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Civil service reforms

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  • 1. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS IN INDIA Nayana RenuKumar Centre for Good Governance
  • 2. Contents  Civil Service Reforms  Indian Civil Service  Civil service reforms in India  Key reform issues and their Status in Indian Context        Recruitment Training/Capacity Building Efficiency Accountability Performance appraisal Pay reforms Management of the Civil Services  State of Civil Services Survey 2010: Employees’ take on the services  Civil service reforms (Senior Management) in OECD countries  Way Forward
  • 3. Civil service reforms  Civil service reforms in comparison with Administrative and Governance Reforms     Administrative reform focuses on rationalizing structures of government Governance reform refers to improvement of legal and policy frameworks, participatory systems for citizen involvement and transparent systems for accountability In both administrative and governance reforms, civil service reforms are essential to reshaping the behaviour of human beings in initiating and managing all these changes sustainably Civil service reforms aim at strengthening administrative capacity to perform core government functions and to raise the quality of services to the population
  • 4. Indian Civil Service  Macaulay Committee gave India its first modern civil service in 1854  Civil services in India - three broad categories:    Central Civil Services: Members serve only the Union Government   All India Services (AIS): Members serve both Union and State Governments State Civil Services: State Governments have their own group of services Posts in the Union and the State Governments are hierarchically arranged into four Groups – Group A to Group D Key objectives of AIS :   Preserving national unity and integrity and uniform standards of administration Neutrality and objectivity - non-political, secular and nonsectarian outlook  Competence, efficiency and professionalism  Integrity  Idealism
  • 5. Civil Service Reforms in India  Since Independence, Union Government has constituted close to fifty Commissions and Committees to look into administrative and civil service reforms Some of the Key Committees Committee Subject Year Goplaswami Ayyangar Committee Reorganization of the Machinery of Government 1949 A.D.Gorwala Committee Public Administration 1951 Paul Abbleby Committee Indian Administration 1953&56 Ramaswami Mudaliar Committee Public Services (Qualifications for Recruitment) 1956 V.T. Krishnamachari Committee Indian and State Admn Services and Problems of Dist Admn 1962 K.Santhanam Committee Prevention of Corruption 1964 First Administrative Reforms Commission Administrative Reforms 1966-70 D.S.Kothari Committee Recruitment Policy and Selection Methods 1976 Y K Alagh Committee Civil Services Review 2001 Surinder Nath Committee System of Performance Appraisal, Promotion, Empanelment and Placement for AIS and Other Group 'A' Services 2003 P.C.Hota Committee Civil Service Reforms 2004 Second Administrative Reforms Commission Administrative Reforms 2005-08 Sixth Central Pay Commission Pay revisions along with modernization of Government 2008
  • 6. Key reform issues and their Status in Indian Context Recruitment Training/Capacity Building Performance appraisal Efficiency Accountability Pay reforms Management of civil services
  • 7. Recruitment First Administrative Reforms Commission, 1966 Report on Public Administration by A.D. Gorwala, 1951 • Recruitment to all grades (including temp. staff) should eliminate scope for patronage  Mudaliar Committee, 1956 • University degree minimum qualification for recruitment into the higher services • 21-23 age limit for the highest executive and administrative services  Alagh Committee, 2001 • A single competitive examination for the Class I services • Lateral entry to technical posts at senior levels • Discontinuation of Direct recruitment to Class II services • Simple objective type test for recruitment of clerical staff • Aptitude test in preliminary stage with emphasis on logical reasoning, comprehension, problem solving and data analysis. Aspirants to be tested on decision making skills Kothari Committee, 1976 • Two-stage examination process – a preliminary examination followed by a main examination   Second Administrative Reforms Commission, 2005 • Lateral entry for senior management posts  • Direct recruitment for certain % of vacancies for specialized Group ‘B’ posts to infuse fresh thinking • 20-25 years age limit for all positions in Gps. B&C requiring graduate degree
  • 8. Achievements   Introduction of Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT) in in the first stage of All India Service examination comprising of two objective tests : General Studies (Paper I) and Aptitude (Paper II) to test candidates’ aptitude and decision making skills for civil services Initial stages of experiments with lateral entry for select posts in senior management for recruiting executives with management and leadership capacities – mix of career based and position based management of civil service   E.g.: The Secretary of Performance Management Division is an expert from outside the Government Attempts at right sizing of civil services through experiments with contracting out at lower levels
  • 9. Training/Capacity Building Report on Public Administration by A.D. Gorwala, 1951   Recommended induction training to equip a civil servant with the necessary knowledge and skills to perform his/her duties followed by refresher trainings at regular intervals Appointment of a Director of Training to closely monitor all aspects of training Report on Indian and State Administrative Services and Problems of District Administration by V.T. Krishnamachari, 1962     State Civil Service officers should also undergo a structured training similar to that for IAS officers Establishment of training institutes in States with the help of the National Academy of Administration First Administrative Reforms Commission 1966      Formulation of a national policy on civil services training  Creation of the Central Training Division in the Department of Personnel  Changes in the contents of the foundation courses at the National Academy of Administration 
  • 10. Training/Capacity Building Committee to Review In-Service Training of IAS officers, (Yugandhar Committee, 2003)   Recommended three mid-career training programmes for IAS officers in the 12th, 20th and 28th years of service. Outlined skills and subject knowledge to be acquired in each phase and outlined topics for each phase of training programme Second Administrative Reforms Commission 2005-08        Trainings undergone by officers to be noted in ACR for deciding subsequent assignment  Mandatory induction training at all levels and mandatory trainings before promotion Monitoring mechanism for implementation of National Training Policy 1996 Making available mid-career learning opportunities and encouraging higher academic qualifications and publications Strong network of training institutions at the Union and State levels A national institute of good governance to identify, document, and disseminate best practices and conduct training programmes
  • 11. Achievements  Review of National Training Policy 1996 and formulation of NTP 2012 with sweeping changes:    Introduction of strategic human resource management and competency-based approach to trainings Efforts are on to link individual competency based human resource management in civil service to Performance Monitoring and Evaluation System (RFD) steered by Cabinet Secretariat DAR&PG is implementing the project - Pathways for an Inclusive Indian Administration (PIIA) - in collaboration with UNDP with an aim to:   Support implementation of National Training Policy Provide technical assistance to strengthen personality/performance assessment mechanisms competency  Support a Civil Service Leadership Development Policy and Action Plan  Initiate capacity and leadership development activities for civil servants in select ministries/departments/agencies  Institutional strengthening and knowledge management at LBSNAA and
  • 12. Performance Appraisal Nath Committee, First Administrative Reforms Commission , 1966  The term 'confidential report' to be replaced by ‘performance record'  Performance record to include Annual account of work by civil servant   Grading to consist of three categories: (a) fit for promotion out of turn, (b) fit for promotion, and (c) not yet fit for promotion with only 5-0 % of civil servants being assessed "fit for promotion out of turn" Adverse remarks not to be communicated to the civil servant   Computerized system for effective performance monitoring  Disclosure of entire performance record to the appraisee   Surinder 2003 Performance appraisal to be primarily used for overall development of an officer and for right selection of assignments  Supplementing formal appraisal regime with an institutionalized means of ascertaining civil servants’ reputation consistent with Indian culture and ethos Promotion to only to those with actual performance track record and possessing knowledge and skills required for higher responsibilities  Promotion norms to be stringent and merit based  Effective system of screening for identifying officers to be screened out
  • 13. Performance Appraisal  Second Administrative Reforms Commission   Performance appraisal formats to be made job specific  Performance appraisal should be year round   Making appraisal more consultative and transparent Guidelines need to be formulated for assigning numerical rating     Government should expand the scope of the present performance appraisal system of employees to a comprehensive performance management system PMS should be designed within the overall strategic framework appropriate to the particular ministry/department/organization Annual performance agreements should be signed between the departmental minister and the Secretary of the ministry/heads of departments, providing physical and verifiable details of the work to be done during a financial year
  • 14. Efficiency Gopalaswami Ayyangar Committee, 1949 First Administrative Reforms Commission 1966 Appleby Report 1953    Grouping of the Departments dealing with economic and social services into four bureaus for better coordination of policy and planning Creation of an Organization and Methods machinery Establishment of an Institute of Public Administration      Suitable awards such as rolling cup/shield to be given as incentives for timely completion of specific projects Cash rewards for valuable suggestions given for simplification of work that led to economies in expenditure and increased efficiency Establishing work norms and examining staff strength on the basis of studies by Staff Inspection Units Hota Committee 2004   Use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to transform Government  Second Administrative Reforms Commission , 2005  Creation of a performance management system 
  • 15. Achievements  Introduction of a Results-Based Approach in government through Results Framework Documents (RFDs) initiative  Performance Agreements between Ministers and Secretaries of departments  Setting of annual performance targets for Departments and agencies sunder them    Review by Ad-hoc Task Force and High Power Committee at three regular intervals in an year Scoring and ranking of Ministries/ Departments based on performance Introduction of eOffice under National eGovernance Plan (NeGP)   To reduce turnaround time and to meet the demands of citizens charter  To provide for effective resource management to improve the quality of administration  To reduce processing delays   To improve efficiency, consistency and effectiveness of government responses To establish transparency and accountability Prime Minister’s Awards for Excellence in Public Administration to reward the outstanding and exemplary performance of civil servants.
  • 16. Accountability Committee on Prevention of Corruption (Santhanam Committee) 1964  Suggested rules governing the conduct of civil servants regarding:      Filing of assets and liabilities statement Receipt of gifts and raising of contributions Dealing in stocks and speculations Changes in Art. 311 of the Constitution of India for conducting disciplinary proceedings against government servants Second Administrative Reforms Commission 2005-08 Hota Committee 2004    Amending Prevention of Corruption Act and Code of Criminal Procedure to protect honest civil servants from malicious prosecution and harassment  Formulating a Code of Ethics for civil servants  Formulating a Model Code of Governance benchmarking the standards of governance An annual State of Governance Report System of two intensive reviews     After 14 years of service : To assess strengths/weaknesses After 20 years of service : To assess the fitness of the officer for continuation Discontinuation of officers found unfit for continuation For new recruits employment shall be for 20 years. Further continuance would be subject to outcome of the intensive performance reviews
  • 17. Achievements  Formulation of Model Code of Governance which provides a State of Governance framework and toolkit  Framework piloted in three States and ready for implementation in other States  Offers an excellent mechanism to benchmark governance scenario in States
  • 18. Pay reforms  Sixth Central Pay Commission, 2008:   Implementation of revised pay scales to make civil service jobs competitive and attractive and minimise monetary temptations for corrupt practices Introduction of Performance Related Incentive System to make employees eligible for pecuniary remuneration over and above the pay Level of position Criteria for measuring performance Senior management levels Final outcomes related to achievement of (Secretary, additional secretary, joint secretary organizational goals and relevant and equivalent posts) competencies Middle management levels Outputs in alignment with the desired ( Group A, except senior administration) outcomes and relevant competencies Junior management levels Combination (Group B and C staff) indicators of performance and relevant competencies of input and output
  • 19. Management of the Civil Services  First ARC :        Creation of a separate Department of Personnel Department of Personnel should not administer any service cadre Administrative control of different services should vest with the individual ministries Department of Personnel should be placed directly under the Prime Minister Creation of an advisory council on personnel administration for new thinking on personnel administration Fifth Central Pay Commission      Constitution of a high-powered Civil Services Board both at the Centre and the States Fixation of minimum tenure for each post No premature transfer should be allowed Findings of the Civil Services Board are to be accepted invariably
  • 20. Achievements  Stipulation of Minimum Tenure of two years for Senior Duty Posts for IAS cadre     Implementation of the tenure stipulation varies among the thirteen States (21 with AGMUT states ) that adopted the policy In general, smaller States have better average tenure Among the thirteen states, six states (AGMUT, Manipur-Tripura, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, Nagaland, and Orissa) meet or approximate minimum tenure requirement Draft Public Services Bill, 2007   Provide a statutory basis for the regulation of Public Services in India as enshrined in Article 309 of the Constitution Would regulate the appointment and conditions of the public servants, lay down and review the fundamental values of public services, the public services code of ethics etc. to promote good governance and better delivery of services to the citizens.
  • 21. State of Civil Services Survey 2010: Employees’ take on the services  Recruitment and Placement  67% officers agreed that the maximum age of entry should be lowered  82% officers support post-selection counseling  54% agree with idea of lateral entry  83% want senior positions to be open to all civil services    33% officers have considered resignation from civil services at some point of their career Better opportunities outside government cited as a major reason (45%) Work Environment   50% officers feel they have adequate financial resources to accomplish their work efficiently and effectively Only 29% feel that there is pressure owing to undue outside interference
  • 22. State of Civil Services Survey 2010 : Employees’ take on the services  Job Satisfaction and Motivation    73% respondents reported satisfaction in their current assignment Chance to make a useful contribution (73%) and autonomy in job (71%) ranked as the highest motivators Postings and Transfers: Tenure policy  64% officers satisfied with postings as well as tenures given in those postings  52% believe postings to important posts and locations not decided on merit   58% officers feel that transfer orders are not issued keeping in mind the specific needs of the concerned Work-Life Balance    45% officers feel they have control over their time to a great extent; 50% have control over time to some extent Women officers feel less in control of their time than male officers Main factor affecting time management :Lack of adequate support staff in terms of numbers and competence
  • 23. State of Civil Services Survey 2010 : Employees’ take on the services  Learning & Development   77% officers agree that civil servants need to specialize in one or more subjects On Training     Performance appraisal and promotions    Training programs are too general; do not match specific needs of job or service Even where training is relevant, post-training posting does not take this into account There is no objective and rational basis for selection of officers for training Only 43% officers agree that performance appraisal system is fair, objective and transparent 73% feel that short-term goals are valued more in appraisals Leadership and Management    32% officers feel that senior officers do not take time to mentor juniors 40% feel that senior officers are incapable of taking tough decisions 44% opine that seniors are impartial and fair in dealing with subordinates
  • 24. State of Civil Services Survey 2010 : Employees’ take on the services   Commitment and Integrity  70% agree that majority of officers do not approach influential people or use other means to get good postings etc Working with External Stakeholders & Improving Service Delivery   Civil servants have a positive image of themselves regarding their relationship with external stakeholders Harassment and Discrimination    36% have been a victim of harassment in their service 20% officers has faced discrimination Overall perception about civil services   85 % have enjoyed their work in the civil service 85 % are proud of being members of the service  Feeling highest amongst AIS officers (IAS,IPS,IFS)
  • 25. Civil service reforms (Senior Management) in OECD countries Contractual appointments Lateral entry Performan ce- related pay Competency based training Type of civil service Type of reform Belgium     Position based Radical Canada     Position based Radical Finland     Position based Gradual France     Career based Gradual Italy  Restricted   Career based Radical Korea  Restricted   Career based Radical Netherlands     Position based Radical New Zealand     Position based Gradual United Kingdom     Position based Gradual United States     Position based Gradual
  • 26. Way forward  Focusing on reforms at lower levels of civil service  Building capacity of civil servants to deal with challenges of globalisation    Enhancing efficiency and accountability by learning from developing country practices Addressing the key concerns emerging from the State of Civil services survey for employee satisfaction and motivation Prioritising competency and performance at all levels and in all stages of civil service  Strengthening and consolidating the gains from PIIA  Advocating and encouraging reforms in Central and State Civil Services  Providing strong and sustained leadership for reforms  Securing the commitment of political class and senior bureaucracy for reforms
  • 27. Thank You