IntroductionFood processing is the transformation of raw ingredients into food, or of food into other forms. Food processing typically takes clean, harvested crops or butchered animal products and uses these to produce attractive, marketable and often long shelf-life food products. Similar processes are used to produce animal feed.
The food processing sector is highly fragmented industry, it widely comprises of the following sub-segments: fruits and vegetables,milk and milk products, beer and alcoholic beverages, meat andpoultry, marine products, grain processing, packaged orconvenience food and packaged drinks. A huge number of entrepreneurs in this industry are small in terms of their production and operations, and are largely concentrated in the unorganized segment. This segment accounts for more than 70% of the output in terms of volume and 50% in terms of value. Though the organized sector seems comparatively small, it is growing at a much faster pace.
Brief history• Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated slaughtering, fermenting, sun drying, preserving with salt, and various types of cooking (such as roasting, smoking, steaming, and oven baking)• In 1809 Nicolas Appert invented a vacuum bottling technique that would supply food for French troops
• This contributed to the • In the 20th century, food development of tinning and processing developed with then canning by Peter Durand advances such as spray drying, in 1810. juice concentrates, freeze• Pasteurization, discovered drying and the introduction of by Louis Pasteur in 1862, was artificial sweeteners, coloring a significant advance in agents, and preservatives ensuring the micro-biological such as sodium benzoate safety of food. • In the late 20th century products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, and self cooking meals such as MRE food ration were developed.
Fermentation The fermentation bioprocess: • Is the major biotechnological application in food processing• It is one of the steps in the sequence of various food processing operations.• Makes use of microbial inoculants to enhance – taste – Aroma – Shelf-life – Texture – Nutritional Value
Schematic steps of an ideal fermentation process inoculants Fermented Raw productmaterial Bioreactor Downstream processes Pre treatment Product separation Final product Incubation
The Indian ScenarioIndia, with the second arable land in the world, andwith diverse agro-climatic zones across the country,has tremendous production advantages inagriculture, with the potential to cultivate a vastrange of agricultural products. For example, Indiaproduces 41% of world’s mangoes, 30% ofcauliflowers, 28% of tea, 23% of bananas, 24% ofcashew nuts, 36% of green peas and 10% of onions.This strong base in agriculture provides a large andvaried raw material base for food processing. Theseadvantages if leveraged optimally, can translateinto India becoming a leading food supplier to theworld.
Indian trends in the Food Processing Industries
In recent years, the Indian food processing industry has experienced sudden growth levels, owing to increasing urbanization and commercialization. These post liberalization trends have led to changing lifestyle, food habits and a more organized food retail. There has been a notable change in consumption pattern in India. Unlike earlier, now the share and growth rates for fruits, vegetables, meats and dairy have gone higher compared to cereals and pulses. Such a shift implies a need to diversify the food production base to match the changing consumption preferences.
Structure of the Indian Food Processing Industry
In terms of policy support, the ministry of food processing has taken the following initiatives:1. Formulation of the National Food Processing Policy2. Complete de-licensing, excluding for alcoholic beverages3. Declared as priority sector for lending in 19994. 100% FDI on automatic route5. Excise duty waived on fruits and vegetables processing from 2000 – 016. Income tax holiday for fruits and vegetables processing from 2004 – 057. Customs duty reduced on freezer van from 20% to 10% from 2005 – 068. Implementation of Fruit Products Order9. Implementation of Meat Food Products Order10.Enactment of FSS Bill 200511.Food Safety and Standards Bill, 2005
ConclusionThough there is tremendous potential in the foodprocessing industry, it needs strong and dependablechain facilities to support the increasing productionof various perishable products like milk, fruits,vegetables, poultry etc. Any attempts to projectemerging trends during the new millennium mustbe viewed in the backdrop of anticipated changes inthe global trade of food commodities under theWTO(world trade organization) regime. Further, anumber of major influences which will govern thefuture trends in new products development so faras global food is concerned.