DNA Fingerprinting TAKE NOTES!!! Covers A lot in Chaper 8!
Summary <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Different Methods of...
QUESTION WHAT THE IS FORENSIC SCIENCE? WHAT THE IS DNA FINGERPRINTING?
Definition <ul><li>Forensic science:  Intersection of Law and Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1800’s: Photography </li></ul>...
Question? Where did DNA fingerprinting come from?
History <ul><li>1985: United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Alex Jefferies </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. peter Gill </li></ul><ul><...
History Cont. <ul><li>1987: Florida USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tommie Lee Andrews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First person c...
Question How does it work?
DNA 101 <ul><li>Chemical Structure of DNA is always the same. </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT:  THE ORDER OF THE BASE PAIRS IS...
How Does it work? <ul><li>VNTR:  variable number tandem repeats </li></ul><ul><li>VNTR-  recognition that variable numbers...
How Does it Work Cont. <ul><li>VNTR’s: You get some from both parents </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT:  NO PERSON HAS VNTR’S T...
What now Mr. Wizard? <ul><li>FIRST: GET DNA! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul><u...
RFLP <ul><li>RFLP:  Restriction fragment length polymorphism  </li></ul><ul><li>Basically:  Extract it, Chop it, Sort it, ...
RFLP Cont. <ul><li>DNA is treated with Restriction Endonuclease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets and cuts the Helix wherever ...
RFLP Still <ul><li>Southern Blot Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Probe it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane is incubated with a ...
RFLP: End! <ul><li>X-Ray </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target dna is radioactive, it emits particles to make an image! </li></ul><...
Question What is needed to complete the dot blot analysis?
PCR <ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically:  Take a small sample of DNA and use a Thermal Cycle...
PCR <ul><li>Locate the portion of DNA needed to study </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Cycler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme: TAQ P...
Dot Blot Analysis <ul><li>Because of PCR the samples are identical and Electrophoresis is not needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ea...
Dot Blot Cont. <ul><li>Because human antibody alleles are different, the probability of a match can be concluded. </li></u...
Almost done!
Just a recap <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>History (Briefly) </li></ul><ul><li>VNTR’s </li></ul><ul><li>RFLP </li><...
Question what do we use DNA fingerprinting for?
Murders <ul><li>Colin pitchfork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First guy to get convicted  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sir Alex Jeff...
Rape <ul><li>1987: Tommie Lee Andrews </li></ul><ul><li>1988: Victor Lopez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty eye witness </li><...
Parental issues <ul><li>Mitochondrial DNA:  inherited from the mother only (cytoplasma of the egg) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R...
Non Human Issues <ul><li>American and Asian Ginseng </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American: Boosts energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Setting Convicts Free <ul><li>Innocent Protection Act of 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convicts access to DNA testing </li></...
Drawbacks <ul><li>Collecting samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperatures can degrade DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ba...
Final summary <ul><li>Methods, Definitions, History </li></ul><ul><li>What it’s used for </li></ul><ul><li>Draw backs </li...
REFERENCES <ul><li>Lecture 7: A few famous cases involving DNA Evidence . March 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://nitro. b...
REFERENCES CONT. <ul><li>CHAPTER 8 IN THE TEXT BOOK </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/davipt/228669699/ </li>...
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Dna Fingerprinting

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  • Title
  • Dna Fingerprinting

    1. 1. DNA Fingerprinting TAKE NOTES!!! Covers A lot in Chaper 8!
    2. 2. Summary <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Different Methods of processing </li></ul><ul><li>What it’s used for </li></ul><ul><li>Draw Backs </li></ul><ul><li>Final summary of presentation </li></ul>
    3. 3. QUESTION WHAT THE IS FORENSIC SCIENCE? WHAT THE IS DNA FINGERPRINTING?
    4. 4. Definition <ul><li>Forensic science: Intersection of Law and Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1800’s: Photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1900’s: Actual Fingertips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dna fingerprinting: Analysis of an organism’s unique DNA composition as a characteristic marker. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Question? Where did DNA fingerprinting come from?
    6. 6. History <ul><li>1985: United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Alex Jefferies </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. peter Gill </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Dave Werrett </li></ul><ul><li>Norborough Village Murder </li></ul>
    7. 7. History Cont. <ul><li>1987: Florida USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tommie Lee Andrews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First person convicted of Rape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used a sample of Tommie’s blood and a sperm sample from the crime scene </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Question How does it work?
    9. 9. DNA 101 <ul><li>Chemical Structure of DNA is always the same. </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT: THE ORDER OF THE BASE PAIRS IS DIFFERENT! </li></ul><ul><li>3 Billion Nucleotides form our 23 chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT: EVERY CELL CONTAINS A COPY OF OUR DNA! </li></ul>
    10. 10. How Does it work? <ul><li>VNTR: variable number tandem repeats </li></ul><ul><li>VNTR- recognition that variable numbers of repeated nucleotides can be found in dna and can be used for identification of individuals </li></ul>
    11. 11. How Does it Work Cont. <ul><li>VNTR’s: You get some from both parents </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT: NO PERSON HAS VNTR’S THAT ARE IDENTICAL TO THEIR FOLKS </li></ul><ul><li>VNTR’s provide a scientific marker for identity. KEY ELEMENT! </li></ul>
    12. 12. What now Mr. Wizard? <ul><li>FIRST: GET DNA! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SECOND: Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFLP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot Blot Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. RFLP <ul><li>RFLP: Restriction fragment length polymorphism </li></ul><ul><li>Basically: Extract it, Chop it, Sort it, Photograph it </li></ul>
    14. 14. RFLP Cont. <ul><li>DNA is treated with Restriction Endonuclease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets and cuts the Helix wherever a specific sequence appears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endonuclease is found in Bacteria like E.Coli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrophoresis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negatively Charged DNA travels through a Gel towards a positively charged electrode. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller Fragments move faster! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gel is treated to get two single strands </li></ul>
    15. 15. RFLP Still <ul><li>Southern Blot Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Probe it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane is incubated with a radioactive or fluorescent strand of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locus: Target Area of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Locus Probe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi Locus Probe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybridization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding of the DNA fragment with it’s Probe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important: Probe will only bind to complementary parts! Everything else washed off! </li></ul>
    16. 16. RFLP: End! <ul><li>X-Ray </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target dna is radioactive, it emits particles to make an image! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoradiograph </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Question What is needed to complete the dot blot analysis?
    18. 18. PCR <ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically: Take a small sample of DNA and use a Thermal Cycler to multiply the sample. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warning! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you start with the wrong sample you are screwed! </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. PCR <ul><li>Locate the portion of DNA needed to study </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Cycler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme: TAQ Polymerase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA Nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle of Heat and Cold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thermal Cycler causes the DNA to separate and Replicate. </li></ul><ul><li>PCR Key Element of Dot Blot Analysis. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Dot Blot Analysis <ul><li>Because of PCR the samples are identical and Electrophoresis is not needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Each dot on the analysis strip has a different DNA probe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probe is a enzyme complex that can turn a colorless substrate into a colored one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probe is chemically reactive not RADIOACTIVE </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Dot Blot Cont. <ul><li>Because human antibody alleles are different, the probability of a match can be concluded. </li></ul><ul><li>Important! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dot sheet has a control dot, if it does not change color there wasn’t enough DNA </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Almost done!
    23. 23. Just a recap <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>History (Briefly) </li></ul><ul><li>VNTR’s </li></ul><ul><li>RFLP </li></ul><ul><li>PCR </li></ul><ul><li>Dot Blot Analysis </li></ul>
    24. 24. Question what do we use DNA fingerprinting for?
    25. 25. Murders <ul><li>Colin pitchfork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First guy to get convicted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sir Alex Jefferies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norborough Village Murder </li></ul>
    26. 26. Rape <ul><li>1987: Tommie Lee Andrews </li></ul><ul><li>1988: Victor Lopez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty eye witness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women thought the attacker was black </li></ul></ul><ul><li>test by swapping vaginal cells and testing sperm samples </li></ul>
    27. 27. Parental issues <ul><li>Mitochondrial DNA: inherited from the mother only (cytoplasma of the egg) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains the same Generation to Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traced through maternal line </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Non Human Issues <ul><li>American and Asian Ginseng </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American: Boosts energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian: Calm nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania: Bear was illegally killed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant Sow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA from den and check station </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Setting Convicts Free <ul><li>Innocent Protection Act of 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convicts access to DNA testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits states from destroying Biological evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kirk Bloodsworth </li></ul>
    30. 30. Drawbacks <ul><li>Collecting samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperatures can degrade DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sneezes, improper storage, failure to label samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chain of Custody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of evidence must be systematically recorded and access to evidence must be controlled </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Final summary <ul><li>Methods, Definitions, History </li></ul><ul><li>What it’s used for </li></ul><ul><li>Draw backs </li></ul><ul><li>THANKS FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION! </li></ul>
    32. 32. REFERENCES <ul><li>Lecture 7: A few famous cases involving DNA Evidence . March 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://nitro. biosci . arizona .edu/courses/EEB195-2007/Lecture07/Lecture07.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baden, Michael. DNA Profiling . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. kathyreichs . com/dnaprofiling .htm </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. REFERENCES CONT. <ul><li>CHAPTER 8 IN THE TEXT BOOK </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/davipt/228669699/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.untangledlife.com/wibrary/wp-content/upload/sperm_untangled%20life.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.admit-one.net/webimages/mrwizard.jpg </li></ul>
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