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1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
1..disease & water electrlyte balance
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1..disease & water electrlyte balance

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  • Underlying=basic
  • Describe推导  deduce; derive; reason; derivation
  • The state of the organism when it functions
    optimally without any evidence of disease.
    The definition of health from
  • microorganisms, environmental, social
    factors and personal habits as contributing
    factors that cause diseases.
  • The state of the organism when it functions -----WHO
    optimally without any evidence of disease.
    The definition of health from
  • 序曲: [ xù qǔ ]   1. sinfonia其它相关解释:<prelude> <overture> <introduction>
    前奏: [ qián zòu ]   1. prelusion2. prelude3. foreplay4. intrada
    高潮: [ gāo cháo ]   1. upsurge2. high water3. high tide其它相关解释:<climax> <upsurgence> <heat> <payoff> <meridian circle> <hightide> <tidemark> <acquaalta> <comble> <eagre> <at high tide> <spring tide> <flood> <maximum tide> <tide> <wave> 例句与用法:1.乐曲接近高潮。The music approached a climax
    尾声: [ wěi shēng ]   1. epilogue1.解说员在伊丽莎白戏剧中朗诵序言和尾声以及有时关于演出评论的演员
    An actor in Elizabethan drama who recites the prologue and epilogue to a play and sometimes comments on the action.
  • ADH enhances
  • Transcript

    • 1. Pathophysiology Dr. Yahya Ibn Ilias
    • 2. Pathophysiology ? = Abnormal physiology + Abnormal biochemistry
    • 3. Pathophysiology = Explore the rule of origin and evolution of disease processes and the underlying mechanisms. (Basing on physiology and biochemistry)
    • 4. ? Basic medicine Clinical medicine 2. Why to study Pathophysiology ? Explain “Why and How” of diseases
    • 5. Why Is Pathophysiology Important?  An essential introduction to clinical medicine.  A bridge: basic medicine and diseases.  Enables us to understand why and how diseases develop and various clinical manifestations appear.  What are the underlying mechanisms, and in so doing devise rational therapeutics.
    • 6. Disease
    • 7. 1. Concept of Disease  Aberrant manifestation of deregulated homeostasis caused by harmful agents.  The development of a disease is a pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms involved in the whole body or any of its parts.
    • 8. Concept of Health Without any evidence of disease, and a state of complete well-being Physically, Socially and Psychologically. ----- WHO
    • 9. 2. Etiology of Disease  Etiology is to study the causative agents,  Answer the question why disease happens.
    • 10. Complete well-beingComplete well-being PhysicallyPhysically SociallySocially PsychologicallyPsychologically Extrinsic FactorsExtrinsic Factors Intrinsic FactorsIntrinsic Factors Predisposing factorsPredisposing factors Precipitating factorsPrecipitating factors
    • 11. Extrinsic FactorsExtrinsic Factors  The extrinsic causes include : 1. Biological agents 2. Chemical agents 3. Physical agents 4. Nutritional imbalance
    • 12. Intrinsic FactorsIntrinsic Factors  Intrinsic causes consists of 1. Genetic factors 2. Congenital factors 3. Immunological factors 4. Psychological factors
    • 13. 3. Pathogenesis of diseases  General rules for pathogenesis of diseases 1. Disruption of homeostasis. 2. Process of damage and anti-damage. 3. Reversal role of cause and result. 4. Correlation between systemic and local regulations.
    • 14.  Neural regulationsNeural regulations  Humoral regulationsHumoral regulations  Cellular regulationsCellular regulations  Molecular regulationsMolecular regulations Basic Mechanisms for Disease
    • 15. 4. Phases of Diseases Latency Prodrome RecoveryDiseaseDisease Clinical symptoms
    • 16. Outcome of Disease Outcome of a disease Recovery Death Complete recovery Incomplete recovery
    • 17. Death  The body as a whole stops working forever.  Brain death is the marker for the diagnosis.
    • 18. Brain Death (WHO criteria)  Cessation of spontaneous respiration.  Irreversible coma.  Absence of cephalic reflexes.  Dilated or fixed pupils.  Absence of any electrical activity of the brain.  Absence of brain blood flow
    • 19. Body fluid, Electrolytes balance and imbalance
    • 20.  Fluids and Electrolytes are present in body cells, in the tissue spaces between the cells, and in the blood that fills the vascular compartment.  Body fluids serve to transport gases, nutrients, and wastes; help to generate the electrical activity needed to power body functions; take part in the transforming of food into energy.
    • 21. COMPOSITION AND COMPARTMENTAL DISTRIBUTION OF BODY FLUIDS  Body fluids are distributed between the Intracellular fluid (ICF) and Extracellular fluid (ECF) compartments.  The ICF compartment is the larger of the two compartments, containing approximately two thirds of the body fluid in healthy adults.  The remaining one third of body water is in the ECF compartment, including that in the interstitial or tissue spaces and blood vessels.
    • 22.  The ECF, including the plasma and interstitial fluids,contain large amounts of sodium and chloride, moderate amounts of bicarbonate, but only small quantities of potassium.  In contrast to the ECF fluid, the ICF contains small amounts of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate and large amounts of potassium.
    • 23. Osmolality of body fluids  The cell membrane is highly permeable to water but relatively impermeable to most solutes.  Osmosis : The tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.
    • 24. Osmotic pressure :  The amount of pressure required to oppose the osmosis is termed as Osmotic pressure.
    • 25.  Osmole : the total number of particles in a solution is measured in terms of “Osmoles”.  Osmolality : the concentration of an osmotic solution especially when measured in osmols or milliosmols per KG of water.  Osmolarity : the concentration of an osmotic solution especially when measured in osmols or milliosmols per Litre of water.
    • 26.  Tonicity. A change in water content causes cells to swell or shrink.
    • 27. Water balance  Regardless of age, all healthy persons require approximately 100 mL of water per 100 calories metabolized for dissolving and eliminating metabolic wastes.  This means that a person who expends 1800 calories for energy requires approximately 1800 mL of water for metabolic purposes. (The metabolic rate increases with fever; it rises approximately 12% for every 1°C (7% for every 1°F) increase in body temperature.)
    • 28. Mechanisms of Regulation of Water Balance Disturbance Volume Osmotic pressure ADH RAAS Thirst Thirst ADH RAAS Regulation pathway
    • 29. Thirst  Thirst is controlled by the thirst center in the hypothalamus.  There are two stimuli for true thirst based on water need: (1) cellular dehydration caused by an increase in extracellular osmolality and (2) a decrease in blood volume,
    • 30.  Sensory neurons, called osmoreceptors, which are located in or near the thirst center in the hypothalamus, respond to changes in extracellular osmolality by stimulating the sensation of thirst.
    • 31. The regulation of ADH ADH released BP/Blood volume + Stretch receptor + Plasma osmotic pressure + Osmoreceptor reabsorption↑ of free water in renal tubules
    • 32. RAAS
    • 33. To be continued……..

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