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  1. 1. Chapter 2The Blowroom Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 1
  2. 2. BLOOWROOM - PRODUCT OVERVIEW Mixer Fine Cleaners Pre-cleanerBale Opener Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 2
  3. 3. BLOOWROOM - PRODUCT OVERVIEW Mixer MixerPre-cleaner Pre-cleaner Mixer Fine Cleaner Bale Opener Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 3
  4. 4. BLOOWROOM - PRODUCT OVERVIEWFrom Blowroom: Pre-cleaner, Fine Cleaner Mixing Opener Mixer Pre-cleaner Dosage BlenderMixing Bale Opener Pre-cleaner Fine Cleaner Bale Opener Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 4
  5. 5. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 5
  6. 6. Short-staple Spinning Blowroom Carding Drawing Roving frame Ring frameA typical process-line for ring spinning system Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 6
  7. 7. The Blowroom The blowrooom is the first step of yarn production in the spinning mills. Bales are taken to the blowroom and prepared for the process. Briefly, basic operations in the blowroom are, 1) Opening 2) Cleaning 3) Dust removal 4) Blending 5) Even feed of material to the card RIETER BLOOWROOM - PRODUCT OVERVIEW Dosage blenderBale opener Mixer Pre-cleaner Fine cleaner Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 7
  8. 8. OPENINGOpening is the first operation within the blowroom in which the goal is always a highdegree of openness of material with gentle treatment and a fiber loss as less aspossible. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 8
  9. 9. OPENINGType of Opening and Degree of OpeningTwo stages of opening must be distinguished.I. Opening to flocks: in the blowing room.2. Opening to fibers: in the card and OE spinning machine.Ways of opening:1) Breaking up of larger tufts into several smaller tufts to create new surfaces,2) Opening up of individual tufts to increase the volume. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 9
  10. 10. OPENINGThe influence of a fourth or fifth cleaning step in the Hue on the over-all cleaningefficiency is marginal, but the contribution to fiber loss and quality reduction isconsiderably higher.Hence short cleaning lines with only two or three cleaning points are today’s state-of-the-art. With appropriate machinery design, one pre-cleaner and one or two fine-cleaners per line are sufficient. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 10
  11. 11. Opening Devices Type Appearance Description Small diameter,widelyRollers used, e.g. in step cleaners. Larger diameter,little used,Drums e.g. in mono-cylinder cleaners.Quilted shaft Shaft with many beater rods,hardly used. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 11
  12. 12. Opening Devices Type Appearance DescriptionMultiple-bladed beaters Two, three, or more arms. Now used only in old lines. Endless belts with transverse Spiked lattice wooden or plastics bars in which needles are set, gives very gentle opening.Carding bars or plates The devices associated with carding drums of the card. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 12
  13. 13. CLEANINGThe cleaning efficiency always has to be optimized and not maximized, since thefiber quality (short fibers, neps) as well as fiber loss is always negatively affectedby maximum trash removal. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 13
  14. 14. Deduction of Cleanability of CottonGinning method Roller SawAppearance In layers, flocs felty, waddingSeed- coat fragments a few manyTrash content high lowSize of particles big smallNeppiness low highCleanabitity very good-good bad-very bad Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 14
  15. 15. CLEANINGCotton contains up to 18% trash; in most cases, this figure liesbetween 1% and 7%.To clean the material adequately, it is unavoidable to remove atleast as much fiber as waste. Since this loss is a considerable costfactor, it has to be kept as low as possible, which requires anassessment. Cleaning Degree (CD ) =extracted trash * 100 trash content in infed cotton Example : extracted trash: 2.8% CD = 2.8*100/4 = 70% trash in the bales: 4.0%, Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 15
  16. 16. CLEANING extracted trash • 100 Cleaning Efficency (CE ) = (parameter of fiber loss) Total extracted wasteFiber stressing index (S1 ) = (Short fiber content output-Short fiber content input)*100 Short fiber content input Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 16
  17. 17. DUST REMOVAL An often underestimated task of the blowroom line is the removal of dust.However, it is as important as the removal of impurities. Dedusting in the blowroom happens by air suctioning only, eitherbetween the machines, e.g. by dust cages, dust extractors , etc., or withinthe machine by normal air separation. Every blowroom machine must be capable of extracting dust, so thatspecial dedusting machines should be needed. The efficiency depends not only on the devices but also on the size of theflocks. The smaller the flocks, the higher is the efficiency. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 17
  18. 18. BLENDING Blending of fiber material is an essential preliminary in the production of a yarn. Fibers can be blended at various stages of the process. These possibilities shouldalways be fully exploited, for example, by transverse doubling. However, the starting process is one of the most important stages for blending, sincethe components are still separate and therefore can be metered exactly and withoutdependence upon random effects. A well-assembled bale layout and even (and as far as possible, simultaneous)extraction of fibers from all bales is therefore of paramount importance. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 18
  19. 19. EVEN FEED OF MATERIAL TO THE CARD Finally, the blowroom must ensure that raw material is evenly delivered to thecards. Previously, this was carried out by means of precisely weighed laps from thescutcher, but automatic flock-feeding installations are now state of the art. Whereas, in the introductory phase, such installations were subject toproblems regarding evenness of flock delivery, today they generally operatewell. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 19
  20. 20. Quantity of WasteRieter indicates average quantities of waste (in %) in the spinning mills ofindustrialized countries. Machines Cotton (Length) Synthetic 1 in. 1 1/6 in. 1 1/8 in. 1 1/2 in. Fibers Ringframe 1.5 2.2 2.7 3.0 2.2 Roving-frame 1 1 1 1 1 Drawframe per passage 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 Comber 12 15 17 19 — — Ribbon lap 1 1 1 1 — Sliver lap 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 — Card 5.0 3.8 3.1 2.8 0.6 Blowroom 6 5 4 3 0.5 Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 20
  21. 21. Blending the waste It will be apparent that raw fibers are usuallybetter than waste fibers because waste containsprocessed and therefore stressed fibers. Furthermore, since waste fibers experiencedifferent numbers of machine passages, they differfrom each other in their characteristics. For example, lap web is strongly compressed, butwaste from thread-break suction systems is barelycompressed at all. Random and uncontrolled feeding of such fibermaterial back into the normal spinning process is tobe avoided at all costs, since considerable countvariation will result together with quality variations. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 21
  22. 22. General considerations regarding opening /cleaning The degree of cleaning cannot be better than the degree of opening. Dirtcan be removed practically only from surfaces. New surfaces must therefore be created continuously. The form of the opening machine must thus be adapted to the degree ofopening already achieved. The opening devices should become continually finer, i.e. within theblowroom line, a specific machine required at each position. The degree of cleaning is linearly dependent upon the degree ofopening. Newly exposed surfaces should as far as possible be cleanedimmediately. Ideally the opening and cleaning machines should form unit. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 22
  23. 23. General considerations regarding opening/cleaning A high degree of opening in the blowroom facilitates cleaning in the carding room. A high degree of opening out in the blowroom reduces shortening of staple at thecards. Opening of cotton on only one opening machine is unthinkable owing to thedegree of opening required. On the other hand, each machine in the line represent often considerablestressing of the fibers. Feeding of flocks in a clamped condition gives an intensive but usually not verygentle opening action. Feeding in a loose condition gives gentle, but not very intensive, opening. Opened flocks should approach as closely as possible a spherical shape. Longnarrow flocks lead to entanglements during rolling movements and pneumatictransport. Finally, they form neps. Narrow setting of the feed device relative to the roller increases the degree ofopening, but also the stressing of the material. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 23
  24. 24. BLOWROOM MACHINERYSince blowroom machines have to fulfill various functions, they vary inconcept and in design. Basically, five types can be distinguished:1. Opening machines.2. Mixing machines.3. Cleaning machines.4. Dust-removing equipment or machines.5. Recycling machines. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 24
  25. 25. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 25
  26. 26. In order to be able to perform their assigned tasks optimally, thesemachines must be located at quite specific positions in the blowroom line.In a normal modem blowroom installation, 4-5 clearly distinguishableoperating zones can be identified Bale Opening to finest flocks Zone-1 Machines Pre-cleaning no nipping: Zone-2 Machines gentle treatment Blending homogenous Zone-3 Machines Fine cleaning nipped: Zone-4 Machines intensive treatment*Fine cleaning II Zone-5 Machines Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 26
  27. 27. Rieter blowroom line Dosage blenderBale opener Mixer Pre-cleaner Fine cleaner Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 27
  28. 28. If the cotton is clean and contains only few impurities, then only onezone of fine cleaning is necessary.Another variant is that fine cleaning and card feed can form a singleunit.An additional operation in the blowroom - dust removal -should becarried out by all machines in the line so as to make specialdedusting machines superfluous. But, if such machines are used,they appear mostly at the end of the line.Even when machines within an individual zone differ in design, theyare based on a common basic concept, so that all the machines of agiven zone can in general, be explained by taking one of them as anexample. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 28
  29. 29. Zone 1 Opening MachinesAutomatic Bale-opening MachinesThe first-generation automatic bale-opening machines were mostlystationary. Only the bales were moved, either backwards andforwards or in a circle.The second-generation machines are of the travelling type , i.e. theymove past the bales of the layout and extract material from top tobottom. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 29
  30. 30. Automatic bale opening machine UNIfloc A 11 (Rieter)Raw Material -Cotton and man-made fibers up to 65 mm.Production400-1400 kğ/hProf.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 30
  31. 31. Bale Plucking Machine Model LA17/LA28(Lakshmi) Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 31
  32. 32. Twin Plucking Rollers with Grills Automatic Turning of Head Electronic Panel with PLC Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 32
  33. 33. Crossroll Bale Opener Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 33
  34. 34. Travelling machines have the advantage that more bales can be processed asan over all unit (charge), and thus a better long-term blend is achieved.It should be noted, however, that these machines extract material only inbatches, i.e. they can process only one, two, or at most three balessimultaneously. If a long-term blend is to be achieved, then mixing machinesmust be included downstream from the bale opener.A bale layout can consist of up to 60 bales from between four and six differentorigins, i.e. from four to six different types of bales per fiber blend. Interveningspaces often have to be left between the individual bale groups so that theextraction roller can be adapted to varying bale heights. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 34
  35. 35. The machines are completely electronically controlled and extract materialfrom all bales evenly, independently of varying bale densities. Themachines of this first zone should be able to:• extract material evenly from the bales;• open the material gently;• open up to the smallest flocks;• form flocks of equal size;• process as many bales as possible in a single charge;• be universally applicable, i.e. easy to program;• blend material right at the start of the process; and• permit the putting together of a fiber blend from several components (fiberorigins). Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 35
  36. 36. Normal bale openers extract the material from the bales chargewise, i.e. acertain number of bales are placed in front of the opener and then workedoff and replaced by a new charge of the same number of bales. Some manufacturers (e.g., Trutzschler) now offer machines of a differentkind, i.e. for a continuous processing of the bales. With this method, theplucking device of the bale opener is inclined and extracts the material in awedge-shaped manner.The moment the bale at the lowest point of the wedge is completelyexhausted, a new bale at the other end is forwarded into the wedge. Thereplacement of the bales goes on one by one continuously andautomatically. In this case, one has to make sure that the average qualityparameters of the blend remain constant. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 36
  37. 37. BLENDOMAT BDT 020 (Trützschler) Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 37
  38. 38. Automatic bale openers BLENDOMAT BDT019 and BLENDOMAT BDT020:Fiber-saving, even openingProduction rates up to 1,500 kg/hrEasy operationMinimal maintenanceUniversally applicableUp to 3 bale groups at the same timeUp to 180 bales in the feedFeeding up to 3 linesLot work-off or continuous bale supplycontinuous bale supplyProcess visualization Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 38
  39. 39. The unifloc of RieterIn concept, this is currently the most widely used type of machine.Machines similar to the UNIfloc are built by Marzoli (B 12), and Trützschler(Blendomat) among others.The Rieter UNIfloc enables up to 130 bales arranged per side as fourcomponents (different bale types) per blend over a maximum layout lengthof 50 m to be processed. The machine can process one or two blendssimultaneously. The production rate is normally up to 1400 kg/h. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 39
  40. 40. The feed duct (D) and the two guide rails (5) are secured to the floor.The chassis (A), which moves back and forth on the guide rails, carries aturret (B), which is rotatable through 180° and supports a raisable andlowerable extracting assembly (C).The latter has individually replaceable double-tooth discs and changes itsdirection of rotation on reversal of the direction of movement of the chassis,so that material can be extracted in both directions of travel. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 40
  41. 41. UNIFLOC Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 41
  42. 42. Zone 2 Machines Pre-cleaning- they generally process the material while it is in free flight; and- the striker elements are widely spaced on the operating rollers.The opening effect is correspondingly small. This is acceptable in zone 2because an adequate surface area has already been created before thatstage. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 42
  43. 43. These machines are preceded by the bale-opening machines thatform small flocks and thus large surface areas.The bale-opening machines-themselves cannot clean these surfacesbecause they are not fitted with cleaning devices, or, where suchdevices are present, they can eliminate only a fraction of theimpurities owing to the high material throughput.In their basic design, pre-cleaning machines are optimal at their givenposition in the line but not at other positions. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 43
  44. 44. The Step CleanerThe step cleaner is disappearing more and more from the market. Inthis machine, the material falls into the feed hopper and passes to thefirst beater.From there, it is transported upwards by the six (sometimes four) beaterrollers, each carrying profiled bars; the beaters are arranged on a lineinclined upwards at 45°. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 44
  45. 45. The elimination of impuritiestakes place during thecontinual passage of thematerial over the gridsarranged under the rollers.The grids are alwaysadjustable, and usually thebeater speed is alsoadjustable. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 45
  46. 46. Dual-roller cleanerAn example of the dual-roller cleaner is the B31/1 of Marzoli . Hereagain, similar models are offered by other manufacturers. Themachine consists of a large cleaning chamber containing twodrums of 610-mm diameter rotating in the same direction. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 46
  47. 47. A fan downstream from the dual-roller cleaner (e.g. in a condenser)draws material through the machine by suction.Owing to the larger size of the chamber in comparison with that ofthe suction duct, the suction effect falls away in the chamber.The exit opening is arranged at a higher level than the infeedopening. Thus, only the smallest flocks can fly straight through. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 47
  48. 48. Most flocks fall into the region of the drums, where, for purpose ofcleaning, they are fed either once or more frequently over the grid barsbefore they can leave the machine. The spikes are arranged in a spiralon the drums in order to improve the passage of the material. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 48
  49. 49. Single roller cleanerA large roller equipped withspecially designed pins guidesthe raw material several timesover a set of grid bars betweenentry and exit , which results ina high cleaning efficiency. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 49
  50. 50. The material passessimultaneously through a dust-extraction system, which results ina high dedusting effect of themachine.The material-guidance systemwithin the machine is purelymechanical and independent of thetransportation of air. A vacuumsystem with a lock roller below themachine automatically removes thewaste.The machine excels in high cleaning efficiencies with the lowest fiber loss. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 50
  51. 51. Zone 3 - Blending MachinesThe Mixing BatteryThis was once the most common type of mixing, and it is still used. Themixing battery represents the conventional mode of mixing at the start ofthe process, from two to five mixing bale openers operate together;usually one of these openers is a waste feeder.A good blend is obtained because each opener can be supplied with aplurality of bales, and the opened material from all bale openers flowstogether onto a common conveyor belt . Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 51
  52. 52. Crosrol Blender (4CB/6CB) Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 52
  53. 53. Mixing Bale OpenerModel LB ¾(Lakshmi)Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 53
  54. 54. Multiple MixerThe machine consists of several (from six to eight) chute chambers intowhich the material is blown from above.The chutes are filled successively, and the material is removed from allchutes simultaneously. This gives a good long-term blend.Ejection of flocks onto a collecting conveyor is done by take-off and beatingrollers under the chutes. The filling height is held fairly constant by feelers. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 54
  55. 55. Multi-mixer MPM 6Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 55
  56. 56. Multi-mixer MCM 6 with cleaner CLEANOMAT CXL Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 56
  57. 57. Machines were available with filling heights of 2, 3, and 4 m.To increase the blending effect of normal chute blenders, somemanufacturers install two blenders in a line, mostly with a cleaningmachine positioned between both. For modern control systems,these blenders often serve also as a material buffer. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 57
  58. 58. UNImix of RieterThe machine is made up of three parts: a storage section, an intermediatechamber, and a delivery section.Flocks are fedpneumatically andsimultaneously into six J-shaped chutes (2),arranged one behind theother in the storagesection.A conveyor belt (3) leadsthe stock through theintermediate chamber tothe take-off unit. Thematerial columns are thusdiverted out of the verticalinto the horizontal. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 58
  59. 59. Mixer UNImix B 70(Rieter) Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 59
  60. 60. UnimixModel LB 7/3(Lakshmi) Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 60
  61. 61. UnimixModel LB 7/4(Lakshmi) Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 61
  62. 62. In addition to a condensing effect, this 90° bend in the material flowalso produces a shift in the timing and spatial distribution of transportof the fiber packets from the first to the last chute.This in turn results ingood long-term blending.Thereafter, as in ablending opener, materialis extracted from theintermediate chamberand subjected to a furtheropening step between aninclined spiked lattice (5)and an evener roller (7),giving an additional goodshort-term blending. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 62
  63. 63. An optical sensor ensures that only a small quantity of fiber stock isheld in the mixing chamber (6). After the spiked lattice, there iseither a simple pneumatic-suction feed to the next machine or acleaning unit. Both blending and cleaning machines are thusprovided in a single piece of equipment Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 63
  64. 64. BLOOWROOM – Dosage Blender Yarn produced with dosage blender Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 64
  65. 65. Zone 4 Fine Cleaning (I) machinesIn contrast to the zone 2 machines, those of zone 4 have again toproduce new surfaces, i.e. the cleaning operation must be precededby opening.Zone 4 machines therefore almost always operate with clamp feeds.Bladed rollers, spiked rollers, or rollers fitted with a coarse saw-tooth are generally used. These are often called horizontal openersor cleaners.Crosrol places in its horizontal opener (Three-roller Cleaner) threebladed rollers behind each other in a horizontal line.With a modern blowroom line, for many types of cotton the finecleaning line (I) is no longer required, only fine cleaning (II). Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 65
  66. 66. Horizontal Opener B34 of MarzoliThe machine is fed through a cage condenser. The feeding silo(1) has an adjustable side to vary its capacity according to therequired production and the type of material to processed.The material, whose level iscontrolled by a photocell, isconveyed through a pair ofgrooved feeding rollers (2)towards the nipping rollerand the feelers. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 66
  67. 67. he speed of the feeding rollers is varied by means of thepotentiometer in order to ensure the constant high yield of themachine in line with the requirement of the other machines in theproduction sequence.The opening-and-cleaningbox is equipped with abeater (3) and a grid (4)fitted with adjustableblades. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 67
  68. 68. The beater can be porcupine,three-blade, or of the carding type,and interchangeable in order toguarantee maximum versatility forevery process requirement.In the newly designed B35 cleaner,the bladed beaters. (porcupine) arereplaced by sawtooth rollers andthe grid bars by knife blades withcarding segments between them.Crosrol offers a horizontal cleanerwith three bladed beaters in a line. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 68
  69. 69. Zone 5 Machines - Fine Cleaning IIIn older installations, this zone was provided by the scutcher in the formof a Kirschner beater and still may be even in modern lines without ascutcher.Alternatively, or possibly in addition to the Kirschner beater, there may bea saw-tooth or needle roller.This form of intensive-cleaning zone, with a carding or combing roller,has been forced on spinners in the past, since cotton stock has becomesteadily more contaminated, and the impurities have becomeprogressively smaller. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 69
  70. 70. Where only one machine is used, the carding roller is preferredto the Kirschner beater.In this zone, machines from the individual manufacturers exhibitmany similarities.Often, they are universal machines, which can be fitted withdifferent types of opening roller.As a representative example, the Rieter cleaner will bedescribed. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 70
  71. 71. Fine Cleaning and DedustingMachine UNIflex B 60R ofRieterThis machine for the opening,cleaning, and dedusting ofcotton. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 71
  72. 72. Fine cleaner UNIflex B 60 Flexiclean (Rieter) Model LB 5/6(Lakshmi) Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 72
  73. 73. A fan in the feeding duct helps tosupply the machine with its rawmaterial.A specially designed flip-flop feedingdevice (I) forms a homogeneouswadding in the lamina chute (2) overthe whole length and width.The dust-laden transport air isextracted through the lamina chute.The adjustable depth of the chuteallows for a homogeneous fillingoperation to take place according tothe production requirements. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 73
  74. 74. Two drums (3) positioned at the bottomof the chute extract the material.One of them is perforated (4) to allowfor additional dedusting. The feedingroller (5) and the servomotor- controlledadjustable feeding plate pass the fiberson to the opening and cleaning unit (6).By using the operating panel (7), thenipping point can be adjusted accordingto the staple length of the material. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 74
  75. 75. The opening-and-cleaningcylinder (6) guides the fibersover a modular grid consistingof servomotor-adjustable moteknives (8), and one or twocarding elements. It separatesthe rest of the trash intensivelybut gently from the material.The angle of mote knives is alsoadjusted through the operatingpanel. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 75
  76. 76. By adapting the speed of opening and cleaning rollers, operationcan be adjusted to optimal demands. The clothing of the drum isadaptable to the required performance.Adjustments are made via the ‘cleaning-parameter’ field, menu-driven by using a display and keyboard. The ‘cleaning intensity’alters the nipping point and the speed of the opening-and-cleaningcylinder. By using the ‘amount-of-waste’ field is opened or closed. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 76
  77. 77. The Components of Blowroom MachinesFeed ApparatusFeed of material to the opening rollers occurs in free flight (gentle but lessintensive treatment of the fibers) or in a clamped condition (intensive butless gentle treatment).Free flight requires only a drop chute, suction pipe, or vortex transport fromrollers; a clamped-feed condition demands special machine components.Basically, feed devices can be distinguished according to whether theyconsist of: two co-operating clamping cylinders; a feed roller and a feedtable; or a feed roller and pedals. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 77
  78. 78. Operating with two clamping cylinders gives the best forwardingmotion, but unfortunately also the greatest clamping distance (a)between the cylinders and the beating elements. a Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 78
  79. 79. In a device having a feed roller and a table, the clamping distance a can bemade very small. This gives intensive opening.However, clamping over the entire width is poor since the roller pressesonly on the highest points of the wadding.Thin places in the web can be dragged out of the wadding as a clump bythe beaters. a Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 79
  80. 80. Where pedals are used, the table is divided into many sections, eachof which individually presses the web against the roller, e.g. via springpressure. This gives secure clamping with a small clamping distancea.As far as the feed system is concerned, influence can be exerted onopening and cleaning only via the type of clamping, mainly via theclamping distance (a) to the opening element. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 80
  81. 81. Opening DevicesThe great majority of operating devices in blowroom machinesfunction as opening devices.Only in co-operation with cleaning apparatus such as grids, etc.,can they be made to function as cleaning units.Consequently, they are designed to operated in both opening andcleaning machines.Opening units can be classified as:endless-path; gripping; rotating assemblies.Depending on their design, construction, adjustment, etc., theseassemblies exert enormous influence on the whole process. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 81
  82. 82. Endless-path Devices (Spiked Lattices)Spiked lattices serve as forwarding and opening devices in baleopeners and hopper feeders.They consist of circulating endless hoses or belts with transversebars at short intervals.The bars are of wood or plastics; steel spikes are set into the barsat a special angle and at greater or smaller spacing. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 82
  83. 83. Owing to their disposition, inclined lattices usually feed the materialupwards at an angle.The material is carried along by the spikes penetrating into the rawmaterial.Opening is obtained because in the upper region of the lattice thereis a counter-rotating roller, also clothed with spikes and locatedfairly close to the lattice.This roller strips the material from the inclined lattice. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 83
  84. 84. The counter-operation of the two systems of spikes causes theflocks to be plucked apart.The intensity of the opening action is dependent upon: - the distance between the devices; - speed relationships; - the total working surface; - and the number of points. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 84
  85. 85. Spiked lattices are usually located in hoppers.Since only a small part of the material — the smaller flocks — canpass between the very closely spaced spike systems, the greaterpart is continually thrown back into the hopper, and this has bothpositive and negative effects.On the one hand, the rotation leads to thorough mixing; on theother, neps are formed.Both effects become more marked as the quantity of material in thehopper increases. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 85
  86. 86. Rotating DevicesI-Rollers with Teeth (Blades) or SpikesShort, flat, oval, or round iron pegs are welded, riveted or screwed onthe surface of short cylinders.Flat and oval pegs are secured with the narrow side facing thedirection of rotation.Various spacing of the striker elements are used. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 86
  87. 87. These devices are incorporated mainly in modem horizontal cleaners,chute feeds, mixing bale openers, step cleaners, etc., which are locatedfrom the beginning to the middle of the blowroom line.At the start of the line, the spacing of the striker elements on the roller isgreater; finer spacings are used in the middle (to the end) of the line.The rollers rotate at speeds in the range of 600-1000 r/min. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 87
  88. 88. II-Drums with Teeth, Small Blades, or SpikesThe cylindrical parts are similar to those of the spiked rollers, but they havelarger diameters of 600 mm and more.The striking elements are mostly of the same type, though they may differ.In several designs, shafts carrying discs are used in place of cylindricalbodies (porcupine drum). Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 88
  89. 89. On their outer peripheries, the discs carry striker noses in the form ofwelded or riveted flat bars. The discs are maintained at the desired spacingby intervening collars.In all opening assemblies, it is important to avoid removal of material fromthe feed batt in strips. For this purpose, the teeth or spikes are usuallystaggered to varying degrees. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 89
  90. 90. The spacing of the striker elements on the drums is coarse when thedrum is designed for use at the start of the process (the Rieter UNIclean,for example) and fine when the drum is designed for use in the middle ortowards the end of the line (for example, as a porcupine cleaner).Rotation rates range between 400 and 800 r/min, and the device can bearranged parallel to or at right angles to the material flow. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 90
  91. 91. III-Rollers with Toothed DiscsIn contrast to spiked rollers or drums, which have quadrilateral or roundelements, toothed-disc units have noses triangular plucking elements(coarse sawteeth).The complete opening device is made up of many such toothed discssecured to a shaft with an appropriate number of distance pieces. Inthis case also, the removal of material in strips is to be avoided.In toothed discs, the teeth are almost always asymmetrically formed,since they have to operate in only one direction and therefore rotate inonly one sense. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 91
  92. 92. Automatic bale-opening machines often require alternativearrangements, since in many cases they move backwards and that is,the directions of movement and of removal of the material vary.The material-extracting roller should be sometimes in one directionand sometimes in the other.If only one roller is to be used, then it must have symmetrical teeththat are effective in both directions. This requirement can be satisfiedif the elements are formed as double teeth.(Rieter Unifloc).Rollers with toothed discs belong in the middle of the blowroom line,except for those included in bale openers. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 92
  93. 93. IV-Sawtooth RollersThe impurities have become steadily smaller owing to hard ginning.If the machine is to eliminate even the smallest particles, then moreflock surface must be created, i.e. the material must be opened tosubstantially smaller flocks than before, which is, for that purposeessential to use — sawtooth wire, for example. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 93
  94. 94. However, this roller not only gives the finest opening and the bestcleaning, but it also stresses the fibers most strongly. Setting the speedof rotation, and other adjustments, demands a ‘feel’ for the operation.Rotational speeds lie between 600 and 1000 r/min. Sawtooth rollers areused at the end of the line. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 94
  95. 95. V-Needle Rollers, Pinned RollersWhen processing long-staple and extra-long-staple cottons, thesawtooth rollers react very aggressively.Rollers with needles or pins are being used to protect the fibers inthis case.With medium-staple cottons having a low trash content, theapplication of needle rollers is also possible. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 95
  96. 96. Fully spiked roll Needle rollProf.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 96
  97. 97. VI- Beater Arms (Multiple-bladed Beaters)Multiple-bladed beaters consist mainly of two or three beater barsarranged parallel to the supporting shaft and held there by four orfive cast-iron arms.In the course of one rotation of the shaft, the web projecting fromthe feed rollers is subjected to two or three blows over its wholewidth. The opening effect, and hence the cleaning effect, is small.This machine is hardly used today; when it is found at all, it is onlyin the form of the double-beater scutcher. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 97
  98. 98. VII-Beaters with Pinned or Needle Bars (Kirschner Beaters)These machines are similar to the multiple-bladed beaters, but, insteadof beater bars, pinned bars (pinned lags) are secured to the ends of thecast-iron arms.The relatively high degree of penetration gives good opening.Kirschner beaters are therefore often used at the last opening position inthe blowroom line, since good pre-opening of the fiber material enablesgentle opening to be achieved at the taker-in of the card. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 98
  99. 99. The cleaning efficiency of the Kirschner beater is high, but unfortunatelyfiber elimination is too hign.Some machinery manufacturers have therefore replaced the grid underthe Kirschner beater with a guide plate; the resulting machine is anopener, but no longer a cleaner.Kirschner beaters comb through the web at speeds of 800—900 r/min. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 99
  100. 100. The GridIt is the grid or a grid-like structure underthe opening assembly that determines thelevel of waste and its composition ingums of impurities and good fibers.Grids are segment-shaped devices underthe opening assemblies and consist ofseveral (or many) individual polygonalbars or blades (i.e. elements with edges),and together these form a trough.The grid encircles at least a quarter, atmost three-quarters, and usually from athird to a half of the opening assembly. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 100
  101. 101. The grid has a large influence onthe cleaning effect via: the sectionof the bars; the grasping effect ofthe edges of the polygonal bars;the setting angle of the barsrelative to the opening elements;the width of the gaps between thebars; and the over-all surfacearea of the grid. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 101
  102. 102. Elements used in the grids can be ;• slotted sheets (a);• perforated sheets (b);• triangular section bars (c); b a• angle bars (d);• blades (e) (like mote knifes). c d e Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 102
  103. 103. Grid AdjustmentThree basic adjustments are possible- distance of the complete grid to the beater;- width of the gaps between the bars (a = closed, b = open); and- setting angle relative to the beater envelope (c = aggressive, b = glancing). a b c Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 103
  104. 104. It is seldom possible to make all three adjustments; the machines aregenerally so designed that only two adjustment types are possible.With carding segments, only the distance has to be changed. Prof.Dr. A.Kirecci - TE 211 Yarn Man. I 104