Gardner’s Multiple IntelligencesTracy Green Lindsay ShraderKathleen Hurst Wendy Gorton
Introduction The Theory of Multiple Intelligences was created by Dr. Howard Gardner in 1983. Gardner’s theory places an emphasis on the idea that the traditional understanding of intelligence by means of IQ testing is far too limited. To broaden this notion of intelligence, Gardner introduced eight different types of intelligences consisting of (and to be elaborated on later): Logical/Mathematical, Linguistic, Musical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Naturalist, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal.
The Eight Intelligences Logical-Mathematical (Number/Reasoning Smart): Sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning End States: Scientist, Mathematician Linguistic (Word Smart): Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words; sensitivity to the different functions of language End States: Poet, Journalist
The Eight Intelligences Musical (Music Smart): Abilities to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of musical expressiveness End States: Composer, Violinist Spatial (Picture Smart) :Capacities to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations on one’s initial perceptions End States: Navigator, Sculptor
The Eight Intelligences Bodily-Kinesthetic (Body Smart): Abilities to control one’s body movements and to handle objects skillfully End States: Dancer, Athlete Naturalist (Nature Smart): Abilities to recognize plants and animals, to make distinctions in the natural world, to understand systems and define categories End States: Botanist, Farmer, Hunter
The Eight Intelligences Interpersonal (People Smart): Capacities to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people End States: Therapist, Salesman Intrapersonal (Self-Smart): Access to one’s own feelings and the ability to discriminate among them and draw on them to guide behavior End States: Personal with detailed, accurate self-knowledge
Applications Dr. Gardner says that our schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logical- mathematical intelligence, where some unique ways of thinking aren’t addressed. This often leads to kids being labeled as “learning disabled” or “hyperactive” when they may not be. The theory of multiple intelligences proposes a major transformation in the way our schools are run. It suggests that teachers be trained to present their lessons in a wide variety of ways using music, cooperative learning, art activities, role play, multimedia, field trips, inner reflection, and much more
Implementing Gardner Lesson Design Using all or different intelligences and asking students for opinions on them. Student Projects Students can learn to "initiate and manage complex projects" when they are creating student projects. Assessments Devised which allow students to show what they have learned. Sometimes this takes the form of allowing each student to devise the way he or she will be assessed, while meeting the teachers criteria for quality. Misuses: Trying to teach all concepts or subjects using all intelligences, using an intelligence as a background for other activities, direct evaluation or grading of intelligences without regard to context.
Implementing GardnerCommon Good Uses (from Gardner himself) The cultivation of desired capabilities. Schools should “cultivate those skills and capabilities that are valued in the community and in the broader society.” Approaching a concept, subject matter, discipline in a variety of ways. Schools try to cover too much. “It makes far more sense to spend a significant amount of time on key concepts, generative ideas, and essential questions and to allow students to become familiar with these notions and their implications. The personalization of education. “At the heat of this perspective- in theory and in practice- inheres in taking human difference seriously.”
Conclusion An awareness of Gardner’s multiple-intelligence theory has provided teachers with the knowledge necessary to satisfy the educational needs of many more students. With an understanding of Gardners theory of multiple intelligences, teachers, school administrators, and parents can better understand the different possibilities of each students’ learning preference. The application of of multiple intelligences in the classroom can stimulate a student’s learning in new ways.