၂ဝဝ၈ ဖြဲ႔စည္းပံုအေျခခံဥပေဒ

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Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008)

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၂ဝဝ၈ ဖြဲ႔စည္းပံုအေျခခံဥပေဒ

  1. 1. Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008) jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmf zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya (2008 ckESpf)
  2. 2. Printing      Printed by 
  3. 3.     
  4. 4. CONTENTS                                                                 
  5. 5. rmwdu m pOf taMumif ; t&m pmrsuf E S m - edgef; ... 1 1/ tcef; (1) EdkifiHawmftajccHrlrsm; ... 3 2/ tcef; (2) EdkifiHawmfzGJUpnf;wnfaqmufykH ... 13 3/ tcef; (3) EdkifiHawmftBuD;tuJ ... 19 4/ tcef; (4) OyajyKa&; ... 27 5/ tcef; (5) tkycsKyfa&; f ... 75 6/ tcef; (6) w&m;pD&ifa&; ... 125 7/ tcef; (7) wyfrawmf ... 148 8/ tcef; (8) EkdifiHom;? EkdifiHom;rsm; rlvtcGihta&;ESifhwm0efrsm; f ... 149 9/ tcef; (9) a&G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif; ... 15710/ tcef; (10) EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; ... 16311/ tcef; (11) ta&;ay:umvqdif&mjy|mef;csufrsm; k ... 16512/ tcef; (12) zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOyajyifqifjcif; ... 17313/ tcef; (13) EdkifiHawmftvH? txdr;f trSwfwHqdyf oDcsif;ESifhNrdKUawmf ... 17514/ tcef; (14) ul;ajymif;a&;umvjy|mef;csufrsm; ... 17715/ tcef; (15) taxGaxGjy|mef;csufrsm; ... 179
  6. 6.       
  7. 7. edgef; jrefrmEdkifiHawmfonf ordkif;tpOftvmBuD;rm;aom EdkifiHawmfjzpfayonf/uREkfy fwdk Y wd kif ;&if;om;jynf oltaygif;wd kYonf pnf;vHk ;nDñG wfpG m wpfo m;wnf;aexdkifvmcJhMuNyD; tcsKyftjcmtmPmydk if vGwfvyfaomEdkifiHtjzpf xlaxmifumxnf0gpGm &yfwnfcJhMuayonf/ ud kvd keD e,f csJUwdk YusL;ausmfr IaMumifh 1885 ck ES pf wGi f Edk if iHawmf tmPmvHk;0vufvGwq;Hk ½HI;cJh&ayonf/ wdkif;&if;om;jynfoltaygif;wdkYonf pnf;vHk;nDñGwfrI fpGrf;tm;jzifh e,fcsJUqefusia&;ESifh trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJrsm;udk toufaygif; Y frsm;pG mpaw;í qif ET Jc Jh MuaomaMumif h 1948 ckE Sp f Zefe 0g&Dv 4 &ufaeYw Gi ftcsKyftjcmtmPmydkif vGwfvyfaomEdkifiHawmftjzpf jyefvnf&yfwnfEdkifcJhayonf/ vGwfvyfa&;tjref&&S&eftwGuf zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfytajccHOyaudk tvsiftjref d Hka&;qGJum 1947 ck ESpf pufwif bmv 24 &ufaeY wGif wd kif;jynf jyKvTwfawmfutwnfjyKjy|mef ;cJ hNyD; vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdaomtcg EdkifiHawmfwGif tqdky g zGJUpnf;yH ktajccHOyajzifh ygvDrefDrdkua&pDpepfuk d azmfaqmifusifhoHk;cJhMuayonf/ odkY&mwGifEd ki fi Hawmf ü D rd kua&pD pepf udk yDj yifp Gm usif ho Hk ;Ed ki fr Ir &S dojzifh 1974 ckE Sp fw Gi fwpfygwDyHkpHudktajccHvsuf zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOyawpf&yfudk a&;qGJNyD; jy nfvHk;uRwfqE´c H, ly GJ usif; yí twnfj yKjy|mef;um qd k& S, fvpf D rd kua&pD Ed ki fi Hawmf tjzpfBudK ;yrf;wnfaxmifcJh jyef ayonf/ 1988 ckE Spf wGif Edk ifi Hawmf ü jzpfay:vmonf htajctaet&yf&yfaMumifh tqdkygzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOyarSmvnf; &yfqif;oGm;cJh&onf/ dk xYdkaemuff EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpDu jynfolrsm;vdktifqE´ESifhtnD ygwDpkHDr dkua&pDpepfES ifh aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfwdkYudk rdrdEdkifiHESi fhvdkufavsmnDaxGpm xlaxmifEdkif&eftwGuf BudK;yrf;wnfaqmufay;cJayonf/ G h tem*wfEdki fiHawmf wGif a&&SnftusKd;&SdNyD; cdkifr monfh zGJUpnf;yHktajccHO yawpf&yf r&SdrjzpfvdktyfonfhtwGuf EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpDonf 1993 ckEpfrSpí trsKd;om;nDvmcHudk ac:,lusif;yay;cJonf/ S h trsKd;om;nDvmcHwGif EdkifiHa&;? vkHNcHKa&;? tkyfc sKyf a&;? pD;yGm;a&;? vlrI a&;ESifhOyaa&;&mponfh ½IaxmifhrsKd;pH krS tawGUtMuHK<u,f0onfh yk*¾dKvf rsm;yg0ifouJhodkYEdkifiHawmftwGif;wnf&Sd onfh NrdKUe,ftm;vHk;rS wdkif;&if;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;vnf;yg0ifcMJh uayonf/
  8. 8.                   
  9. 9.  trsKd;om;nDvmcHusif;y&mwGif tcuftcJtaESmifht,Sufrsm; MuHKawGUcJh&aomfvnf; 2003 ckESpfwGif csrSwfc Jhaom EdkifiHawmfa&SUqufoGm;rnfh rl 0gvrf ;pOf(7) &yfESifh tnD trsKd;om;nDvmcHudk 2004 ckESpfwGif rqkwfrepfaom ZGJvHkYvjzif hqufvufusif;ycJh&m cdkifr maom EdkifiHawmfzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOyawpf&yf ay:ayguf&eftwGuf tajccH&rnfhrlrsm;ESifh tao;pdwftajccH&rnfhrlrsm;udk tESpom&jynhf0pGm fcsrSwfEdkifcJhMuojzifh 2007 ckESpf? pufwifbmv 3 &ufaeYwGif trsKd;om;nDvmcHonfatmifjrifpm NyD;ajrmufcJhayonf/ G uREkyfwY dk wdkif;&if;om;jynfoltaygif;wdYonf trsKd;om;nDvmcHu csrSwfay;cJh f konf h tajccHr l r sm;ES i fh tao;pd wf tajccH& rnf h rl r sm;ESi f h tnD þjynf axmif p kor®wjrefrmEdkiiHawmf zGJUpnf;yHtajccHOyaudk a&;qGJcMJh uayonf/ f k uREkfywdkYwdkif;&if;om;jynfoltaygif;wdkYonf - f - jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&;? wdki f;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDñGwfrIrNydKuG Ja&;ESifh tcsKyft jcmtmPm wnf wH h cd k if N rJa&;[la om OD ;wnf c suf r sm;ud k tpOfwpdkuf rrSwfrokef pGJNrJpGm cH,lapmifhxef;oGm;Murnf[k oEéd|mef d d csrSwfívnf;aumif;? - Ed kifiHawmfü w&m;rQwjcif;? vGwfvyfjcif;ESif h nDrQjcif;wnf;[laom avmuygvw&m;rsm; xGef ;um;apvsuf wdkif;&if;om;jynfoltrsm; Nid r f; csrf; om,m0ajyma&;ud k wnf wH hc d ki f NrJ atmif pOf qufr jywf aqmif&Gufxdef;odrf;oGm;Murnf[k oEéd|mefcsrSwfívnf;aumif;? - EdkifiHawmftwGif; vlrsKd;a&;wef;wlrIjzifh ppfrSefaom rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf jzpfonfh jynfaxmifppwf"mwfudk cdkifNrpmarG;jrLvsuf xm0pOf pnf;vHk; k d J G nD ñG wfp Gm twl wuG vufw GJ aexd ki f Murnf[ k oEéd |mefc srSwf í vnf;aumif;? - urÇmNh ir;f csrf;a&;ESifh EdiiHtcsif;csi;f rdw0wfrysuf aygif;oif; qufqHa&; d k f f udk a&S;½Ivsuf Nidrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOfwGJaexdkia&;rlrsm;udk apmifhxde;f &ef f tpOfBudK;yrf;Murnf[k oEéd|mefcsrSwfívnf;aumif;? þjynfaxmifpor®wjrefrmEdiiawmf zGUJ pnf;yHk tajccHOyaudk ouú&mZf 1370 k k f HjynfhESpf? uqkefvjynf hausmf 10 &uf (c&pfE Spf 2008 ck ESpf? arv 29 &uf) aeYwGifjynfvHk;uRwf qE´c,lyGJBuD;jzifh twnfjyKjy|mef;vdkufMuonf/ H
  10. 10. 
  11. 11. tcef; (1)Edki fiHawmftajccHrlr sm;
  12. 12.                           
  13. 13. tcef; (1) Ed kifi Ha wmf tajccH rlr sm;Edk if i Hawmf1/ jrefrmEdkifionf tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkif vGwfvyfonfhEdkifiHjzpfonf/ H2/ EdkifiHawmfudk jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmf[k ac:wGif&rnf/3/ Ekdifiawmfonf wki;f &if;om;vlrsK;d aygif;pkwY kd pkaygif;aexdkifMuaom EkifiH jzpfonf/ H d H d4/ EdkifiHawmf tcsKyftjcmtmPmonf EdkifiHom;rsm;xHrS qif;oufNyD; EdkiiHawmf fwpf0ef;vkH;ü wnfonf/5/ Ed kifiHawmfajrxk? a&xkE Sifh avxkwdkYyg0ifaom e,fedrdwfonf þzGJUpnf;yk HtajccHOya twnfjzpfonhfaeYwGif wnf&Sdonfhtwdkif;jzpfonf/tajccH r l r sm;6/ EdkifiHawmfonf - (u) jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&;? ( c ) wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vkH;nDñGwfrrNydKua&;? I GJ ( * ) tcsKyftjcmtmPmwnfwHhcdkifNrJa&;? (C) ppfrSefí pnf;urf;jynfh0aom ygwDpHkDrdkua&pDpepf xGef;um;a&;? ( i ) Ed kifiHawmfü w&m;rQwjcif;? vGwfvyfjcif;ESih f nDrQjcif;wnf;[laom avmuygvw&m;rsm; ydkrdkxef;um;a&;ESifh G ( p ) EdkiiHawmf trsKd;om;EdkiiHa&;OD;aqmifrItcef;u@wGif wyfrawmfu f f yg0ifxrf;aqmifEdkia&;wdudk tpOfwpdkufOD;wnfonf/ f kY7/ EdkifiHawmfonf ppfrSefípnf;urf;jynfh0aom ygwDpHkDrkdua&pDpepfudk usihfokH;onf/8/ EdkifiHawmfudk jynfaxmifpkpepfjzihf zGJUpnf;wnfaqmufonf/
  14. 14.                            
  15. 15. 9/ (u) &Sd&if;pGwdkif;(7)wdkif;udk wkdif;aoBuD;(7)ck tjzpfvnf;aumif;? &Sd&if;pGJ J jynfe,f(7)jynfe,fudk jynfe,f(7)jynfe,f tjzpfvnf;aumif; ykdi;f jcm; owfrSwfonf/ xdkwkdif;aoBuD;(7)ckESihf jynfe,f(7)jy nfe,fwdkYonf tqihftwef;wlnMD uonf? (c) xkdwdki;f aoBuD;(7)ckESif h jynfe,f(7)jynfe,fwdkY trnfrsm;udk &S&if;pGJ d twdkif; ac:qdkoHk;EIef;onf? (*) wdi;f aoBuD;wpfcctrnfukjd zpfap? jynfe,fwpfe,fe,ftrnfudk k k k jzpfap ajymif;vJowfrSwfvdkvQif oufqdkif&mwdkif;aoBuD; odkYr[kwf jynfe,ftwGi;f aexdifMuaom EdkiiHom;rsm;qE´&,lNyD; Oyajy|mef; k f jcif;jzifh ajymif;vJowfrSwf&rnf/10/ Edkifiawmfwiyg0ifonhf wdif;aoBu;D rsm;? jynfe,frsm;? jynfaxmifpk e,fajrrsm;? H G f kudk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpkrsm;ponhf Edkifi Hawmfe,fajrtydkif;tjcm; [lorQonfEdkifiHawmfrS rnfonfhtcgrQ cGrxGuf&/ J11/ (u) Edk ifiH awmftcsKyftjcmtmPm cufrok H;jzmjzpfonfh OyajyKa&; tmPm? tkycsKya&;tmPmESif h w&m;pD&ifa&;tmPmwduk d wwfEkiforQ f f kY d ydif;jcm;okH;pGJjcif;ESihf tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSefxdef;ausmif;jcif;wdjkY yKonf? k ( c ) xkd od kY y dk if ;jcm;xm;onfh Ed ki f iH awmf tmPmok H ;&yf ud k jynf axmifp k? wdif;aoBuD;rsm;? jynfe,frsm;ESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpkrsm;tm; k cGa0tyfESi;f onf/ J12/ (u) Edk ifiH awmf OyajyKa&;tmPmud k jynfaxmifpkvT wfawmf? wdkif ; aoBuD;vTwfawmfESihf jynfe,fvTwfawmfrsm;tm; cGJa0tyfESif;onf/ ud k ,f y d ki f tk y fc sKyf c Gi h f &pD & if p k rsm;tm; þzGJ Upnf ; yk H tajccHO yau owfrSwfaom OyajyKa&;tmPmudk cGJa0tyfESif;onf? ( c ) jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfwGif NrKd Ue,futajccHívnf;aumif;? vlO;D a&ukd kd tajccHívnf;aumif;? a&G;aumufwifajr§mufonfh vTwfawmfwpf&yf? wd ki f;aoBuD ;rsm;ESi fh jynfe ,f rsm;rS uk d,f pm;vS,f OD ;a& wl nDp Gm a&G;aumufwifajr§muf onfh vTwfawmfwpf&yf[lí vTwfawmfESpf &yf yg&Sdonf/
  16. 16.                            
  17. 17. 13/ wdki f; aoBuD ;(7)ck wGi f wdk if ;aoBuD;vTwf awmf wpf&yfp DE Si fh jynfe ,f(7)jynfe,fwGif jynfe,fvTwfawmfwpf&yfpD &Sdonf/14/ jynfaxmifpkvTwawmf? wdkif;aoBuD;vTwfawmfESifh jynfe,fvTwfawmfrsm;wGif fvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf þzGJUpnf;yk HtajccHOyat& owfrS wfonhfOD;a&twdi;f wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfu trnfpm&if;wifoif;onhf wyfrawmfom;rsm; k Gyg0ifonf/15/ avsmuefoifhjrwfaom vlO;D a&&Sonfh wdi;f &if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;twGuf oufqkif&m f d k dwdkif;aoBuD; odkYr[kwf jynfe,fESi fh udk,fydki ftkyfcsKyfcGi hf&pD&ifp k OyajyKa&;wGi fxdkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;udk,pm;vS,frsm; yg0ifcGihf&Sdonf/ f16/ EdkifiawmftMu;D tuJESifh EdkiiHawmftkycsKyfa&;tBuD;tuJonf EkdiiHawmfor®w H f f fjzpfonf/17/ (u) Ed k if iH awmf tk y fc sKyf a&;tmPmudk jynf axmifp k? wdk if ;aoBuD ;ESi h f jynfe,frsm;tm; cGJa0tyfESi;f onf/ udk,yiftkyfcsKyfci&pD&ifprsm;tm; f dk G hf k udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;tmPmudk þzGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOyat& owfrSwf ay;onfhtwdki;f cGJa0tyfESif;onf? (c) jynfaxmifpk? wdkif;aoBuD;ESih f jynfe,f? jynfaxmifpe,fajr? ukd,ydkif k f tkyfcsKyfcGihf& pD&ifpkESihf c½dkiftkyfcsKyfa&;wdkYwGif umuG,fa&;? vkHjcHKa&;? e,f p yft k y fc sKyf a&;ponf h wm0ef rsm;xrf ;aqmif & ef wyf r awmf umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfu trnfpm&if;wifoGif;onfh wyfrawmfom;rsm; yg0ifonf? (*) ykfr 15 t& ouf qdkif &m wdkif ;aoBuD; od kYr[kwf jynf e,fES ihf udk,yitkycsKycGif&pD&ifpkOyajyKa&;wGif udk,pm;vS,f yg0ifcGih f &&Sonhf f kd f f f h f d wdkif ;&if;om;vlrsKd ;jzpfvQif xdk wdkif;aoBuD; odkYr[kwf jynfe,fESi hf ud,fykiftycsKyfcGi&pD&ifpk tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif t"dutm;jzihf xkwi;f &if;om; k d k f hf d dk vl r sKd ;rsm;a&;&mudk aqmif & Gu fE dk i fa&;twGu f wd k if ;&if ;om;vl rsKd ; udk,fpm;vS,rsm; yg0ifcGihfjyK&rnf/ f
  18. 18.                                              
  19. 19. 18/ (u) Edkifiawmfw&m;pD&ifa&;tmPmudk jynfaxmifpkw&m;vTwfawmfcsKyf? H wdki f;aoBuD;w&m;vTwfawmfrsm;? jynf e,fw&m;vTwfawmfrsm;ESi hf udk,fyd kiftkyf csKyfcGi hf&pD& ifpkw&m;½kH;rsm; tygt0if tqifhqih faom w&m;½kH;rsm;tm; cGJa0tyfESif;onf? (c) jynfaxmifpwGif jynfaxmifpkw&m;vTwfawmfcsKyfwpf&yf xm;&Sdonf/ k jynfaxmifpkw&m;vTwfawmfcsKyfonf EdkifiHawmftjrihfqkH; w&m;½kH; jzpfonf? (*) jynfaxmifpw&m;vTwfawmfcsKyfwGif pmcRefawmftrdeYrsm; xkwfyifcGihf k f dk tmPmrsm;&Sdonf? (C) wd ki f ;aoBuD ;wdk i f; wG i f wd k if ; aoBuD; w&m;vTw f awmf wpf& yfp D vnf;aumif;? jynfe,fwdkif;wGi f jynfe,fw&m;vT wfawmf wpf&yfpD vnf;aumif; xm;&Sdonf/19/ atmufygwdkYudk w&m;pD&ifa&;rlrsm;tjzpf owfrSwfonf – (u) OyaESihftnD vGwfvyfpGmw&m;pD&ifa&;? ( c ) Oyat&uefYowfcsufrsm;rSty jynfolYa&SUarSmufwif w&m;pD&ifa&;? G ( * ) trIrsm;wGif Oyat& ckcHacsycGiESifh t,lcHykdifcGih&&Sa&;/ fh f d20/ (u) wyfrawmfonf tiftm;awmifhwif;NyD; pGrf;&nfxufjrufaom acwfrD onfh wpfckwnf;aom rsKd;cspfwyfrawmf jzpfonf? ( c ) wyfrawmfonf wyfyd kif;qdk if&mudpö tm;vHk;ud k vGwfvyfpGmpDr HcefY cGJ pD&ifaqmif&GufydkicGifh &Sonf? f d ( * ) wyfrawmf umuG,f a&;OD;pD;csKyfonf vufeufudk ifwyf zGJUtm;vH k; tBuD;tuJ jzpfonf? (C) wyfrawmfonf EdifiHawmfvjHk cHKa&;ESihumuG,a&;wGif jynfol wpf&yfvk;H k f f yg0ifa&;twGuf pDrHaqmif&Gufcifh &Sdonf? G (i ) jynfaxmifpk rNydKuGJa&;? wkd if;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDñGwfr IrNydKuGJ a&;ESifh tcsKyftjcmtmPmwnfwHh cdk ifNrJa&;wdk Yudk umuG,fapmifh a&Smuf&ef wyfrawmfwGif t"duwm0ef &Sdonf? ( p ) wyf r awmf o nf Ed k i f i H a wmf z G J Upnf ; yH k tajccH O yaud k umuG , f apmifha&Smuf&ef t"duwm0ef &Sdonf/
  20. 20.                              
  21. 21. 21/ (u) EdkifiHom;wdki;f onf þzGUJ pnf;yHktajccHOyawGif owfrSwfjy|mef;xm; onfh wef;wlnDrQrItcGifhta&;? vGwfvyfrItcGifhta&;? w&m;rQwrI tcGifhta&;wdY k cHpm;cGifh &Sdonf? (c) w&m;½H;k cGihjf yKcsufr&&Sdu Ediiom;wpfOD;udk 24 em&Dxuf ausmfvGefí k f H csKyfaESmifxm;cGifh r&Sdap&? (* ) jynfol wkd Y at;csrf;om,ma&;ESi fh w&m;Oyapd k;rdk ;a&;wk dY onf EdkiiHom;wdkif;wm0ef jzpfonf? f (C) Ed k i fi H om;rsm; vG wf vyf c G if h ? vk yf y d k if c G i fh ? cH p m;cG i f h ? wm0ef E S if h wm;jrpfcsufrsm; xda&mufcdkirmjynfpHkap&ef vdktyfaomOya jy|mef; f h &rnf/22/ EdkifiHawmfonf — (u) wk d i f ;&if ; om;rsm; pum;? pmay? tEk y nm? ,Of aus;rI w d k Y ud k zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufap&ef ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf? (c ) wkdif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; pnf;vHk;nDñGwfa&;? cspfMunfav;pm;a&;ESifh ½dkif;yif;ulnDa&;wdkY wdk;wufjzpfxef;ap&ef ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf? G (* ) wd;k wufzUGH NzKd ;rIenf;yg;aeonfh wkdif;&if;om;rsm; ynma&;? use;f rma&;? pD;yGm;a&;? vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; ponfwkdYyg0ifaom vlrIpD;yGm;a&; wd;k wufzGHUNzdK;a&;twGuf ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf/23/ EdkifiHawmfonf awmifolv,form;rsm; - (u) tcGita&;rsm; umuG,apmifha&Smuf&ef vdktyfonfhOyarsm; jy|mef; fh f aqmif&Gufrnf? ( c ) pdkuysKd;xkwfvkyonfh aumufyo;D ESHrsm; oifhwifrQwonfh wefzdk;&&S&ef f f J h d ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf/24/ Ed kifiHawmfonf tvkyform;rsm; tcGifhta&;rsm; umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&efvdtyfonfhOyarsm; jy|mef;aqmif&Gurnf/ k f25/ EdkifiHawmfonf todynm&Sif? twwfynm&Sirsm;tusKd;udk ulnDaqmif&Guf frnf/
  22. 22.                        
  23. 23. 26/ (u) Edifi0efxrf;rsm;onf ygwDEkifiHa&;ESih f uif;&Si;f &rnf? k Hh d (c) Edk if iH awmf onf Edk ifi Hh 0efxrf;rsm; vky fief; cGi ft mrcH csuf& &Sd a&;? pm;0wfaerIzlvka&;? tdrfaxmif&SitrsK;d orD;0efxrf;rsm; rD;zGm;jcif;qdkif&m H f tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&&Sda&;ESifh tNidrf;pm;0efxrf;rsm; pm;0wfaerI oufom acsmifcsda&;wdtwGuf vdktyfonfhOyarsm; jy|mef;&rnf/ kY27/ Ed kifiHawmfonf trsKd;om;,Ofaus;rI zGHUNzdK;wkd;wuf ckdifrma&;ESifh apmifha&Smufxdef;odrf;a&;twGuf ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf/28/ EdkifiHawmfonf - (u) jynf ol rsm; ynma&;ES i fh usef ; rma&; wdk ;wuf apa&;wd k Yt wG uf tav;xm;aqmif&uf&rnf? G (c ) jynfolrsm; ynma&;ESifhusef;rma&;wdYwif wdkif;&if;om;jynfolrsm;u k G yg0ifaqmiff½GufEdkif&ef vdktyfrnfhOya jy|mef;aqmif&Guf&rnf? ( * ) tcrJhroifrae& rlvwef;ynma&;pepf azmfaqmif&rnf? (C) bufpHktawG;tac: t,ltqrSefuefí tusihfpm&dwåaumif;rGefNyD; EdkifiHawmfwnfaqmufa&;twGuf tusKd;jyKrnfh acwfrDynma&;pepf azmfaqmif&rnf/29/ EkdifiHawmfonf vufrIv,f,mrSpufrIv,f,modkY ul;ajymif;Ekif&ef enf;ynm? dt&if;tESD;? pufypönf;? ukefMurf; tp&SdonfwdkYudk twwfEdkifqHk; jznfhqnf;&rnf/30/ EkdifiHawmfonf pufrIvufrIvyfief;rsm; wdk;wufzHUG NzdK;a&;twGuf vdktyfonfh kenf ;ynm? t&if; tESD ;? puf y pö nf ;? uke fM urf ; tp&S do nf wd kY ud k twwf E dk i fqH k ;jznfhqnf;&rnf/31/ EkdifiHawmfonf jy nfolrsm; tvkyfvufrJhenf;yg;ap&ef wwf EdkiforQ ulnDaqmif&Guf&rnf/
  24. 24.                       
  25. 25. 32/ EdkifiHawmfonf - (u) rdcifESiuav;oli,frsm;? rdbrJhuav;rsm;? usqHk;aomwyfrawmfom; hf rsm; uav;rsm;? tdkrif;rpGrf;olrsm;? roefrpGrf;olrsm;tm; Munfh½I apmihfa&Smuf&rnf? ( c ) roefrpGrf;jzpfvmaom wyfrawmfom;rsm;tm; oihfwifhavsmufywfpm G aexd kifpm;aomufEkdi fap&efESihf toufarG ;ynmudk tcvGwfoif,l Ekifap&ef pDrHaqmif&Guf&rnf/ d33/ EkdiiHawmfonf vli,frsm; rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf &Sifoefxufjrufa&;? tawG;tac: frSefuefa&;ESihf Avig;wef wdk;wufzUGH NzdK;a&;wdkYtwGuf aqmif&Guf&rnf/34/ Nid r f 0 yf y dj ym;a&;ES i h f aomf v nf ; aumif ; ? jynf o l Y u dk , f u sih f w &m;ESi f h a omfvnf;aumif;? jynfolYusef;rma&;ESifhaomfvnf ;aumif;? þzJGUpnf;yHktajccHOyaygtjcm;jy|mef;csufwdkYESiaomfvnf;aumif; rqefYusifvQif EdkiiHom;wdkif;onf bmom hf fomoema&;wGi f vGw f vyfp G m,l qEk d if aom tcG i h ft a&;? vGw fv yfp G mud k ;uG , faqmufwnfEkdifaom tcGihfta&;wdkYudk tnDtrQ&&Sap&rnf/ d35/ EkdifiawmfpD;yGm;a&;pepfonf aps;uGupD;yGm;a&;pepf jzpfonf/ H f36/ EkdifiHawmfonf - (u) trsKd;om;pD;yGm;a&; wdk;wufzGUHNzdK;a&;twGuf EdkifiHawmf? aoqdki f&m tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? or0g,rtzGJUtpnf;rsm;? zufpyftzGJUtpnf;rsm;? yk*¾vuponfh pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;pktm;vHk;udk pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;wGif d f yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifhjyKonf? (c ) pD;yG m;a&;vkyfief ;rsm;wG if w&m;ojzifh,SOfNydKifjcif;udk ysufjym;ap&ef wpfO D ; wpf a ,muf u jzpf ap? tpk t zJ G Uujzpf ap vuf 0 g;BuD ;tk y f aqmif& Guf rI odk Yr [kw f aps;upm;rI jyKjcif ;jzif h trsm;jynf ol wdk Y tusKd;pD;yGm;udk xdcdkufepfemapjcif;rS wm;qD;umuG,frnf? ( * ) trsm;jy nfolwdkY aexdki frItqifhtwef;jr§i fhwifa&;ESihf taxGaxG t&if;tESD;rsm; wdk;wufzGHUNzdK;a&;wdkYuk d a&S;½Iaqmif&Gufrnf?
  26. 26.                             
  27. 27.  (C) pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&mvkyief;rsm;udk Edkifiydkiodrf;,ljcif;rjyK? f H f (i) w&m;0ifx kw f a0xm;aom aiG aMu;udk w&m;r0ifa iG aMu;tjzpf owfrSwjf cif;rjyK/37/ EdkifiHawmfonf - (u) EkifiHawmf&d S ajrtm;vH;k ? ajray:ajratmuf? a&ay:a&atmuf ESih f avxk d twGif;&Sd o,HZmwypönf;tm;vHk; yif&if;ydki&Sif jzpfonf? f ( c ) Ed kifiHydkifo,HZmwypönf;rsm;tm; pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;pkrsm;u xk wf,l okH;pGJjcif;udk uGyfuJBuD;MuyfEkif&ef vdktyfonfhOya jy|mef;&rnf? d (* ) EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; ypön;f ydkiqkifcGih?f tarGqufcHcGi?fh udk,fykivkyfudkicGifh? f d d f f wDxGicGifhESifh rlykifcGifhwdYuk d Oyajy|mef;csufESitnD cGifhjyK&rnf/ f d k fh38/ (u) Ed k if iH om;wd ki f; onf OyaES if ht nD a&G; aumuf wif ajr§mufc Gi f hE Si f h a&G;aumufwifajr§mufcHydkifcGih f &Sdonf? ( c ) a&G;aumufwifajr§mufxm;aom jynfolUudk,fpm;vS,fudk oufqdkif&m rJqE´&Sifrsm;u þzGUJ pnf;yktajccHOyawGif jy|mef;xm;csufrsm;ESifh tnD H wm0efrSjyefvnf½kyfodrf;cGifh &Sdonf/39/ Ed k i f i H awmf o nf ppf r S e f í pnf ;urf ; jynf h 0 aom ygwD p H k D r d k u a&pD p epfxGef;um;a&;twGuf EdkifiHa&;ygwDr sm;udk pepfwuszGJUpnf;Edkif&ef vdktyfonfhOyajy|mef;aqmif&Guf&rnf/40/ (u) wdkif;aoBuD;wpfc kwGi fjz pfap? jynfe,fwpfe,fwGifjzpfap? udk ,fydk if tkyfcsKyfcGifh&pD&ifpkwpfpkwGifjzpfap? tkyfc sKyf a&;qdkif&mvkyf ief;rsm;udk þzGUJ pnf;ykHtajccHOyayg jy|mef;csufrsm;ESihtnD aqmif&GufEdkifjcif; f r&Sdonfh ta&;ay:tajctae ay:aygufvQif Edki fiHawmfor®wonf xdkwdkif;aoBuD;? jynfe,f odkYr[kwf udk ,fydkiftkyfc sKyfcGifh& pD&ifpk tkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&mtcGifhtmPmudk okH;pGJaqmif&GufcGihf&Sd onf/ xdkodkY aqmif& Guf& mü vd ktyf vQif xdk wdk if;aoBuD;? jynf e,f okd Yr[k wf ud,fyitycsKycih&pD&ifpkESifh oufqionfh OyajyKtcGihtmPmrsm;udk k dk f k f f G f dk f f
  28. 28.                         
  29. 29.  þzGJUpnf;yktajccHOyawGif owfrwjf y|mef;csufrsm;ESihtnD Edkifiawmf H S f H or®wu okH;pGJaqmif&GufcGihf &Sdonf? ( c ) wdkif;aoBuD;wpfckwGifjzpfap? jynfe,fwpfe,fwGifjzpfap? udk,fydkif tk yf csKyf cGi fh &pD &ifpk wpf pk wGi fjzpf ap? jynf olrsm; touf tdk ;tdr f pnf;pdrfudk xdyg;tEÅ&m,fjyKrnfh ta&;ay:tajctae ay:aygufvQif odkYr[kwf ay:ayguf&ef vkavmufaomtaMumif;&SdvQif xdktEÅ&m,fudk H wyfrawmfonf þzGUJ pnf;ykHtajccHOyawGif owfrSwfjy|mef;xm;csuf rsm;ESifhtnD wm;qD;umuG,fapmifha&SmufcGifh &Sdonf? ( * ) Ed kifiHawmf tcsKyf tjcmtmPmudk qlylaomif;usef;rI? tMurf;zufrI paom t"r® enf ;jzif h &,l &efaqmif& Guf jcif; ? od kY r[k wf BudK;yrf; tm;xkwfjcif;aMumifh jynfaxmifpkNydKuGJaprnf h? wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vkH; nDñGwfrINydKuGJaprnfh odkYr[kwf tcsKyftjcmtmPm vufvGwfqkH;½IH; aprnhf ta&;ay:tajctaeay:aygufvQif wyfrawmfumuG,fa&; OD;pD ;csKyfo nf Edk if iH awmf tmPmud k þzGJ Upnf; yH ktajccH OyawGi f owfrSwjf y|mef;csufrsm;ESifhtnD &,lo;kH pGJcGifh &Sdonf/41/ Ed kifiHawmfonf vGwfvyfíwuf<uNy D; buffrvdk ufaom EdkifiHjcm;a&;0gud kusioH;k onf/ urÇmhNidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh EdkifiHtcsif;csif; rdwf0wfrysufaygif;zuf qufqHa&; fhudka&S;½Ionf/ EdkifiHtcsi;f csif; Nidrf;csrf;pGmtwl,OwJaexdkifa&;rlrsm;udk apmifxe;f onf/ S f G h d42/ (u) EdkiiHawmfonf rnfonfhEdkifiHudrQ pwifusL;ausmfwdkucdkufjcif;rjyK? f k f (c) EdifiHawmftwGif; rnfonfhEdkifiHjcm;wyfzGJUudkrQ wyfcscGifhrjyK/ k43/ rnfonf hjypfr Iqdkif&mOyarQ aemufaMumif;jyeftmPm oufa&mufap&efjy|mef;cGifh r&Sdap&/44/ vlYodu©mnd§K;EGrf;ao;odrfaponfh jypfPfjy|mef;cGih f r&Sdap&/45/ EdkifiHawmfonf obm0ywf0ef;usifudk umuG,fxdef;odrf;apmifha&Smuf&rnf/
  30. 30.    
  31. 31. 46/ þzGJ Upnf; ykH tajccHO yayg jy|mef; csuf rsm;udk teuft"dyÜ m,fz Gif hqd kjcif ;?jynfaxmifpk vTwfawmf? wd kif;aoBuD;vTwf awmfrsm;ESi fh jynfe,fvTwfawmfrsm;ujy|mef;onfh Oyarsm;onfvnf;aumif;? jynfaxmifp?k wdki;f aoBuD;rsm;? jynfe,frsm;ESih f ud,fykiftkyfcsKyfcGi&pD&ifpkrsm; tkycsKyfrIqdki&mtmPmydkifrsm; aqmif&ufcsuf k d fh f f Grsm;onfvnf;aumif;? EdkifiHawmfz GJUpnf;ykHtajccHOyaESifh nD ñGwfr I&Sd?r&Sdpdp pfjcif;?jynfaxmifpkESih f wdkif;aoBuD;tMum;? jynfaxmifpESifh jynfe,ftMum;? wdkif;aoBuD; ktcsi;f csif;? jynfe,ftcsif;csif;? wdkif;aoBuD; odr[kwf jynfe,fEih f ud,ykiftyfcsKyfcGih& kY S k f d k fpD&ifpktMum;? udk,fy dkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&pD&ifpktcsif;csif; jzpfay:onfh EdkifiHawmfzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOyaqdi&m tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk Mum;emqH;k jzwfjcif;ESih f þzGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOyau k ftyfE Sif;onfh tjcm;wm0efrsm; aqmif &Gufjcif;wdkY udk jyKEdkif &ef Edkif iHawmf zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOyaqdkif&m cHk½k;H wpf½Hk;udk zGJUpnf;&rnf/47/ þtcef ;ygtajccH rl r sm;ES if h tcef ;(8)? Ed ki f iH om;? Edk i fi Ho m;rsm; rl vtcGihta&;ESihwm0efrsm; tcef;wGifyg&Saom ]]EdkifiHawmf}} qdonfrm a&SUaemuf pum;&yf f f d k SwdkY t"dyÜm,fudkaxmufí þzGJUpnf;yHktajccHO yat& OyajyKrItcGifhtmPmudkaomf vnf; aumif ; ? tk y f csKyf r I tcG if h tmPmudk aomf vnf; aumif; usif h oH k ;aomtzGJUtpnf; odkYr[kwf yk*¾dKvfudkqdkvdkonf/48/ Edkifi HawmftajccH rlrsm;onf OyajyKvTwfawmf rsm;u Oyajy|mef;&mwGi fvnf; aumif ;? þzG JUpnf; yHk tajccH OyaESif h tjcm;Oyarsm;yg jy|mef;csuf rsm;ud koufqdkif&mu teuf t"dyÜ m,fzGifhqdk&mwGifvnf;aumif; vdkufem&rnfhvrf ;ñTefrsm;jzpfonf/
  32. 32. 
  33. 33. tcef; (2)EdkifiHa wmfz GJUpnf;wnfa qmufykH
  34. 34.                                    
  35. 35. tcef; (2) Edkifi HawmfzGJU pnf;wnfa qmufykH49/ Edkifiawmfudk atmufygwdkif;aoBu;D (7)ck? jynfe,f(7)jynfe,fEihf jynfaxmifpk H Se,fajrrsm;jzihf ydkif;jcm;owfrwfonf - S (u) ucsifjynfe,f? (c ) u,m;jynfe,f? ( * ) u&ifjynfe,f? (C) csif;jynfe,f? (i ) ppfudkif;wdki;f aoBuD;? (p ) weoFm&Dwdkif;aoBuD;? (q) yJcl;wdki;f aoBuD;? (Z ) rauG;wdkif;aoBuD;? (ps) rEÅav;wdkif;aoBuD;? (n) rGefjynfe,f? (# ) &cdkijf ynfe,f? (X ) &efukewif;aoBuD;? f dk (! ) &Srf;jynfe,f? (¡ ) {&m0wDwdkif;aoBuD;ESihf (P) jynfaxmifpke,fajrrsm;/50/ (u) Ed ki fi Hawmf Nrd KUawmf jzpfo nhf aejynfawmf ud k Ed ki fi Hawmf or® w wdkuf½dkuftkyfcsKyfrIatmufwGifxm;&Sd onhf jynfaxmifpk e,fajrtjzpf owfrSwfonf?
  36. 36.                                 
  37. 37.  (c) Ed kifiHawmf umuG,fa&;? vkHNcKHa&;? tk yfcsKyfa&;? pD;yG m;a&;ponfwdkYESihf pyfvsOf;NyD; xl;jcm;aomtajctae&Sdonhfe ,fajrrsm;udk jynfaxmifpk e,fajrtjzpf owfrw&efvktyfvQif Oyajy|mef;Ny;D EdkifiHawmfor®w S f d wdkuf½dkuftkyfcsKyfrIatmufwGifxm;&Sd onhf jynfaxmifpk e,fajrtjzpf owfrSwEdkifonf/ f51/ Edkifi Hawmfudk atmufygtwkdkif; pkpnf;onf - (u) aus;&Gmrsm;udk aus;&Gmtkyfpktjzpf pkpnf;onf? (c ) &yfuGufrsm;udk NrdKU odkYr[kwf NrdKUe,ftjzpf pkpnf;onf? (*) aus;&GmtkyfpkESi&yfuGursm; odr[kwf NrdKUrsm;udk NrdKUe,ftjzpfppnf;onf? hf f kY k (C) NrdKUe,frsm;udk c½dkitjzpf pkpnf;onf? f ( i ) c½dkifrsm;udk wdkif;aoBuD; odkUr[kwf jynfe,ftjzpf pkpnf;onf? (p ) udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&aowGif xdkaotwGif;&Sd NrdKUe,frsm;udk udk,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGihf&aotjzpf pkpnf;onf? (q) udk,fyiftyfcsKyfcGif&wdki;f wGif xdkwdkif;twGi;f &Sd NrdKUe,frsm;udk c½dkiftjzpf dk k h pkpnf;NyD; ,if;c½dkifrsm;udk udk,fykiftyfcsKyfcGif&wdif;tjzpf pkpnf;onf? d k h k ( Z ) wdkif;aoBuD;wpfck odkYr[kwf jynfe,fwpfe,fwGi f udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf cGihf&wdkif; odkYr[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&ao&Sdygu udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf cGihf &wd kif;? ud k,fydkiftkyfcsKyfc Gihf&aoESihf c½d kifrsm;udk wdki f;aoBuD; odr[kwf jynfe,ftjzpf pkpnf;onf? kY (ps) wdkif;aoBu;D rsm;? jynfe,frsm;ESif h jynfaxmifpke,fajrrsm;udk EdifiHawmf k tjzpf pkpnf;onf/52/ (u) Edk ifiHawmfe,fe drdwfud k jyifqifowf rSwf&ef vdk tyfygu Edkif iHawmf or®wonf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmftBuD;trSL;xH EdkifiHawmfe,fedrdwf jyifqifowfrSwa&;twGuf jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf oabmxm;udk f &,lay;yg&ef yxrOD;pGm taMumif;Mum;&rnf?
  38. 38.                        
  39. 39. (c ) Ed kifiHawmfe,f edrdwf jyifqifowfrSwfa&;twGuf EdkifiHawmfor®w taMumif;Mum;pm &&Sdonfhtcg jynfaxmifpvwawmftBuD;trSL;onf k T f atmufygtwdkif; vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;qE´udk &,l&rnf - (1) wdkif;aoBuD;rsm;ESihfjynfe,frsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,fOD;a&wlnDpGm a&G;aumuf wifajr§ mufx m;onhf vTw fawmf wG if yg&S daom vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; xuf0ufausmf axmufcHqE´rJ? (2) Nrd KUe,fu d k tajccH ívnf ; aumif ; ? vlO D ;a&ud k tajccH í vnf;aumif; a&G;aumufwifajr§mufxm;onhf vTwfawmfwGif yg&Sdaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm; xuf0uf ausmf axmufcHqE´rJ? (3) xdkvTwfawmfESpf&yf&Sd oufqdkif&m e,fedrdwfESihftusKH;0ifaom wdkif;aoBuD; odYr[kwf jynfe,frS vTwfawmfu,fpm;vS,frsm; k dk xuf0ufausmf axmufcHqE´rJ/( * ) txufygtwdkif; axmufcqE´rJ toD;oD;&&SvQif EdkifiHawmf e,fedrdwudk H d f vdktyfovdk jyifqifowfrSwfay;&ef jynfaxmifpkvTwawmftBuD;trSL; f u EdkifiHawmfor®wxH taMumif;Mum;&rnf?(C) txuf y gowf r S w f x m;aom enf ; vrf ;rsm;ES i h f tnD vT w f awmf wpf&yf&yfujzpfap? xdkvTwfawmfE Spf&yf&Sd oufqd kif&me,fedr dwfESih f tusKH ; 0if a om wd k i f ; aoBuD ; od k Y r [k w f jynf e ,f r S v T w f awmf uk d ,f p m;vS ,f r sm;ujzpf ap e,f e dr d wf j yif qif a&;ES ih f pyf vsOf; NyD ; oabmrwlaMumif; qk;H jzwfvQif jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmf oabmxm; ud k& ,l aqmif & G uf & rnf/ jynf axmif p k v Tw f awmf ukd , f p m;vS , f pkpkaygif; av;yko;kH ykHESitxufu axmufcvQif EdkifiHawmfe,ferwfudk H hf H d d vdktyfovdk jyifqifowfrSwfay;&ef jynfaxmifpkvTwawmftBuD;trSL; f u EdkifiHawmfor®wxH taMumif;Mum;&rnf?
  40. 40.    

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