ERP is the acronym of Enterprise Resource Planning. ERP utilizes ERP software applications to improve the performance of organizations' resource planning, management control and operational control. ERP software is multi-module application software that integrates activities across functional departments, from product planning, parts purchasing, inventory control, product distribution, to order tracking. ERP software may include application modules for the finance, accounting and human resources aspects of a business.
The initials ERP originated as an extension of MRP (material requirements planning; later manufacturing resource planning) and CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing). It was introduced by research and analysis firm Gartner in 1990.
ERP software is made up of many software modules. Each ERP software module mimics a major functional area of an organization. Common ERP modules include modules for product planning, parts and material purchasing, inventory control, product distribution, order tracking, finance, accounting, marketing, and HR.
An ERP system has a service-oriented architecture. In computing, service-oriented architecture (SOA) provides methods for systems development and integration where systems package functionality as interoperable services. A SOA infrastructure allows different applications to exchange data with one another.
An ERP system has a service-oriented architecture with modular hardware and software units or "services" that communicate on a local area network. The modular design allows a business to add or reconfigure modules (perhaps from different vendors) while preserving data integrity in one shared database that may be centralized or distributed.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is the evolution of Manufacturing Requirements Planning (MRP) II. From business perspective, ERP has expanded from coordination of manufacturing processes to the integration of enterprise-wide backend processes. From technological aspect, ERP has evolved from legacy implementation to more flexible tiered client-server architecture.