Ch4pt1 violence injury_p_pwaudioshow


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Ch4pt1 violence injury_p_pwaudioshow

  1. 1. Chapter 4 LectureHealth: The BasicsTenth EditionPreventing Violenceand Injury
  2. 2. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Preventing Violence and Injury• Violence is the intentional use of physical forceor power, threatened or actual, againstoneself, another person, or against a group orcommunity that either results ininjury, death, psychologicalharm, maldevelopment, or deprivation(WHO, 2002).• Intentional injuries include injury, death, orpsychological harm caused by violence with theintent to harm vs. Unintentional injuries includeinjury, death, or psychological harm causedunintentionally, often as a result of circumstance.
  3. 3. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Violence in the United States• Unintentional injuries, particularly frommotor vehicle crashes, are the numberone cause of death among 15–24-year-olds in the United States.• After steadily increasing from 1973 to2006, the rates of overall crime have beendecreasing recently.• Violent crimes involve force or threat offorce, and include murder, non-negligentmanslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, andaggravated assault.
  4. 4. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Declining Crime Rates
  5. 5. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Violence in the United States (cont.)• Most violence is underreported.• Disparities in crime rates exist based onrace, sex, age, socioeconomicstatus, geography, and other factors.• Last year, there were an estimated 4.3million crimes against U.S. residents aged12 and older.
  6. 6. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Crime Clock
  7. 7. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Violence on U.S. Campuses• The most deadly mass shooting in U.S.history took place at Virginia Tech on April16, 2007.– Today it would be hard to find a campuswithout a safety plan in place.• Ninety-three percent of crimes againstcollege students occur at off-campuslocations.• Almost 8% of women and 3.8% of menreport being stalked.
  8. 8. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.• Political differences• Breakdowns in thecriminal justicesystem• Stress• Heavy substanceuseFactors Contributing to Violence• Poverty• Unemployment• Parental influence• Cultural beliefs• Discrimination oroppression• Religious beliefs anddifferences
  9. 9. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.What Makes Some People Prone toViolence?• Personal factors can also increase risksfor violence.• Emerging evidence suggests that thefamily and home environment may be thegreatest contributor to eventual violentbehavior.
  10. 10. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Predictors of Violence• People who anger quickly often have lowtolerance for frustration.– Aggressive behavior may be primaryaggression that is goal-directed, hostile self-assertion that is destructive in nature.– Reactive aggression is part of an emotionalreaction brought about by frustrating lifeexperiences.• Substance abuse is closely linked toviolence, even though research has failedto show it causes violence.
  11. 11. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.How Much Impact Do the Media Have?• Although early studies supported a linkbetween the violent media andsubsequent violent behavior, recent workfails to support this association.• Today, young people are exposed to moreviolence through media than at any othertime, without a corresponding increase inviolent behavior.
  12. 12. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Intentional Injuries• Intentional injuries cause pain andsuffering at the very least, and death anddisability at the worst.• Homicide is the 15th leading cause ofdeath overall and the 2nd cause of deathfor people age 15–24.– Most homicides are not random acts ofviolence—more than half of all homicidesoccur among people who know one another.
  13. 13. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Bias-Motivated Crimes, 2009
  14. 14. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Hate and Bias Crimes• A hate crime is committed against aperson, property, or group of people withthe motivation fueled by the offenders biasagainst race, religion, disability, sexualorientation, or ethnicity.• Bias-related crime, orethnoviolence, describes violence againstethnic groups in the larger society that isbased on prejudice and discrimination.
  15. 15. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Reasons for Hate and Bias Crimes• Common reasons given to explain thesecrimes include– Thrill seeking– Feeling threatened– Retaliation– Fearing the unknown• For some, hate crimes are a part of theirmission in life due to religious zeal ordistorted moral beliefs.
  16. 16. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Gang Violence• Gang violence includes drug and sextrafficking, shootings, beatings, thefts, carjackings, and the killing of innocent victims caught inthe cross fire.• Gang members are usually 12–22 years old.• Risk factors for gang membership include lowself-esteem, academic problems, lowsocioeconomic status, alienation from family andsociety, family violence, and living in gang-controlled neighborhoods.
  17. 17. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Terrorism• Terrorism is the unlawful use of force orviolence against persons or property tointimidate or coerce a government, thecivilian population, or any segmentthereof, in furtherance of political or socialobjectives.• Effects on the economy include costs offood and fuel, travel restrictions, additionalsecurity measures, and military buildups.