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7. osteology of head(skull)
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7. osteology of head(skull)

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  • 1. OSTEOLOGY OF HEAD(SKULL)
  • 2. SKULL  The skull is composed of 22 bones, which may be divided into the cerebral cranium and facial cranium  Cerebral cranium (8) ―larger, upper and posterior part, contains and protects the brain  Single bones: include frontal bone ethmoid bone sphenoid bone occipital bone  Paired bones: include temporal bone parietal bone
  • 3. BONES OF CALVARIUM PARIETAL (2) FRONTAL (1) SPHENOID (1) OCCIPITAL (1) TEMPORAL (2)
  • 4.  Bones of facial cranium (14) ―smaller, lower, and anterior part, contains bones that surrounded the eye, nose and mouth Single bones: include mandible vomer  Paired bones: include maxilla nasal bone lacrimal bone palatine bone zygomatic bone inferior nasal concha 
  • 5. LANDMARKS AND BONES 1. FRONT OF SKULL FRONTAL (1) NASAL (2) ORBIT EYE SOCKET NASAL APERTURE BONE BONES ZYGOMATIC BONE (2) FORMS CHEEK MAXILLARY BONE (2)ALVEOLAR PROCESS FOR UPPER TEETH MANDIBLE(1)ALVEOLAR PROCESS FOR LOWER TEETH
  • 6. parietal bone Frontal bone Zygomatic bone Nasal bone Maxilla Mandible Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Occipital bone
  • 7. THE SKULL AS A WHOLE Skull viewed from above (superior view) NORMA VERTICALIS       Visible bones: 1-The frontal bone anteriorly 2-The occipital bone posteriorly 3-The two parietals in between 4-The upper part of squamous temporal laterally 5-The zygomatic arch (zygomatic process of the temporal & temporal process of the zygomatic bones).
  • 8. NORMA VERTICALIS         Visible sutures: 1-The coronal suture: - Across the skull - Between the frontal & parietal bones 2-The sagittal suture: - Between the two parietals in the midline plane - It meets the coronal suture anteriorly & the lambdoid posteriorly 3-The lambdoid suture: - Very coarse, tortuous, inverted-V like suture whose apex meets the posterior end of the sagittal suture Its diverging two limbs descend in the direction of the mastoid process to meet the occipito-temporal suture Separates the occipital from the parietal bones Frequently contains sutural bones.
  • 9. NOSE B. SUTURES 1. CORONAL SUTURE 2. SAGITTAL SUTURE 3. LAMBDOIDAL SUTURE C. LANDMARKS 1. BREGMA -MID POINT OF CORONAL SUTURE 2. LAMBDA MID POINT OF LAMBDOIDAL SUTURE
  • 10. NORMA VERTICALIS              Stigmata: 1-The superciliary ridges: - form the anterior limit of this view. 2-The lambda “posterior fontanelle”: The meeting point between the sagittal & lambdoid sutures It is a triangular opening in neonates & closes in the very early few months of life 3-The bregma “anterior fontanelle”: Is the meeting point between the sagittal & coronal sutures It is a star-shape opening in neonates whose closure is delayed to 1.5 years of life 4-The parietal foramina: Two small foramina, one in each parietal bone near the sagittal suture They transmit parietal emissary veins They are nearer to the posterior pole
  • 11. FONTANELLES - MEMBRANES LINK BONES AT BIRTH - FONTANELLES PERMIT CRANIAL COMPRESSION AT BIRTH - CRANIAL GROWTH 2. POSTERIOR FONTANELLEAT LAMBDA 1. ANTERIOR FONTANELL E AT BREGMA 3. LATERAL FONTANEL LE AT PTERION
  • 12. NORMA OCCIPITALIS Skull viewed from behind          Visible bones: 1-The occipital bone 2-The parietal bones 3-The temporal bones Visible sutures: 1-Sagittal suture 2-Lambdoidal suture 3-Occipito-temporal (occipitomastoid) suture 4-Parieto-mastoid suture.
  • 13. NORMA OCCIPITALIS         Stigmata: 1-The lambda. 2-The mastoid foramen: adjacent to the occipito-mastoid suture, transmits the mastoid emissary vein 3-The external occipital protuberance (EOP): a marked rounded process in the occipital bone in the midline easily felt through the skin 4-The external occipital crest: a well-defined midline ridge extending between the EOP & the foramen magnum 5-The highest nuchal line: faint line starts from the EOP & extends laterally in an upward curve in the direction of the mastoid process 6-The superior nuchal line: just below the highest one & more marked than it 7-The inferior nuchal line: between the superior one & foramen magnum, it is also a well defined line.
  • 14. POSTERIOR VIEW OF SKULL OCCIPITAL BONE EXTERNAL OCCIPITAL PROTUBERANCE SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR NUCHAL LINES
  • 15. LATERAL VIEW OF THE SKULL (NORMA LATERALIS)  Visible bones:  1-The frontal bone.  2-The parietal bone.  3-The occipital bone.  4-The temporal bone.  5-The sphenoid.  6-The zygomatic bone.  7-The nasal bone.  8-The maxilla.  9-The lacrimal bone.  10-The mandible.
  • 16. NORMA LATERALIS Visible sutures:  1- The coronal suture.  2-Temporo-parietal (squamosal) suture.  3- The occipito-mastoid suture.  4- Temporo-zygomatic suture.  5- Zygomatico-maxillary suture.  6- The fronto-nasal suture. 
  • 17. NORMA LATERALIS          Stigmata: 1-The temporal lines: Two lines (superior & inferior) Start at the root of the zygomatic process of the frontal bone & diverge as they go posteriorly curving upward, then inferiorly & then anteriorly completing the circle by joining the posterior root of the zygomatic arch. 2-The infratemporal crest: The rough lower free edge of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone Usually hidden by the zygomatic arch It separates the temporal fossa above from the infratemporal fossa below 3-The temporal fossa: is the area bounded by the superior temporal line & infratemporal crest.
  • 18. NORMA LATERALIS  4-The zygomatic arch: formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone (posterior ¾) & the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (anterior ¼)  5-The pterion: Is the point where the coronal suture meets the spheno-parietal suture in the floor of the temporal fossa It represents the lateral fontanelle    6-The asterion: is the meeting point between the temporo-parietal & lambdoid sutures  7-The temporo-mandibular joint: Seen at the inferior aspect of the posterior root of the zygomatic arch 
  • 19. NORMA LATERALIS 8-The external acoustic meatus.  9-The suprameatal triangle:  Lies postero-superior to the meatus  Is an important surgical landmark in ear surgery   10-The mastoid process: is the downward projecting mamillary process of the temporal bone lies behind the external acoustic meatus 11-The styloid process:  Sometimes seen projecting down deep to the external acoustic meatus  Is a part of the temporal bone 
  • 20. LANDMARKS CORONAL SUTURE 3. PTERION -JUNCTION OF TEMPORAL SPHENOID PARIETAL & FRONTAL BONES NOSE
  • 21. LATERAL VIEW OF SKULL ZYGOMATIC ARCH1)ZYGOMATIC BONE 2)MAXILLARY BONEZYGOMATIC PROCESS 3)TEMPORAL BONEZYGOMATIC PROCESS TEMPORAL BONE - PARTS 1)MASTOID PROCESS hard 2)SQUAMOUS PART- flat 3)TYMPANIC PART - ANT. TO EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS 4)PETROUS PART - inside skull TEMPORO-MANDIBULAR JOINTFROM RAMUS OF MANDIBLE
  • 22. SKULL VIEWED FROM THE FRONT (ANTERIOR VIEW) NORMA FRONTALIS                Visible bones: 1-The frontal bone. 2-The bones of the nose: Nasal bones Vomer Ethmoid Inferior turbinates 3-The bones of the orbit: Lacrimal Sphenoid Ethmoid Other facial bones 4-The maxillae. 5-The zygomatic bones. 6-The mandible.
  • 23. NORMA FRONTALIS      Visible sutures: 1- The fronto-nasal suture, between the nasal bones & the nasal process of the frontal bone. 2- The internasal suture, between the two nasal bones. 3- The fronto-zygomatic suture: between the zygomatic process of the frontal bone & the frontal process of the zygomatic bone lateral to the orbit. 4- The zygomatico-maxillary suture: oblique suture between the zygomatic bone laterally & maxilla medially.
  • 24. NORMA FRONTALIS      Stigmata: 1-Superciliary arches: are two blunt elevations in the frontal bone overlying the medial ends of both orbits 2-The glabella; is the depression between the two superciliary arches 3-The supra-orbital foramina: are located at the junction of the medial & middle thirds of each superior orbital margin & transmit the vessels & nerves of its own name. 4-The nasion: is the cross point between the frontonasal & internasal sutures
  • 25. NORMA FRONTALIS      5-The anterior nasal aperture: an oval opening narrower above than below from which the cavity of the bony nose is seen 6-The anterior nasal spine: is a sharp spine in the inferior border of the anterior nasal aperture in the midline 7-The canine eminence: is an elevation surrounding the root of the canine tooth 8-The incisive fossa: a light depression in the maxilla medial to the canine eminence 9-The canine fossa: a more deep depression lateral to the eminence
  • 26. NORMA FRONTALIS     10-The infra-orbital foramina: well defined rounded foramina in the maxillae just below the inferior orbital margin, they transmit the nerves & vessels carrying its own name 11-The symphysis menti: is a midline ridge in the body of the mandible 12-The mental protuberance: enlarged triangular lower end of the symphysis 13-Mental foramina: small foramina in the mandible, one below each second lower premolar tooth & transmit the mental vessels & nerves
  • 27. FRONT OF SKULL INFRAORBITAL FORAMEN - IN MAXILLARY BONE MENTAL FORAMEN- IN MANDIBLE BELOW SECOND PREMOLAR TOOTH

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