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  • 2. INTRODUCTION A thread is contained Process and threads inside a process and different threads in the same process share some resources (most commonly memory), while different processes do not.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION A thread is a basic unit of CPU utilization, consisting of a program counter, a stack, and a set of registers, ( and a thread ID. ) On a single processor, multithreading generally occurs by as in multitasking, the processor switches between different threads. On a multiprocessor or multi-core system, the threads or tasks actually do run at the same time, with each processor or core running a particular thread or task
  • 5.  Single Thread  Has single thread of control  It allows the process to perform only 1 task at a time. Multi thread  Has many threads  Simultaneous execution of different task
  • 6. BENEFITS Take less time to create a new tread than a process. Less time to terminate a tread than a presses. less time to switch between two treads within the same process. Hence treads within the same process share memory and files, they can communicate with each other without invoking the kernel. Responsiveness. Resource sharing . Economy. Utilization of MP Architectures.
  • 7. User Threads Thread management done by user-level threads library  Thread creation, scheduling, are done in user level Fast to create and manage Drawback:  If kernel is single thread, then user level thread performing a blocking system call will cause entire process to block
  • 8. KERNEL THREAD Supported by OS  Thread creation, scheduling, are done in user level by kernel Thread management is performed by os, thus kernel thread are slow. If thread perform blocking system call, kernel can schedule another thread in application for execution
  • 9. Multithreading Models(In a specific implementation, the user threadsmust be mapped to kernel threads, using oneof the following strategies. )Many-to-OneOne-to-OneMany-to-Many
  • 10. MANY-TO-ONE many user-level threads are all mapped onto a single kernel thread. Thread management is handled by the thread library in user space, which is very efficient. if a blocking system call is made, then the entire process blocks, even if the other user threads would otherwise be able to continue. Ex: Green threads for Solaris and GNU Portable
  • 11. ONE-TO-ONE MODEL Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread Allow anther thread to run if block Run parallel Drawback: along with user thread kernel thread shld be created. Ex: Linux and Windows from 95 to XP
  • 12. MANY-TO-MANY The many-to-many model multiplexes any number of user threads onto an equal or smaller number of kernel threads, combining the best features of the one-to-one and many-to-one models. Blocking kernel system calls do not block the entire process. Individual processes may be allocated variable numbers of kernel threads, depending on the number of CPUs present and other factors. Ex: RIX, HP-UX, and Tru64 UNIX
  • 13. Thread Libraries Thread libraries provide programmers with an API for creating and managing threads. Thread libraries may be implemented either in user space or in kernel space. There are three main thread libraries in use today: POSIX Pthreads . Win32 threads. Java threads .
  • 14. Pthreads May be provided either as user-level or kernel-level. A POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.1c) API for thread creation and synchronization. API specifies behavior of the thread library, implementation is up to development of the library. Common in UNIX operating systems (Solaris, Linux, Mac OS X).
  • 15. Linux Threads Linux refers to them as tasks rather than threads. Thread creation is done through clone() system call. clone() allows a child task to share the address space of the parent task (process).