linguistics

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linguistics

  1. 1. ConversionThe process of changing the function of aword, such as a noun to a verb, as way offorming new words, also known as categorychange or functional shift" .ConversionIs the word formation process in which a wordof one grammatical form becomes a word ofanother grammatical form without anychanges to spelling or pronunciation. For example, the noun email appeared inEnglish before the verb:A decade ago I would have sent you an email(noun)I can either send you an email (noun)or simply-- email (verb) you.The original noun email experiencedconversion, thus resulting in the newverb email.Conversion is also referred to as zeroderivation with the assumption that theformal change between words results in theaddition of an invisible morpheme. However,many linguistics argue for a clear distinction
  2. 2. between the word formation processes ofderivation and conversion. Types of ConversionNoun to Verb ConversionThe most productive form of conversion inEnglish is noun to verb conversion. Thefollowing list provides examples of verbsconverted from nouns:Noun – Verb• access – to access• bottle – to bottle• can – to can• closet – to closet• email – to email• eye – to eye• fiddle – to fiddle• fool – to fool• Google – to google• host – to host
  3. 3. • knife – to knife • microwave – to microwave Here we have some examples :• My grandmother bottled (verb) the juice and canned (verb) the pickles.• My grandmother put the juice in a bottle (noun) and the pickles in a can (noun).• She microwaved (verb) her lunch.• She heated her lunch in the microwave (noun).• The doctor eyed (verb)• my swollen eye (noun). Verb to Noun Conversion Another productive form of conversion in English is verb to noun conversion. The following list provides examples of nouns converted from verbs: • Verb – Noun
  4. 4. • to alert – alert • to attack – attack • to call – call • to clone – clone • to command – command • to cover – cover • to cry – cry • to experience – experience • to fear – fear • to feel – feel • to hope – hope For example:• The guard alerted (verb) the general to the attack (noun).• The enemy attacked (verb) before an alert (noun) could be sounded.• Sometimes one just needs a good cry (noun).• The baby cried (verb) all night.• We need to increase (verb) our productivity to see an increase (noun) in profits :Verbs to adjective
  5. 5. to green – greenExample: stand-up > stand-up comedian:Adjective to verbsempty – to emptyExample: an empty room > to empty room Conversion also occurs, although less frequently, to and from other grammatical forms. For example: o Preposition to noun: o up, down → the ups and downs of Life o Preposition to verb:
  6. 6. o Up, down> they are going to up or down the price o Conjunction to noun: o if, and, but → no ifs, ands, or buts o Interjection to noun: o ho ho ho → I love the ho ho hos of Christmastime:By Nazik G. Anwar"3rd year "A

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