BRAIN
INTRODUCTION TO BRAIN
Protected by skull, connected to the spinal cord
 Weight – 3pounds but have – 100 billion cells
 A...
PARTS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM


Central nervous system –
1. Brain
2. Spinal cord



Peripheral nervous system –
1. Somatic (ce...
PARTS OF BRAIN
Parts

Subdivision

Cavity

Forebrain
Prosencephalon

1. Cerebrum
(Telencephalon)

Lateral venticle

2. Tha...
PARTS OF THE BRAIN

amygdala

hippocampus

pituitary

CEREBELLUM
 Coordination
and balance
BRAINSTEM  Heart
rate and bre...
PARTS OF BRAIN
And also:Grey Matter
White Matter
Cerebral Fluid
CEREBRUM



Largest part of the brain
Cerebral hemispheresLeft Hemisphere
Right hemisphere



Cerebral hemispheres Act ...
CEREBELLUM
Also known as ‘little
brain’
 Third part of the hind
brain
 Has two hemispheres and
has a cortex
 It coordin...
MEDULLA OBLONGATA
Lower portion of the brainstem
 Controls automatic and homeostatic activities,
such as: Swallowing Dige...
GREY MATTER – WHITE MATTER CSF
Grey matter contains neural cell bodies.
 It processes and stores information
 White matt...
CELLULAR ARCHITECTURE
In CNS, nervous tissue made up of –
 Nerve cells(neurons)
 Neuroglial cells (neuroglia)


In peri...
NEURONS


1. Cell body – in CNS(grey matter and nuclei)
in PNS(ganglia)



2. Cell processes – Axons & Dendrites
In CNS,...
Axons
•Take information away
from the cell body
•Smooth Surface

Dendrites

•Bring information to the
cell body
•Rough Sur...
CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS
One way to classify neurons is by the number of
extensions that extend from the neuron's cell bo...


Pseudounipolar neurons (example: dorsal root
ganglion cells). Actually, these cells have 2 axons
rather than an axon an...


Unipolar neurons (example – mesencephalic
nucleus of trigeminal nerve)
Occurs during foetal life.


Multipolar neurons have many processes that
extend from the cell body. However, each neuron
has only one axon (examples...
CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS
Neurons can also be classified by the direction that
they send information.
 Sensory (or affere...
CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS
According to length of axon –
 1. Golgi type I (long axon)
 2. Golgi type II(short axon)

NEUROGLIAL CELLS(NEUROGLIA)
Astrocytes (nutrition of nervous tissue)
 Oligodendrocytes (myelinate the tracts)
 Microglia...
SYNAPSE
Definition - Chemicals released from the 1 st neuron
and bind to receptors in the 2nd.
 Transmission of an electr...
brain
brain
brain
brain
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brain

  1. 1. BRAIN
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO BRAIN Protected by skull, connected to the spinal cord  Weight – 3pounds but have – 100 billion cells  Acts as a command and control centre for the body's voluntary actions. Main co-coordinating centre for automatic actions  Brain + Spinal cord = CNS 
  3. 3. PARTS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM  Central nervous system – 1. Brain 2. Spinal cord  Peripheral nervous system – 1. Somatic (cerebrospinal) nervous system 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves 2. Autonomic (splanchnic) nervous system sympathetic system parasympathetic system
  4. 4. PARTS OF BRAIN Parts Subdivision Cavity Forebrain Prosencephalon 1. Cerebrum (Telencephalon) Lateral venticle 2. Thalamus , Third ventricle hypothalamus, metathalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus,(diencephalon) Midbrain Mesencephalon Crus cerebri, substantia nigra, tegmentum, Hindbrain 1. Pons , cerebellum Rhombencephalon (Metencephalon) 2. Medulla oblongata (myelencephalon) Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle
  5. 5. PARTS OF THE BRAIN amygdala hippocampus pituitary CEREBELLUM  Coordination and balance BRAINSTEM  Heart rate and breathing
  6. 6. PARTS OF BRAIN And also:Grey Matter White Matter Cerebral Fluid
  7. 7. CEREBRUM   Largest part of the brain Cerebral hemispheresLeft Hemisphere Right hemisphere  Cerebral hemispheres Act as integrating center for high complex functions, such as: Memory, learning, emotion, language, reasoning  Cerebral cortex – 4 sections – “Lobes” – Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe and Temporal lobe.
  8. 8. CEREBELLUM Also known as ‘little brain’  Third part of the hind brain  Has two hemispheres and has a cortex  It coordinates unconscious functions, such as: Body movements Posture and balance 
  9. 9. MEDULLA OBLONGATA Lower portion of the brainstem  Controls automatic and homeostatic activities, such as: Swallowing Digestion & Vomiting, Breathing, Heart activity  
  10. 10. GREY MATTER – WHITE MATTER CSF Grey matter contains neural cell bodies.  It processes and stores information  White matter comprises the nerve fibers  Carry information from one part of our brain to another  CSF protects the brain from shocks and supports the venous sinuses.  Important role in the homeostasis and metabolism of CNS 
  11. 11. CELLULAR ARCHITECTURE In CNS, nervous tissue made up of –  Nerve cells(neurons)  Neuroglial cells (neuroglia)  In peripheral nervous tissue –  Schwann cells  Loose connective tissue 
  12. 12. NEURONS  1. Cell body – in CNS(grey matter and nuclei) in PNS(ganglia)  2. Cell processes – Axons & Dendrites In CNS, Axons form white matter In PNS, Axons form nerves
  13. 13. Axons •Take information away from the cell body •Smooth Surface Dendrites •Bring information to the cell body •Rough Surface (dendritic spines) •Generally only 1 axon per •Usually many dendrites cell per cell •No ribosomes •Have ribosomes •Can have myelin •No myelin insulation •Branch further from the •Branch near the cell body cell body
  14. 14. CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS One way to classify neurons is by the number of extensions that extend from the neuron's cell body (soma).  Bipolar neurons have two processes extending from the cell body (examples: retinal cells, olfactory epithelium cells). 
  15. 15.  Pseudounipolar neurons (example: dorsal root ganglion cells). Actually, these cells have 2 axons rather than an axon and dendrite. One axon extends centrally toward the spinal cord, the other axon extends toward the skin or muscle.
  16. 16.  Unipolar neurons (example – mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve) Occurs during foetal life.
  17. 17.  Multipolar neurons have many processes that extend from the cell body. However, each neuron has only one axon (examples: spinal motor neurons, pyramidal neurons, Purkinje cells).
  18. 18. CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS Neurons can also be classified by the direction that they send information.  Sensory (or afferent) neurons: send information from sensory receptors (e.g., in skin, eyes, nose, tongue, ears) TOWARD the central nervous system.  Motor (or efferent) neurons: send information AWAY from the central nervous system to muscles or glands.  Interneurons: send information between sensory neurons and motor neurons. Most interneurons are located in the central nervous system. 
  19. 19. CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS According to length of axon –  1. Golgi type I (long axon)  2. Golgi type II(short axon) 
  20. 20. NEUROGLIAL CELLS(NEUROGLIA) Astrocytes (nutrition of nervous tissue)  Oligodendrocytes (myelinate the tracts)  Microglia (macrophages of CNS)  Ependymal cells (columnar cells lining cavity of CNS) 
  21. 21. SYNAPSE Definition - Chemicals released from the 1 st neuron and bind to receptors in the 2nd.  Transmission of an electrical signal from one neuron to the next by neurotransmitters  Specialized junctions through which neurons signal to each other & to non-neuronal cells  Adult human brain approximately contain 1014 to 5 × 1014 (100-500 trillion) synapses. 
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