Morphology presentation

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Morphology presentation

  1. 1. BY:Ropak&Nazik
  2. 2. Morphology:is the study of forms.Morphology:is The branch of linguistics (and one of themajor components of grammar) that studies wordstructures, especially in terms of morphemes. Adjective:morphological.Morphology:is the study and description of word formation(as inflection, derivation, and compounding) in languageMorphology:is the study of word formation, of thestructure of words.
  3. 3. lessun er
  4. 4. Morpheme :-Morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning orgrammatical function.-It is a meaningful linguistic unit consisting of aword, such as man, or a word element, such as -ed in walked, that cannot be divided into smallermeaningful parts.-It is a smallest morphological unit that cannotbe divided into smaller parts.
  5. 5. *In English, words like talks,talker,talked,talkingmust consist of one element talk and a number ofother elements such as-s,-er,-ed and –ing.Examplesre- open -ed 3morphemes(minimal unit of meaning(again)- minimal unit of meaning-minimal unit of grammatical function(indicate past tense))tour- ist -s(minimal unit of meaning tour-minimal unit ofmeaning(ist),marking "person who does sth."-minimal unitof grammatical function(-s)(indicate plural)).
  6. 6.  Free Morpheme Bound Morpheme
  7. 7. *•Free morphemes are morphemes that can stand by themselves as a single word I.e. are those which can stand alone as words of a language*•Free morphemes are those that can stand alone as words. They may be lexical morphemes ({serve}, {press}), or grammatical(functional) morphemes ({at}, {and}).**in English, free morphemes can be identified as the set of separate word forms such as basic nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.e.g. care, teach, help, above….
  8. 8. * •bound morphemes morpheme
  9. 9. *all prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes. stem.stem
  10. 10. *There are a number of English words in which theelement treated as stem is not a free morpheme.re duce, -peat ceive these types of forms are called"bound stems"
  11. 11. Types of free morphemesLexical morpheme functional morpheme
  12. 12. •(A)Lexical morphemes word textspeech act lexical word.
  13. 13. Q. why are they treated as an "open" class of words?A-They are treated as an "open" class ofwords because we can add new lexicalmorphemes to the language rather easily.i.e. we can create new words which arelexical.
  14. 14. •(B)functionale.g.
  15. 15. -why are they called "closed" class ofwords?A.
  16. 16. Types of bound morphemesDerivational morpheme inflectional morphemes
  17. 17. (A)Derivational morphemese.g. + derivational morpheme ness + derivational morphemesuffixes:-prefixes:
  18. 18. (B)Inflectional morphemes*inflectional morphemes are alsocalled(inflections).
  19. 19. * 1. -s (possessive) with nouns *Janes brother 2. _s (plural) * pens ing (present participle) *teaching s (3rd person singular) with verbs *she likes ed(past tense) *played en(past participle) *forgotten 7. – est (superlative) with adjectives *happiest 8. –er (comparative) *happier
  20. 20. Morphological description-whats the difference between inflectionalmorpheme and derivational morpheme?-inflectional morpheme ,never change thegrammatical category of a word.-Old (adj.) Older (adj.)while derivational morpheme can change thegrammatical category of a word .-teach (v.) teacher (n.)
  21. 21. Morphological description
  22. 22. Diagram of Morphemes Free Bound DerivationalLexical Functional inflectional
  23. 23. Problem in morphological descriptionSo far we have only considered examples of Englishwords in which the different morphemes are easilyidentifiable . thus what is the inflectional morphemewhich makes sheep the plural of sheep , or men theplural of man ?A related question concern the inflection which makeswent the past of go .And yet another question concern the derivation of anadjective like legal . If al is the derivational suffix , as itis in forms like institutional , then what is the stem ?No it is not leg
  24. 24. AllomorphAn allomorph is a linguistics term for a variantform of a morpheme. The concept occurs when aunit of meaning can vary in sound(phonologically) without changing meaning. It isused in linguistics to explain the comprehensionof variations in sound for a specific morpheme.
  25. 25. * Allomorphy in English English language ed schwa
  26. 26. əddt

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