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revision on chapter periodic table, chemical bonding and electrolysis with answers

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basic concept in chemistry on several chapters

basic concept in chemistry on several chapters

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  • 1. PERIODIC TABLE a. i.Label group 1 17 Transition metal 13 14 15 16 18 2
  • 2. ii.Label period 1 to 5 Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 1 2 Transition metal 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 3. iii.Place proton number of elements 1 to 20 in the periodic table above 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
  • 4. iv.Place all the elements given in the periodic table above with their symbols Transition metal H He F Ne Na Cu Cl Br Ar K Mn Li
  • 5. b)Why are all noble gases chemically not reactive?
    • Because they have stable electron arrangement with octet or duplet structure.
    • So they do not release, Gain or share electron
  • 6. c.State 3 physical properties of element sodium
    • 1.Soft metals (easily cut with a razor blade)
    • 2.Low melting and boiling point compare to other metals
    • 3.Low density
    • 4.Good conductor of heat and electricity
  • 7. Sodium undergoes the following reactions. Write chemical equation: i) With oxygen: ii) With water: iii) With chlorine: 4Na + O 2  2Na 2 O 2Na + 2H 2 O  2NaOH + H 2 2Na + Cl 2  2NaCl
  • 8. The reaction of Potassium with water is more vigorous than the reaction of sodium with water. Explain
    • Because potassium atom is bigger than sodium atom ,
    • So the distance between nucleus and valence electron in potassium atom is further than sodium atom
    • nuclei attraction in potassium is weaker, therefore easier to release electron
    • Potassium is more reactive than sodium
  • 9. State 3 physical properties of element Chlorine:
    • Yellow gas at room temperature
    • Turn moist blue litmus paper to red and decolourised
    • Very soluble in water
  • 10. g. Chlorine undergoes reaction with heated iron wool. Write chemical equation
    • 2Fe + 3Cl 2  2FeCl 3
    • or
    • Fe + Cl 2  FeCl 2
  • 11. The reaction of chlorine with heated iron is more vigorous than the reaction of bromine with heated iron . Explain
    • Chlorine atom is smaller than bromine atom
    • The distance between nucleus and valence electron in Chlorine atom is shorter than bromine atom
    • Causing the nuclei attraction to be stronger in chlorine atom
    • Thus, chlorine atom is easier to attract electron causing it to be more reactive
  • 12. State 3 special properties of transition elements compared to other elements
    • Form coloured ion and compound
    • Have many oxidation number
    • Act as catalyst
    • Form complex ion
  • 13. When going across a period from left to right, the atoms get smaller in size. Explain
    • as the proton number increase, the positively charged also increase
    • Thus, the nuclei attraction also increase
    • The electron are pulled closer to the nucleus causing the size to be smaller
  • 14. “ Sesiapa yang hendak mengetahui kedudukannya di sisi Allah maka lihatlah kedudukan Allah di dalam hatinya. Sesungguhnya Allah SWT meletakkan kedudukan hambanya di sisiNya sebagaimana hamba meletakkanNya di dalam dirinya.”
    • THE END TOPIC 4
  • 15.  
  • 16. CHEMICAL BONDS REVISION
  • 17.
    • Sodium and oxygen
    • ( given proton no. Na, 11: O, 8)
    Step 1) determine whether ionic or covalent? Step 3) Arrange the atoms Step 4) Draw electron arrangement Step 2) write formula- so you know how many atoms involve ionic Na 2 O Na O Na See next slide
  • 18. Draw electron arrangement for compounds formed between a) Sodium and oxygen ( given proton no. Na, 11: O, 8)
  • 19.
    • water
    • ( given proton no. H, 1: O, 8)
    Step 1) determine whether ionic or covalent? Step 3) Arrange the atoms Step 4) Draw electron arrangement Step 2) write formula- so you know how many atoms involve covalent H 2 O H O H See next slide
  • 20. b) For water molecule
  • 21.
    • Carbon and chlorine
    • ( given proton no. C, 6: Cl, 17)
    Step 1) determine whether ionic or covalent? Step 3) Arrange the atoms Step 4) Draw electron arrangement Step 2) write formula- so you know how many atoms involve covalent CCl 4 See next slide
  • 22. c) Carbon and chlorine
  • 23. State 3 physical properties of sodium oxide
    • Solid at room temperature
    • Soluble in water
    • Insoluble in organic solvent
    • Conduct electricity in molten and aqueous state
    • High melting point and boiling point
  • 24. State 3 physical properties of water
    • Does not conduct electricity in in any state
    • Low melting point and boiling point
    • Colourless liquid at room temperature
  • 25.  
  • 26. 1. MOLTEN LEAD(II)IODIDE WITH CARBON ELECTRODE
  • 27. 1)Electrolysis of molten PbI 2 using carbon as electrode
    • a)Ions present :
    Pb 2+ , I - I - Pb 2+ I - Pb 2+ Anode(+) Cathode(-) b)Ion attracted c) Ion discharged
  • 28. d) Half equation : ANODE : CATHODE :
    • e) Product :
    • ANODE :
    • CATHODE :
    2I - I 2 +2e Pb 2+ +2e Pb Iodine gas Lead metal
  • 29. ANODE CATHODE OBSER A PURPLE GAS EVOLVED GREY AND SHINY SOLID DEPOSITED
  • 30. 2. HYDROCHLORIC ACID 0.0001 moldm -3 WITH CARBON ELECTRODE ALL IONS PRESENT H + , Cl - & OH -
  • 31. 2)Electrolysis of HCl, 0.0001 moldm -3 using carbon as electrode
    • a)Ion present :
    H + , Cl - , OH - Cl - , OH - H + OH - H + Anode Cathode b)Ion attracted c) Ion discharged
  • 32. d) Half equation : ANODE : CATHODE :
    • e) Product :
    • ANODE :
    • CATHODE :
    4OH - O 2 + 2H 2 O +4e 2H + +2e H 2 Oxygen and water Hydrogen gas
  • 33. ANODE CATHODE OBS COLOURLESS GAS THAT REKINDLES GLOWING WOODEN SPLINTER COLOURLESS GAS THAT GIVES ‘POP’ SOUND -TESTED USING BURNING WOODEN SPLINTER
  • 34. 2)Electrolysis of CuSO 4 , 1.0 moldm -3 using carbon as electrode
    • a)Ions present :
    Cu 2+ , SO 4 2- ,H + , OH - SO 4 2- , OH - Cu 2+ , H + OH - Cu 2+ Anode Cathode b)Ion attracted c) Ion discharged
  • 35. d) Half equation : ANODE : CATHODE :
    • e) Product :
    • ANODE :
    • CATHODE :
    4OH - O 2 + 2H 2 O +4e Cu 2+ +2e Cu Oxygen and water Copper metal
  • 36. 2)Electrolysis of CuSO 4 , 1.0 moldm -3 using copper as electrode
    • a)Ions present:
    Cu 2+ , SO 4 2- ,H + , OH - SO 4 2- , OH - Cu 2+ , H + Cu 2+ No ions are discharged Anode Cathode b)Ion attracted c) Ion discharged
  • 37. d) Half equation : ANODE : CATHODE :
    • e) Product :
    • ANODE :
    • CATHODE :
    Cu Cu 2+ +2e Cu 2+ +2e Cu Copper(II) ions Copper metal