Additives     Functions6.            PreventStabilizers   formation of( such assilicones)     foam              ………………
FOOD……..
FOOD ADDITIVES
TYPES OFFOOD ADDITIVES     AND  FUNCTIONS
FUNCTION          TYPE1) IMPROVEDCOLOUR OF FOOD     DYESTO MAKE IT MOREATTRACTIVE2) SLOW DOWN       PRESERSPOILING OF FOOD...
FUNCTION        TYPE3) ENHANCE THENATURAL FLAVOUR FLAVOURINGOF FOOD          AGENTS4) PREVENTOXIDATION OF FATS ANTIAND OIL...
FUNCTION         TYPE5) IMPROVEAPPEARANCE OFFOOD AND GIVE   STABILIZERSFOOD A FIRM     ANDTEXTURE         THICKENING
TYPES OFFOOD ADDITIVES AND EXAMPLES
EXAMPLES    TYPE1) AZO      DYESCOMPOUNDS2) SODIUM             PRESERNITRITE,     VATIVESODIUM       SBENZOATE
EXAMPLES           TYPE3) MONO SODIUM     FLAVOURINGGLUTAMATE          AGENTS(MSG)4) ASCORBIC ACID   ANTI(VITAMIN C)      ...
TRADITIONAL MEDICINES
MODERN MEDICINESa) What is modern medicine?Medicines that are made byscientists in the laboratory
1. ANALGESICSFUNCTIONS:Relieves pain without affectingconsciousness
1. ANALGESICSEXAMPLES:ASPIRIN – for inflammation suchas arthritic pain and dental pain.The active ingredient isAcetylsalic...
1. ANALGESICS           The structure is:    COOH                 O             CH3                       C               ...
1. ANALGESICS - EXAMPLESCODEINE – used in headachetablets and cough medicinesPARACETAMOL – relievesmoderate pain
2. ANTIBIOTICSFUNCTIONS:Kill or inhibit growth of infectiousbacteria
2. ANTIBIOTICSEXAMPLES:PENICILIN – to kill bacteria thatcause tuberculosis (TB) andpneumoniaSTREPTOMYCIN – used to treatwh...
3. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTICMEDICINESFUNCTIONS:Control symptoms of mentalillnessEXAMPLES:STIMULANTS – to reduce fatigueand elevate...
3. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTICMEDICINESANTIDEPRESSANT – to reducetension and anxiety e.g.Tranquilisers and barbituratesANTIPSYCHOTIC...
WHY SHOULD YOU TAKE FULL COURSE OF ANTIBIOTICS?•To ensure all the bacteria are killed•the bacteria may become moreresistan...
SIDE EFFECTS OF   MEDICINES
TYPES OF MEDICI SIDE EFFECTSMEDICINE NESAnalgesics Aspirin Cause internal                   bleeding                   Cau...
TYPES OF MEDICI SIDE EFFECTSMEDICINES NES            Codein May cause            e      addiction over a                  ...
TYPES OF MEDICI SIDE EFFECTSMEDICINE NESSPsychoth        High dose mayera-            cause depression,peutic          com...
END
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives  consumer 2011-edited-2
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Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives consumer 2011-edited-2

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basic chemistry knowledge on soap, dtergent, food additives, medicines

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Soap and detergent, medicine , food additives consumer 2011-edited-2

  1. 1. CH E M I CA L F OR CONSUM E R S
  2. 2. What is soap?A SOAP is the sodium orPotassium salt formed when aFatty acid that contains 12 to 18 carbon atoms per molecule is neutralized by an alkali
  3. 3. W h a t is g e n e r a l f o r m u lafo r s o a p ? The general formula of soap is RCOO – Na + or R COO K where R is an – + alkyl group containing 12 to 18 carbon atoms. R can be saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons
  4. 4. iii)State two examples of soap• Sodium palmitate• Potassium stearate
  5. 5. What is saponification?SAPONIFICATION is aprocess involves boiling fatsor oils with concentratedsodium hydroxidesolution or concentratedpotassium hydroxide solution
  6. 6. Explain the preparation of soap asshown in the diagram
  7. 7. • Oil or fat is boiled with concentrated sodium hydroxide to produce glycerol and soap
  8. 8. What is detergent? DETERGENT is the salt formed when an alkyl hydrogen sulphate is neutralized by an alkali
  9. 9. The general formula ofdetergents arewhere R represent aLong-chain hydrocarbon
  10. 10. State two examples of detergent • Sodium alkyl sulphate • Sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate
  11. 11. How is detergent prepared?
  12. 12. • A long chain hydrocarbon obtained from petroleum fractions is converted into organic acid.• The organic acid is neutralise with NaOH to form detergent.
  13. 13. QUESTION 3Describe the cleansing action ofsoap or detergent.a) State 3 abilities of both soapand detergent that enable themto act as cleansing agents
  14. 14. i. A b ilit y t o lo w e r t h e s u r f a c e t e n s io n o fiw aTto re m u l s i f y o i l o r i. eg re a s e , a nd bre a kt h e m in t o s m a lle rd ir. oTp l ehto l d t h e m i nii o ss u s p e n s io n in w a t e r ,s o tha t the y d o no tr e d e p o s it o n t h e
  15. 15. STRUCTURE OF SOAP PARTICLE•the organic part •the ionic part•the hydrophobic •the hydrophilic part part •the tail part • the head part
  16. 16. • Which part is soluble in water? Defend your answer B part because it is ionic part
  17. 17. • Which part is soluble in grease? Defend your answer A part because it is covalent part
  18. 18. •Redraw the structure above so that it may look like a tadpole
  19. 19. STRUCTURE OF DETERGENT PARTICLE
  20. 20. STRUCTURE OF DETERGENT PARTICLE•the organic part •the ionic part•the hydrophobic •the hydrophilic part part •the tail part • the head part
  21. 21. • Which part is soluble in water? Defend your answer B part because it is ionic part
  22. 22. • Which part is soluble in grease? Defend your answer A part because it is covalent part
  23. 23. •Redraw the structure above so that it may look like a tadpole
  24. 24. HOW SOAP /DETERGENT REMOVES DIRT
  25. 25. Describe the cleansing action of soap and detergent Soap dissolves in water and lowers…S u rfa c et…………………… e n s io n w e t of water. This helps to ………………the cloth better
  26. 26. –The hydrophobic part ( tail part) dissolves G re a s e (in……………………, d ir t ) the hydrophilic part ( head part) dissolves in water
  27. 27. • M o ve me nt o f c)………………………………… w a te r during scrubbing helps to loosen the grease and lift off the surface . , and also break the grease into S m a ll …………………………..• d r o p le t
  28. 28. d)The droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of the cloth because r e p u ls io ………………………. between n the negative charges on the surface.• These droplets are suspended in water, forming e m u ls io ……………………………….or n smaller droplets.
  29. 29. R in s in g• …………………………….washes away thesedroplets and leavesthe surface clean
  30. 30. d)Compare and contrast the cleansing action of soap and detergents Propert Soap Detergent y1 sources Made from Made a n im ……………… from al petroleum plant or fractions
  31. 31. P rop S oap D e te rg e rty e nt2 M o le R – C O O R S O 4 – c u la – Na + or r Whe re R s t r u A l k iy l s c tur g ro up e ……………
  32. 32. P rope S oap D e te r3 Effective rty Forms g e nt Does not ness in form S C UM scum hard ………………… with hard water with hard water water
  33. 33. P rope S oap D e te rg4 Effectiv rty Forms Does tnot en eness IN S O L U form in B LE precipit ……………. F A TTY acidic with D ate with A C I acidic water acidic water water
  34. 34. P rope rt S oa p D e te rg5 C ley n in L e s s a e nt MOR g p o w e r …………… E power fu l pow e rf ul
  35. 35. P rope r S oap D e te rg e nt6 ty Effect Biodegrad Some to the able and detergents environ do not are non ment cause any biodegrada ble and P O L L U T I kill O…………… N aquatic lives
  36. 36. What does hard water contains?• Hard water contains calcium ion, Ca or 2+ magnesium ion, Mg 2+.
  37. 37. Why do soaps form scum with hard water?• Soap reacts with calcium ion, Ca or magnesium ion, 2+ Mg2+ in hard water to form insoluble salt, called scum
  38. 38. Why is soap not effective in hard water?• Because formation of scum reduce the amount of soap for cleaning and thus wastage of soap occur.
  39. 39. Why is detergent more effective than soap in hard water?• Detergent form soluble salt with calcium ion, Ca2+ or magnesium ion, Mg2+ in hard water.• Therefore the cleaning power is not affected by hard water.
  40. 40. Below are some additives in detergents. Fill in missing words Additives Functions 1 Drying agents to keep the ( such as powder…… sodium DRY …………. sulphate, sodium silicate)
  41. 41. Additives Function s2 Builders ( such softe as Sodium …………… n triphosphate) water.
  42. 42. Additives Functions3 Biological to digest enzymes( s P R O T E IN , uch as FAT OR amylase, C A R B O H YD lipase) R A TE in dirt or to modify fabric feel
  43. 43. Additives Functions4 Such as Convert sodium perborate stains into colourles ………………… s substances
  44. 44. Additives Functions5 Perfumes Make clothes smell fres ……………. And h clean
  45. 45. Additives Functions6. PreventStabilizers formation of( such assilicones) foam ………………
  46. 46. FOOD……..
  47. 47. FOOD ADDITIVES
  48. 48. TYPES OFFOOD ADDITIVES AND FUNCTIONS
  49. 49. FUNCTION TYPE1) IMPROVEDCOLOUR OF FOOD DYESTO MAKE IT MOREATTRACTIVE2) SLOW DOWN PRESERSPOILING OF FOODCAUSED BY GROWTH VATIVESFUNGI ORMICROORGANISMS
  50. 50. FUNCTION TYPE3) ENHANCE THENATURAL FLAVOUR FLAVOURINGOF FOOD AGENTS4) PREVENTOXIDATION OF FATS ANTIAND OILS SO THAT OXIDANTSFOOD DO NOTBECOME RANCID
  51. 51. FUNCTION TYPE5) IMPROVEAPPEARANCE OFFOOD AND GIVE STABILIZERSFOOD A FIRM ANDTEXTURE THICKENING
  52. 52. TYPES OFFOOD ADDITIVES AND EXAMPLES
  53. 53. EXAMPLES TYPE1) AZO DYESCOMPOUNDS2) SODIUM PRESERNITRITE, VATIVESODIUM SBENZOATE
  54. 54. EXAMPLES TYPE3) MONO SODIUM FLAVOURINGGLUTAMATE AGENTS(MSG)4) ASCORBIC ACID ANTI(VITAMIN C) OXIDANTS5) ACACIA GUM STABILIZERS & THICKENING AGENTS
  55. 55. TRADITIONAL MEDICINES
  56. 56. MODERN MEDICINESa) What is modern medicine?Medicines that are made byscientists in the laboratory
  57. 57. 1. ANALGESICSFUNCTIONS:Relieves pain without affectingconsciousness
  58. 58. 1. ANALGESICSEXAMPLES:ASPIRIN – for inflammation suchas arthritic pain and dental pain.The active ingredient isAcetylsalicylic acid.
  59. 59. 1. ANALGESICS The structure is: COOH O CH3 C O
  60. 60. 1. ANALGESICS - EXAMPLESCODEINE – used in headachetablets and cough medicinesPARACETAMOL – relievesmoderate pain
  61. 61. 2. ANTIBIOTICSFUNCTIONS:Kill or inhibit growth of infectiousbacteria
  62. 62. 2. ANTIBIOTICSEXAMPLES:PENICILIN – to kill bacteria thatcause tuberculosis (TB) andpneumoniaSTREPTOMYCIN – used to treatwhooping cough and pneumonia
  63. 63. 3. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTICMEDICINESFUNCTIONS:Control symptoms of mentalillnessEXAMPLES:STIMULANTS – to reduce fatigueand elevate mood e.g.Amphetamine
  64. 64. 3. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTICMEDICINESANTIDEPRESSANT – to reducetension and anxiety e.g.Tranquilisers and barbituratesANTIPSYCHOTIC – to treatpsychiatric illness such asschizophrenia e.g. clozapine
  65. 65. WHY SHOULD YOU TAKE FULL COURSE OF ANTIBIOTICS?•To ensure all the bacteria are killed•the bacteria may become moreresistant to the antibiotic.•When this happens, the antibiotic isno longer effective.•a different and stronger antibiotic tofight the same infection is needed
  66. 66. SIDE EFFECTS OF MEDICINES
  67. 67. TYPES OF MEDICI SIDE EFFECTSMEDICINE NESAnalgesics Aspirin Cause internal bleeding Cause brain and liver damage if given to children Paracet Cause liver damage amol if taken for a long time
  68. 68. TYPES OF MEDICI SIDE EFFECTSMEDICINES NES Codein May cause e addiction over a long period of timeAntibiotics Headache, allergic reaction and diarrhea
  69. 69. TYPES OF MEDICI SIDE EFFECTSMEDICINE NESSPsychoth High dose mayera- cause depression,peutic coma, death ,rapidmedicine heartbeat and dizziness
  70. 70. END

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