Project book on WINDS OF CHANGE:FROM VENDOR LOCK-IN TO THE META CLOUD

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A PROJECT REPORT ON WINDS OF CHANGE FROM VENDOR LOCK-IN TO THE META CLOUD

A PROJECT REPORT ON WINDS OF CHANGE FROM VENDOR LOCK-IN TO THE META CLOUD

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  • 1. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 1 PROJECT REPORT ON WINDS OF CHANGE: FROM VENDOR LOCK-in TO THE META CLOUD Submitted to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapuramu, In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENEGINEERING SUBMITTED By BATCH NO.: 3 N.NAWAZ KHAN 103P1A0548 M.GOWRI SANKAR 103P1A0547 K.SREENIVASULU 103P1A0532 T.MUKESH 103P1A0563 Under The Esteemed Guidance Of Mrs.R. ROOPA,M.Tech. Assistant Professor Department Of Computer Science and Engineering Department Of Computer Science and Engineering PRIYADARSHINI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Approved by A.I.C.T.E., New Delhi, Affiliated to J N T U A, Anantapuramu) Ramachandrapuram, Tirupathi – 517561 .A.P 2013-2014
  • 2. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 2 PRIYADARSHINI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Approved by A.I.C.T.E., New Delhi, Affiliated to J N T U A, Anantapuramu) Ramachandrapuram, Tirupathi – 517561 .A.P DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Certificate This is to certify that the project work entitled“WINDS OF CHANGE: FROM VENOR LOCK-IN TO THE META CLOUD” is the bonafide work done by N.NAWAZ KHAN 103P1A0548 N.GOWRI SANKAR 103P1A0547 K.SREENUVASULU 103P1A0532 T.MUKESH 103P1A0563 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGYin COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING to the JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPURAMU.This record is a bonafide work carried out by his/her under my guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other University, Institute for any Degree or Diploma. Guide: Head of the Department: Mrs.R.R.ROOPA, M.Tech. Mrs.B.GEETHAVANI,M.Tech,(P.hd). Assistant Professor Professor Submitted for the university examination (viva-voce) held on …………………………………….
  • 3. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 3 INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First we would like to thank our parents for their kind help, encouragement and moral support. We are also thankful to our beloved Chairman Late. Sri.P.SUBBIRAMI REDDY and Secretary Sri.P.V.SREENADHA REDDY for permitting us to use the facilities available to accomplish the project successfully. Special thanks are due to our principal Dr. M.Murali Krishna for providing us all the requirements for completion of the project successfully. We express our heart full gratitude to Prof. B.GEETHAVANI, Head of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, for her kind attention and valuable guidance to us throughout this course. We are thankful with profound respect to our guide Mrs. R.ROOPA, Assistant Professor for her invaluable guidance and constant encouragement given to us during this work. We also thank all the Teaching and Non-teaching staff of Computer Science and Engineering Department, who have made us, complete the project in time. Project Associates: N.NAWAZ KHAN 103P1A0548 N.GOWRI SANKAR 103P1A0547 K.SREENUVASULU 103P1A0532 T.MUKESH 103P1A0563
  • 4. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 4 ABSTRACT The cloud computing paradigm has achieved widespread adoption in recent years. Its success is due largely to customers‘ ability to use services on demand with a pay-as-you go pricing model, which has proved convenient in many respects. Low costs and high flexibility make migrating to the cloud compelling. Despite its obvious advantages, however, many companies hesitate to ―move to the cloud,‖ mainly because of concerns related to service availability, data lock-in, and legal uncertainties. Lock in is particularly problematic. For one thing, even though public cloud availability is generally high, outages still occur. Businesses locked into such a cloud are essentially at a standstill until the cloud is back online. Moreover, public cloud providers generally don‘t guarantee particular service level agreements (SLAs)— that is, businesses locked into a cloud have no guarantees that it will continue to provide the required quality of service (QoS). Finally, most public cloud providers‘ terms of service let that provider unilaterally change pricing at any time. Hence, a business locked into a cloud has no mid- or long term control over its own IT costs. At the core of all these problems, we can identify a need for businesses to permanently monitor the cloud they‘re using and be able to rapidly ―change horses‖ — that is, migrate to a different cloud if they discover problems or if their estimates predict future issues. Key Words: Meta cloud, cloud computing, business, service level agreements, migrating cloud
  • 5. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 5 CONTENTS Chapter No Content Page No. 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 SYSTEM ANALYSIS 5 2.1 SYSTEM STUDY 5 2.1.1 EXISTING SYSTEM 5 2.1.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM 8 2.2 LITERATURE SURVEY 10 2.3 FESIBILITY STUDY 12 3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 13 3.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 13 3.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 13 4 SYSTEM DESIGN 14 4.1 INTRODUCTION 14 4.2 DESIGN OBJECTIVE 18 4.3 UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE 20 4.4 DESIGN OF UML DIAGRAMS 28 4.5 MODULES 43 4.5.1 REGISTRATION 43
  • 6. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 6 4.5.2 LOGIN 43 4.5.3 FILE UPLOAD 43 4.5.4 MIGRATE CLOUD 44 4.5.5 SEND MAIL 44 5 IMPLEMENTATION 45 5.1 ABOUT SOFTWARE 45 5.1.1 FRONT END SOFTWARE 45 5.1.2 BACK END SOFTWARE 59 6 SYSTEM TESTING 61 6.1 TESTING FUNDAMENTALS 61 6.2 WHITE BOX TESTING 61 6.3 BLACK BOX TESTING 61 6.4 SAMPLE TEST CASES 61 7 RESULTS 64 8 CONCLUSION 83 REFERENCES 84
  • 7. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No Title Page No. 4.3.1 DATAFLOW DIAGRAM 28 4.4.1 CLASS DIAGRAM 30 4.4.2 USE CASE DIAGRAM 31 4.4.3 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM 36 4.4.4 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM 39 4.4.5 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM 41 4.4.6 STATE CHART DIAGRAM 42
  • 8. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 8 LIST OF TABLES Table No Table Name Page No. 1 REGISTRATION 32 2 LOGIN 32 3 VIEW FILE 32 4 SEE ALERT 33 5 SEND MAIL 33 6 MIGRATE CLOUD 33 7 UPLOAD FILE 34 8 DOWNLOAD FILE 34 9 UPLOAD INTO CLOUD 35
  • 9. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 9 1. INTRODUCTION The Greek myths tell of creatures plucked from the surface of the Earth and enshrined as constellations in the night sky. Something similar is happening today in the world of computing. Data and programs are being swept up from desktop PCs and corporate server rooms and installed in ―the compute cloud‖. In general, there is a shift in the geography of computation. What is cloud computing? ―An emerging computer paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data centers in the cloud and can be accessed from any connected devices over the internet‖ Like other definitions of topics like these, an understanding of the term cloud computing requires an understanding of various other terms which are closely related to this. While there is a lack of precise scientific definitions for many of these terms, general definitions can be given. Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm in the computer industry where the computing is moved to a cloud of computers. It has become one of the buzz words of the industry. The core concept of cloud computing is, quite simply, that the vast computing resources that we need will reside somewhere out there in the cloud of computers and we‘ll connect to them and use them as and when needed. Computing can be described as any activity of using and/or developing computer hardware and software. It includes everything that sits in the bottom layer, i.e. everything from raw compute power to storage capabilities. Cloud computing ties together all these entities and delivers them as a single integrated entity under its own sophisticated management. Cloud is a term used as a metaphor for the wide area networks (like internet) or any such large networked environment. It came partly from the cloud-like symbol used to represent the complexities of the networks in the schematic diagrams. It represents all the complexities of the network which may include everything from cables, routers, servers, data centers and all such other devices. Computing started off with the mainframe era. There were big mainframes and everyone connected to them via ―dumb‖ terminals. This old model of business computing was frustrating for the people sitting at the dumb terminals because they could do only what they were ―authorized‖ to do. They were dependent on the computer administrators to give them permission or to fix their problems. They had no way of staying up to the latest innovations.
  • 10. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 10 The personal computer was a rebellion against the tyranny of centralized computing operations. There was a kind of freedom in the use of personal computers. But this was later replaced by server architectures with enterprise servers and others showing up in the industry. This made sure that the computing was done and it did not eat up any of the resources that one had with him. All the computing was performed at servers. Internet grew in the lap of these servers. With cloud computing we have come a full circle. We come back to the centralized computing infrastructure. But this time it is something which can easily be accessed via the internet and something over which we have all the control. Cloud computing is a way of providing various services on virtual machines allocated on top of a large physical machine pool which resides in the cloud. Cloud computing comes into focus only when we think about what IT has always wanted - a way to increase capacity or add different capabilities to the current setting on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel or licensing new software. Here ‗on the fly‘ and ‗without investing or training‘ becomes the keywords in the current situation. But cloud computing offers a better solution. We have lots of compute power and storage capabilities residing in the distributed environment of the cloud. What cloud computing does is to harness the capabilities of these resources and make available these resources as a single entity which can be changed to meet the current needs of the user. The basis of cloud computing is to create a set of virtual servers on the available vast resource pool and give it to the clients. Any web enabled device can be used to access the resources through the virtual servers. Based on the computing needs of the client, the infrastructure allotted to the client can be scaled up or down. From a business point of view, cloud computing is a method to address the scalability and availability concerns for large scale applications which involves lesser overhead. Since the resource allocated to the client can be varied based on the needs of the client and can be done without any fuss, the overhead is very low.
  • 11. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 11 Characteristics of Cloud Computing: 1. Self-Healing: Any application or any service running in a cloud computing environment has the property of self-healing. In case of failure of the application, there is always a hot backup of the application ready to take over without disruption. There are multiple copies of the same application - each copy updating itself regularly so that at times of failure there is at least one copy of the application which can take over without even the slightest change in its running state. 2. Multi-tenancy: With cloud computing, any application supports multi-tenancy - that is multiple tenants at the same instant of time. The system allows several customers to share the infrastructure allotted to them without any of them being aware of the sharing. This is done by virtualizing the servers on the available machine pool and then allotting the servers to multiple users. This is done in such a way that the privacy of the users or the security of their data is not compromised. 3. Linearly Scalable: Cloud computing services are linearly scalable. The system is able to break down the workloads into pieces and service it across the infrastructure. An exact idea of linear scalability can be obtained from the fact that if one server is able to process say 1000 transactions per second, then two servers can process 2000 transactions per second. 4. Service-oriented: Cloud computing systems are all service oriented - i.e. the systems are such that they are created out of other discrete services. Many such discrete services which are independent of each other are combined together to form this service. This allows re-use of the different services that are available and that are being created. Using the services that were just created, other such services can be created.
  • 12. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 12 5. SLA Driven: Usually businesses have agreements on the amount of services. Scalability and availability issues cause clients to break these agreements. But cloud computing services are SLA driven such that when the system experiences peaks of load, it will automatically adjust itself so as to comply with the service-level agreements. The services will create additional instances of the applications on more servers so that the load can be easily managed. 6. Virtualized: The applications in cloud computing are fully decoupled from the underlying hardware. The cloud computing environment is a fully virtualized environment. 7. Flexible: Another feature of the cloud computing services is that they are flexible. They can be used to serve a large variety of workload types - varying from small loads of a small consumer application to very heavy loads of a commercial application.
  • 13. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 13 2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS 2.1 SYSTEM STUDY 2.1.1 Existing system Today, almost any business or major activity uses, or relies in some form, on IT and IT services. These services need to be enabling and appliance-like, and there must be an economy of-scale for the total-cost-of-ownership to be better than it would be without cyber infrastructure. Technology needs to improve end-user productivity and reduce Technology-driven overhead. Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties at remote locations. Examples of cloud services include online file storage, social networking sites, webmail, and online business applications. The cloud computing model allows access to information and computer resources from anywhere that a network connection is available. Cloud computing provides a shared pool of resources, including data storage space, networks, computer processing power, and specialized corporate and user applications. Cloud architecture: The systems architecture of the softwaresystems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services. This closely resembles the UNIX philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. Cloud architecture extends to the client, where web browsers and/or software applications access cloud applications. Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled, where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds, each independently delivering data to applications or users.
  • 14. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 14 Fig.2.1 Cloud architecture Cloud –Types: Public cloud: Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream. Public clouds are run by third parties, and applications from different customers are likely to be mixed together on the cloud‘s servers, storage systems, and networks. A public cloud provides services to multiple customers. Hybrid cloud: Hybrid clouds combine both public and private cloud models. This is most often seen with the use of storage clouds to support Web 2.0 applications. Private cloud: Private clouds are built for the exclusive use of one client, providing the utmost control over data, security, and quality of service (Figure 4). The company owns the infrastructure and has control over how applications are deployed on it. Private clouds can be built and managed by a company‘s own IT organization or by a cloud provider. Cloud computing products and services can be classified into 4 major categories: They are: 1. Application as service ( AaaS) 2. Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  • 15. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 15 3. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 1. Application as s service (AaaS): These are the first kind of cloud computing services that came into being. Under this, a service is made available to an end-user. The end-user is asked to create an account with the service provider and start using the application. One of first famous application was web-based email service by Hotmail started in 1996. Scores of such services are available now on the web. 2. Platform as a Service (PaaS): Cloud vendors are companies that offer cloud computing services and products. One of the services that they provide is called PaaS. Under this a computing platform such as operating system is provided to a customer or end user on a monthly rental basis. Some of the major cloud computing vendors are Amazon, Microsoft, and Google etc. 3. Infrastructure as a service:(IaaS) The cloud computing vendors offer infrastructure as a service. One may avail hardware services such as processors, memory, networks etc on agreed basis for specific duration and price. 4. Software as a service (SaaS): Software package such as CRM or CAD/CAM can be accessed under cloud computing scheme. Here a customer upon registration is allowed to use software accessible through net and use it for his or his business process. The related data and work may be stored on local machines or with the service providers. SaaS services may be available on rental basis or on per use basis. Deployment of cloud services: Cloud services are typically made available via a private cloud, community cloud, public cloud or hybrid cloud. Generally speaking, services provided by a public cloud are offered over the Internet and are owned and operated by a cloud provider. Some examples include services aimed at the general public, such as online photo storage services, e-mail services, or social networking sites. However, services for enterprises can also be offered in a public cloud. In a private cloud, the cloud infrastructure is operated solely for a specific organization, and is managed by the organization or a third party. In a community cloud, the service is shared
  • 16. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 16 by several organizations and made available only to those groups. The infrastructure may be owned and operated by the organizations or by a cloud service provider. Cloud providers are flooding the market with a confusing body of services, including computer services such as the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and VMware v Cloud, or key-value stores, such as the Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). Some of these services are conceptually comparable to each other, whereas others are vastly different, but they‘re all, ultimately, technically incompatible and follow no standards but their own. To further complicate the situation, many companies not (only) build on public clouds for their cloud computing needs, but combine public offerings with their own private clouds, leading to so-called hybrid clouds. Businesses locked into such a cloud are essentially at a standstill until the cloud is back online. Moreover, public cloud providers generally don‘t guarantee particular service level agreements (SLAs) — that is, businesses locked into a cloud have no guarantees that it will continue to provide the required quality of service (QoS). Finally, most public cloud providers‘ terms of service let that provider unilaterally change pricing at any time. Hence, a business locked into a cloud has no mid- or long- term control over its own IT costs. Disadvantages of existing system:  Its success is due largely to customers‘ ability to use services on demand with a pay-as- you go pricing model, which has proved convenient in many aspects.  Low costs and high flexibility make migrating to the cloud compelling. 2.1.2Proposed system The concept of a Meta cloud that incorporates design time and runtime components.This Meta cloud would abstract away from existing offerings‘ technical incompatibilities, thus mitigating vendor lock-in. It helps users find the right set of cloud services for aparticular use case and supports an application‘s initial deployment and runtime migration. To some extent, we can realize the Meta cloud based on a combination of existing tools and concepts, part of which we just examined. The Meta cloud‘s main components.We can
  • 17. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 17 categorize these components based on whether they‘re important mainly for cloud software engineers during development time or whether they perform tasks during runtime. The emergence of yet more cloud offerings from a multitude of service providers calls for a Meta cloud to smoothen the edges of the jagged cloud landscape. This Meta cloud could solve the vendor lock-in problems that current public and hybrid cloud users face. Current Weather in the (Meta) Cloud: First, standardized programming APIs must enable developers to create cloud-neutral applications that aren‘t hardwired to any single provider or cloud service. Cloud provider abstraction libraries such as Libcloud (http:// libcloud.apache.org), fog (http://fog.io), and jclouds (www.jclouds.org) provide unified APIs for accessing different vendors‘ cloud products. Using these libraries, developers are relieved of technological vendor lock- in because they can switch cloud providers for their applications with relatively low overhead. As a second ingredient, the Meta cloud uses resource templates to define concrete features that the application requires from the cloud. For instance, an application must be able to specify that it requires a given number of computing resources, Internet access, and database storage. Some current tools and initiatives — for example, Amazon‘s CloudFormation (http:// aws.amazon.com/cloudformation/) or the upcoming TOSCA specification (www.oasis- open.org/committees/ tosca) — is working toward similar goals and can be adapted to provide these required features for the Meta cloud. In addition to resource templates, the automated formation and pro- visioning of cloud applications also depends on sophisticated features to actually deploy and install applications automatically. Predictable and controlled application deployment is a central issue for cost-effective and efficient deployments in the cloud, and even more so for the meta cloud. Several application provisioning solutions exist, enabling developers and administrators to declaratively specify deployment artifacts and dependencies to allow for repeatable and managed resource provisioning. Notable examples include Opscode Chef (www.opscode.com/chef/), Puppet (http://puppetlabs.com), and juju (http://juju.ubuntu.com). At runtime, an important aspect of the Meta cloud is application monitoring, which enables the Meta cloud to decide whether it‘s necessary to provision new instances of the application or migrate parts of it. Various vendors provide tools for cloud monitoring, ranging from system-level monitoring (such as CPU and bandwidth) to application-level monitoring (Amazon‘s CloudWatch;
  • 18. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 18 http://aws.amazon.com/cloudwatch/) to SLA monitoring (as with monitis; http://portal.monitis.com/index.php/cloud-monitoring). However, the Meta cloud requires more sophisticated monitoring techniques and, in particular, approaches for making automated provisioning decisions at runtime based on current application users‘ context and location. Advantages of proposed system:  The concept of a Meta cloud that incorporates design time and runtime components.  This Meta cloud would abstract away from existing offerings‘ technical incompatibilities, thus mitigating vendor lock-in. 2.2 LITEREATURE SURVEY Literature survey is the most important step in software development process. Before developing the tool it is necessary to determine the time factor, economy n company strength. Once these things are satisfied, then next steps are to determine which operating system and language can be used for developing the tool. Once the programmers start building the tool the programmers need lot of external support. This support can be obtained from senior programmers, from book or from websites. Before building the system the above consideration are taken into account for developing the proposed system. A Meta Cloud Use Case: Let‘s come back to the sports applicationuse case. A meta-cloud-compliantvariant of this application accessescloud services using the meta cloudAPI and doesn‘t directly talk to the cloud-provider-specific service APIs.For our particular case, this means the application doesn‘t depend on Amazon EC2, SQS, or RDS service APIs, but rather on the meta cloud‘s compute, message queue, and relational database service APIs. For initial deployment, the developer submits the application‘s resource template to the meta cloud. It specifies not only the three types of cloudservices needed to run the sports application, but also their necessary properties and how they depend oneach other. For compute resources, for instance, the developer can specify CPU, RAM, and disk space accordingto terminology defined by the meta cloud resource template DSL. Each resource can be named in the template,which allows for referencing during deployment, runtime, and migration.The resource
  • 19. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 19 template specification should also contain interdependencies, such as the direct connection betweenthe Web service compute instances and the message queue service. The rich information that resource templates provide helps the provisioning strategy component make profound decisions about cloud service ranking. We can explain the working principle for initial deployment with a Web search analogy, in which resource templates are queries and cloud service provider QoS and pricing information represent indexed documents. Algorithmic aspects of the actual ranking are beyond this article‘s scope. If some resources in the resource graph are only loosely coupled, then the meta cloud will be more likely to select resources from different cloud providers for a single application. In our usecase, however, we assume that the provisioning strategy ranks the respective Amazon cloud services first, and that the customer follows this recommendation. After the resources are determined, the meta cloud deploys the application, together with an instance of the meta cloud proxy, according to customer-provided recipes. During runtime, the meta cloud proxy mediates between the application components and the Amazon cloud resources and sends monitoring datato the resource monitoring component running within the meta cloud. Monitoring data helps refine the application‘s resource template and the provider‘s overall QoS values, both stored in the knowledge base. The provisioning strategy component regularly checks this updated information, which might trigger a migration. The meta cloud could migrate front-end nodes to other providers to place them closer to the application‘s users, for example. Another reason for a migration might be updated pricing data. After a price cut by Rackspace, for example, services might migrate to its cloud offerings. To make these decisions, the provisioning strategy component must consider potential migration costs regarding time and money. The actual migration is performed based on customer-provided migration recipes. Working on the meta cloud, we face the following technical challenges. Resource monitoring must collect and process data describing different cloud providers‘ services such that the provisioning strategy can compare and rank their QoSproperties in a normalized, provider independent fashion. Although solutions for deployment in the cloud are relatively mature,
  • 20. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 20 application migration isn‘t as well supported. Finding the balance between migration facilities provided by the meta cloud andthe application is particularly important. 2.3 Feasibility study The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some cost estimates. During system analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the company. Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are Economic Feasibility Technical Feasibility Social Feasibility Economic Feasibility: This study is carried out to check the economic impact that the system will have on the organization. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the research and development of the system is limited. The expenditures must be justified. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. Only the customized products had to be purchased. Technical Feasibility: This study is carried out to check the technical feasibility, that is, the technical requirements of the system. Any system developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands being placed on the client. Social Feasibility: The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. This includes the process of training the user to use the system efficiently. The user must not feel threatened by the system, instead must accept it as a necessity. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the methods that are employed to educate the user.
  • 21. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 21 3. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS As far as computer projects are concern two types of requirements are essential. They are as follows  Hardware requirements  Software requirements 3.1 Hardware Requirements:-  Processor - Pentium –III  Speed - 1.1 GHz  RAM - 256 MB (min)  Hard Disk - 20 GB  Floppy Drive - 1.44 MB  Key Board - Standard Windows Keyboard  Mouse - Two or Three Button Mouse  Monitor - SVGA 3.2 Software Requirements:-  Operating System : Windows95/98/2000/XP  Application Server : Tomcat5.0/6.X  Front End : HTML, Java, JSP  Scripts : JavaScript.  Server side Script : Java Server Pages.  Database : My sql  Database Connectivity : JDBC.
  • 22. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 22 4. SYSTEM DESIGN 4.1 INTRODUCTION: The concept of a Meta cloud incorporates design time and runtime components. This Meta cloud would abstract away from existing offerings‘ technical incompatibilities, thus mitigating vendor lock-in. It helps users find the right set of cloud services for a particular use case and supports an application‘s initial deployment and runtime migration. ARCHITECTURE THE META CLOUD: The concept of a Meta cloud that incorporates design time and runtime components.This Meta cloud would abstract away from existing offerings‘ technical incompatibilities, thus mitigating vendor lock-in. It helps users find the right set of cloud services for a particular use case and supports an application‘s initial deployment and runtime migration. Fig 4.1 Meta Cloud Architecture
  • 23. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 23 Inside the Meta Cloud: To some extent, we can realize the Meta cloud based on a combination of existing tools and concepts, part of which we just examined. Figure 1 depicts the Meta cloud‘s main components. We can categorize these components based on whether they‘re important mainly for cloud software engineers during development time or whether they perform tasks during runtime. We illustrate their interplay using the sports betting portal example. Meta Cloud API: The Meta cloud API provides a unified programming interface to abstract from the differences among provider API implementations. For customers, using this API prevents their application from being hard-wired to a specific cloud service offering.The Meta cloud API can build on available cloud provider abstraction APIs, as previously mentioned. Although these deal mostly with key- value stores and compute services, in principle, all services can be covered that are abstract enough for more than one provider to offer and whosespecific APIs don‘t differ too much, conceptually. Resource Templates: Developers describe the cloud services necessary to run an application using resource templates. They can specify service types with additional properties, and a graph model expresses the interrelation and functional dependencies between services. Developers create the Meta cloud resource templates using a simple domain-specific language (DSL), letting them concisely specify required resources. Resource definitions are based on a hierarchical composition model; thus developers can create configurable and reusable template components, which enable them and their teams to share and reuse common resource templates in different projects. Using the DSL, developers model their application components and their basic runtime requirements, such as (provider- independently normalized) CPU, memory, and I/O capacities, as well as dependencies and weighted communication relations between these components. The provisioning strategy uses the weighted component relations to determine the application‘s optimal deployment configuration. Moreover, resource templates allow developers to define constraints based on costs, component proximity, and geographical distribution.
  • 24. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 24 Migration and Deployment Recipes: Deployment recipes are an important ingredient for automation in the Meta cloud infrastructure. Such recipes allow for controlled deployment of the application, including installing packages, starting required services, managing package and application parameters, and establishing links between related components. Automation tools such as Opscode Chef provide an extensive set of functionalities that are directly integrated into the Meta cloud environment. Migration recipes go one step further and describe how to migrate an application during runtime — for example, migrate storage functionality from one service provider to another. Recipes only describe initial deployment and migration; the provisioning strategy and the Meta cloud proxy execute the actual process using the aforementioned automation tools. Meta Cloud Proxy: The Meta cloud provides proxy objects, which are deployed with the application and run on the provisioned cloud resources. They serve as mediators between the application and the cloud provider. These proxies expose the Meta cloud API to the application, transform application requests into cloud-provider-specific requests, and forward them to the respective cloud services. Proxies provide a way to execute deployment and migration recipes triggered by the meta cloud‘s provisioning strategy. Moreover, proxy objects send QoS statistics to the resource monitoring component running within the Meta cloud. The Meta cloud obtains the data by intercepting the application‘s calls to the underlying cloud services and measuring their processing time, or by executing short benchmark programs. Applications can also define and monitor custom QoS metrics that the proxy objects send to the resource monitoring component to enable advanced, application-specific management strategies. To avoid high load and computational bottlenecks, communication between proxies and the Meta cloud is kept at a minimum. Proxies don‘t run inside the Meta cloud, and regular service calls from the application to the proxy aren‘t routed through the Meta cloud, either.
  • 25. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 25 Resource Monitoring: On an application‘s request, the resource monitoring component receives data collected by Meta cloud proxies about the resources they‘re using. The component filters and processes these data and then stores them on the knowledge base for further processing. This helps generate comprehensive QoS information about cloudservice providers and the particular services they provide, including response time, availability, and more service-specific quality statements. Provisioning Strategy: The provisioning strategy component primarily matches an application‘s cloud service requirements to actual cloud service providers. It finds and ranks cloud services based on data in the knowledge base. The initial deployment decision is based on the resource templates, specifying the resource requirements of an application, together with QoS and pricing information about service providers. The result is a list of possible cloud service combinations ranked according to expected QoS and costs. At runtime, the component can reason about whether migrating a resource to another resource provider is beneficial based on new insights into the application‘s behavior and updated cloud provider QoS or pricing data. Reasoning about migrating also involves calculating migration costs. Decisions about the provisioning strategy result in the component executing customer-defined deployment or migration scripts. Knowledge Base: The knowledge base stores data about cloud provider services, their pricing and QoS, and information necessary to estimate migration costs. It also stores customer-provided resource templates and migration or deployment recipes. The knowledge base indicates which cloud providers are eligible for a certain customer. These usually comprise all providers the customer has an account with and providers that offer possibilities for creating (sub)accounts on the fly. Several information sources contribute to
  • 26. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 26 the knowledge base: Meta cloud proxies regularly send data about application behavior and cloud service QoS. Users can add cloud service providers‘ pricing and capabilities manually or use crawling techniques that can get this information automatically. 4.2 DESIGN OBJECTIVES: INPUT DESIGN The input design is the link between the information system and the user. It comprises the developing specification and procedures for data preparation and those steps are necessary to put transaction data in to a usable form for processing can be achieved by inspecting the computer to read data from a written or printed document or it can occur by having people keying the data directly into the system. The design of input focuses on controlling the amount of input required, controlling the errors, avoiding delay, avoiding extra steps and keeping the process simple. The input is designed in such a way so that it provides security and ease of use with retaining the privacy. Input Design considered the following things:  What data should be given as input?  How the data should be arranged or coded?  The dialog to guide the operating personnel in providing input.  Methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur. OBJECTIVES: 1. Input Design is the process of converting a user-oriented description of the input into a computer-based system. This design is important to avoid errors in the data input process and show the correct direction to the management for getting correct information from the computerized system. 2. It is achieved by creating user-friendly screens for the data entry to handle large volume of data. The goal of designing input is to make data entry easier and to be free from
  • 27. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 27 errors. The data entry screen is designed in such a way that all the data manipulates can be performed. It also provides record viewing facilities. 3. When the data is entered it will check for its validity. Data can be entered with the help of screens. Appropriate messages are provided as when needed so that the user will not be in maize of instant. Thus the objective of input design is to create an input layout that is easy to follow OUTPUT DESIGN A quality output is one, which meets the requirements of the end user and presents the information clearly. In any system results of processing are communicated to the users and to other system through outputs. In output design it is determined how the information is to be displaced for immediate need and also the hard copy output. It is the most important and direct source information to the user. Efficient and intelligent output design improves the system‘s relationship to help user decision-making. Designing computer output should proceed in an organized, well thought out manner; the right output must be developed while ensuring that each output element is designed so that people will find the system can use easily and effectively. When analysis design computer output, they should Identify the specific output that is needed to meet the requirements. 1. Select methods for presenting information. 2. Create document, report, or other formats that contain information produced by the system. The output form of an information system should accomplish one or more of the following objectives.  Convey information about past activities, current status or projections of the  Future.  Signal important events, opportunities, problems, or warnings.  Trigger an action.  Confirm an action.
  • 28. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 28 4.3 UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML): An Overview of UML: UML is a graphical language which provides a vocabulary and set of semantics and rules. The UML focuses on the conceptual and physical representation of the system. It captures the decisions and understandings about systems that must be constructed. It is used to understand, design, configure, maintain and control information about the systems. Definition: UML is a general purpose visual modeling language that is used to specify, visualize, construct and document the artifacts of the software system. UML is a language: It will provide vocabulary and rules for communication and function on conceptual and physical representation. So it is modeling language. UML Specification: Specification means building models that are precise, unambiguous and complete. In particular, the UML address the specification of all the important analysis, design and implementation decisions that must be made in developing and displaying a software intensive system. UML Visualization: The UML includes both graphical and textual represents. It makes easy to visualize the system and for better understanding. UML Constructing: UML models can be directly connected to a variety of programming languages and it is sufficiently express and free from any ambiguity to permit the direct execution of models.
  • 29. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 29 UML Documenting: UML provides variety of documents in addition raw executable codes. UML system is represented using five different views that describe the system from distinctly different perspective. Each view is defined by a set of diagrams, which is as follows. User model view This view represents the system from the user‘s perspective. The analysis represents describes a usage scenario from the end –users perspective. Structural model view In this model the data and functionality are arrived from inside the system. This model view model view. Behavioral model view It represents the dynamic of behavioral as parts of the system, depicting the interactions of collection between various structural elements described in the user model and structural model view. Model Implementation view In this the structural and behavioral as parts of the system are represents as they are to be built. Environmental model view In this the structural and behavioral aspects of the environment in which the system is to be implemented are presented. Rules of UML: The UML has semantic rules for
  • 30. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 30 Names: it will call things, relationships and diagrams. Scope: the content that gives specific meaning to a name. Visibility: how those names can be seen and used by others. Integrity:how things properly and consistently relative to another. Execution: what it means is to run or dynamic model. Goals of UML: The primary goals in the design of the UML were: Provides users with a ready-to-use, expressive visual modeling language so they can develop and exchange meaningful models. Provide extensibility and specialization mechanisms to extend the core concepts. Be independent of particular programming languages and development processes. Provide a formal basis for understanding the modeling language. Encourage the growth of the OO tools market. Support higher-level development concepts such as collaborations, frameworks, patters and components Integrate best practices. Uses of UML: The UML is intended primarily for software intensive systems. It has been used effectively for such domains as Enterprise information system A Conceptual Model of UML: The three major elements of UML are The UML‘s basic building blocks. The rules that dictate how those building blocks may be put together. Some common mechanisms that apply throughout the UML.
  • 31. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 31 Basic Building Blocks of UML: The vocabulary of UML encompasses three kinds of building blocks: Things Relationships Diagram Things are the abstractions that are first-class citizens in a model. Relationships tie these things together. Diagrams group the interesting collection of things. Things in UML: There are four kinds of things in the UML 1. Structural things 2. Behavioral things 3. Grouping things 4. An notational things Structural things: Structural things are the nouns of the UML models. These are mostly static parts of the model, representing elements that are either conceptual or physical. In all, there are seven kinds of Structural things. Class: Graphically a class is rendered as a rectangle, usually including its name, attributes and operations, as shown below. Class diagrams are the most common diagrams found in modeling object-oriented systems. A class diagrams is a diagram that shows a set of classes, interfaces and collaborations and their relationships. Graphically a class diagram is a collection of vertices and
  • 32. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 32 arcs.A class is a description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, relationships, and semantics. A class implements one or more interfaces. Interface: An Interface is a collection of operation that specifies a service of a class or component. An interface describes the externally visible behavior of that element. Graphically, the interface is rendered as a circle together with its name. Use case: Use case is a description of a set of sequence of actions that a system performs that yields an observable result of value to a particular things in a model. Graphically, Use case is rendered as an ellipse with dashed lines, usually including only its name as shown below. Place Order Chain of Responsibility ISpelling
  • 33. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 33 Component: Component is a physical and replaceable part o a system that conforms to and provides the realization of a set of interfaces. Graphically, a component is rendered as a rectangle with tabs, usually including only its name, as shown below. Node: A Node is a physical element that exists at run time and represents a computational resource, generally having at least some memory and often, processing capability. Graphically, a node is rendered as a cube, usually including only its name, as shown below. Behavioralthings: Behavioral Things are the dynamic parts of UML models. These are the verbs of a model, representing behavior over time and space. Interaction: An interaction is a behavior that comprises a set of messages exchanged among set objects within a particular context to accomplish a specific purpose. Graphically, a message is rendered as a direct line, almost always including the name of its operation, as shown below. Display orderform.java server
  • 34. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 34 State Machine: A state machine is a behavior that specifies the sequence of states an object or an interaction goes through during its lifetime on response to events, together with its responses to those events.Graphically, a state is rendered as a rounded rectangle usually including its name and its sub-states, if any, as shown below. Grouping things: Grouping things are the organizational parts of the UML models. These are the boxes into which a model can be decomposed. Package: A package is a general-purpose mechanism for organizing elements into groups. Annotational things: Annotational things are the explanatory parts of the UML models. It doesn‘t correspond to any object but serves as comment. Relationships: Relationships tie the things together. Relationships in the UML are 1. Dependency 2. Association Business Rules Waiting
  • 35. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 35 3. Generalization 4. Realization Dependency: Dependency is a semantic relationship between two things in which a change to one thing may affect the semantic of the other things. - - - - - - > Generalization: Generalization is a specialization/generalization relationship in which objects of the specialized element (child) are substitutable for objects of the generalized element (parent). ----------- Association: An Association is a structural relationship that describes a set of links, A link being a connection among objects. Aggregation is a special kind of association, representing a structural relationship between a whole and its parts. ______________ Realization: It is the relationship between classifiers, where one classifier specifies the contact and the other generates to carry out. Data flow diagram The Data Flow Diagram is also called as bubble chart. It is a simple graphical formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the system, various processing carried out on these data, and the output data is generated by the system.
  • 36. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 36 Data flow diagram: • A data flow diagram is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system, modeling its process aspects. FIG.NO 4.3.1 DATAFLOW DIAGRAM 4.4 DESIGN OF UML DIAGRAMS A diagram is the graphical presentation of set of elements, most often rendered as a connected graph of vertices (things) and arcs (relationships). There are two types of diagrams. They are:
  • 37. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 37 Structural Diagrams Behavioral Diagram Structural diagrams: The UML‗s four structural diagrams exist to visualize, specify, construct and document the static aspects of a system. Structural diagrams consist of 1. Class diagram 2. Object diagram 3. Component diagram 4. Deployment diagram Behavioral diagrams: The UML‘s five behavioral diagrams are used to visualize, specify, construct and document the dynamic aspects of a system. The UML‘s behavioral diagrams are roughly organized around the major ways can model the dynamics of a system. Behavioral diagrams consist of 1. Use case diagram 2. Class diagram 3. Sequence diagram 4. Collaboration diagram 5. Activity diagram CLASS DIAGRAM: A class diagram is a type of static structure diagram that describes the structure of a system by showing the system‘s classes, their attributes, and the relationships between the classes Class
  • 38. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 38 Interface: Interface is a collection of operations that specify a service of a class or component. An interface describes the externally visible behavior of that element. An interface might represent the complete behavior of a class or component. Interface Collaboration: Collaboration defines an interaction and is a society of other elements that work together to provide some cooperative behavior. So collaborations have structural as well as behavioral, dimensions. These collaborations represent the implementation of patterns that make up a system. Class diagrams are the most common diagrams found in modeling object-oriented systems. A class diagrams shows a set of classes, interfaces, and collaborations and their relationships. Graphically, a class diagram is a collection of vertices and arcs. It is a description of set of objects that share same attributes, operations, relationships, and semantics. Graphically a class is rendered as a rectangle. The most important parts of a class diagrams are names, attributes, and operations. Every class must have a name that distinguishes it from other classes. A name is textual string. That name alone is known as a simple name. An attribute represents some property of modeling that is shared by all objects of that class. A class may have any number of attributes or no attributes at all. An operation is the implementation of a service that can be requested from any object of classes. A responsibility is a contract or obligation of a class. When you create a class, you are making a statement that all objects of that class have the same kind of state and the same kind of behavior. At these level class responsibilities carried out. Collaboration
  • 39. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 39 FIG. NO 4.4.1 CLASS DIAGRAM USE CASE DIAGRAM: Use case diagrams are one of the five diagrams in the UML for modeling the dynamic aspects of systems (activity diagrams, sequence diagrams, state chart diagrams and collaboration diagrams are the four other kinds of diagrams in the UML for modeling the dynamic aspects of systems). Use case diagrams are central to modeling the behavior of the system, a sub-system, or a class. Each one shows a set of use cases and actors and relationship. A use case diagram shows a set of use cases and actors and their relationships. Use case diagrams address the static use case view of a system. These diagrams are especially important in organization and modeling the behaviors of a system. Use case diagram consist of use case, actors, and the relationship between them.
  • 40. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 40 FIG. NO 4.4.2USECASE DIAGRAM USECASE DESCRIPTION: Table 1: Registration Use case Registration Actors User, owner, CSP, TTP Description This usecase is used to register in to the user.
  • 41. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 41 Table 2: Login Use case Login Actors User, owner, CSP, TTP Description This use case is used to maintain the login. Table 3: View file Use case View/Verify Actors User, owner, CSP, TTP Purpose This use case is used to view file. Table 4: See Alert Use case See Alert Actor Owner Purpose This use case is used to see alert by the owner.
  • 42. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 42 Table 5: Send Mail Use case Send mail Actor Owner Description This use case is used to send mail to the users. Table 6: Migrate Cloud Use case Migrate cloud Actor Owner Description This use case is used to migrate from one cloud to another. Table 7: Upload File Use case Upload file Actors Owner, CSP,TTP
  • 43. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 43 Description This use case is used to upload file. Table 8: Download file Use case Download file Actor User Description This use case is used to download file. Table 9: Upload Into Cloud Use case Upload into cloud Actor CSP Description This use case is used to upload the file into cloud.
  • 44. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 44 INTERACTION DIAGRAM: An Interaction diagram shows an interaction, consisting of a set of objects and their relationships, including the messages that may be dispatched among them. Interaction diagrams are used for modeling the dynamic aspects of the system. A sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that emphasizes the time ordering of the messages. Graphically, a sequence diagram is a table that shows objects arranged along the X- axis and messages, ordered in increasing time, along the Y-axis and messages, ordered in increasing time, along the Y-axis. Sequence diagrams establish the role of objects and provide essential information to determine class responsibilities and interfaces. Contents: Interaction diagrams commonly contain objects, links andmessages. Like all other diagrams, interaction diagrams may contain Notes and constraints. SEQUENCE DIAGRAM: The sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that emphasizes the time ordering of messages for modeling a real time system. Graphically, a sequence diagram is a table that shows objects arranged along the X axis and messages, ordered in increasing time, along the y axis sequence diagram consist of objects, likes, lifeline, and focus of control, and messages. Object: are typically named or anonymous instances of class. But may also represent instances of their things such as components, collaboration and nodes. Link: A link is a semantic connection among objects i.e., an object of an association is called as a link. Lifeline: a lifeline is vertical dashed line that represents the lifetime of an object. Focus of control: a focus of control is tall, thin rectangle that shows the period of time during which an object is object is performing an action. Message: a message is a specification of a communication between objects that conveys the information with the expectation that the activity will ensue.
  • 45. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 45 INTERACTION DIAGRAM-1: FIG.NO 4.4.3: SEQUENCE DIAGRAM
  • 46. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 46 INTERACTION DIAGRAM-2: FIG.NO 4.4.4: SEQUENCE DIAGRAM
  • 47. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 47 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM-1: Collaboration diagrams are also interaction diagrams. They convey the same information as sequence diagrams, but they focus on object roles instead of the times that messages are sent. In a sequence diagram, object roles are the vertices and messages are the connecting links. Each message in a collaboration diagram has a sequence number. The top-level message is numbered 1. Messages at the same level (sent during the same call) have the same decimal prefix but suffixes of 1, 2, etc. according to when they occur. FIG.NO 4.4.5: COLLABORATION DIAGRAM
  • 48. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 48 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM-2: FIG.NO 4.4.6: COLLABORATION DIAGRAM
  • 49. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 49 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM: An Activity diagrams essentially a flow chart showing flow of control from Activity to Activity. They are used to model the dynamic aspects of as system. They can also be used to model the flow of an object as it moves from State to State of different points in the flow of control. Activity diagrams are closely related to state chart diagrams. The main difference between the two diagrams is that state chart diagrams are state centric where as activity diagrams are activity centric. Once the activity is completed, the flow of control moves to next activity or state through a transition. FIG.NO 4.4.7 : ACTIVITY DIAGRAM
  • 50. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 50 State Chart Diagram: It shows a state machine consisting of states, transition events and activities.State chart diagram addresses the dynamic view of a system.They are especially important in modeling the behavior of an interface class or collaboration and emphasize the event ordered behavior of an object. FIG.NO 4.4.8 :STATE CHART DIAGRAM
  • 51. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 51 4.5 MODULE DESCRIPTION Modules: 1. Registration 2. Login 3. File Upload 4. Migrate Cloud 5. Send Mail Modules Description: 4.5.1 Registration: In this module if an User or Owner or TTP(trusted third party) or CSP(cloud service provider) have to register first,then only he/she has to access the data base. 4.5.2 Login: In this module,any of the above mentioned person have to login,they should login by giving their username and password. 4.5.3 File Upload: In this module Owner uploads a file(along with meta data) into cloud,before it gets uploaded,it subjects into Validation by TTP.Then TTP sends the file to CSP.CSP decrypt the file by using file key. If CSP tries to modify the data of the file,He can‘t modify it.If he made an attempt the alert will go to the Owner of the file.It results in the Cloud Migration.
  • 52. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 52 4.5.4 Migrate Cloud: The advantage of this Meta cloud is, if we are not satisfied with one CSP,we can switch over to next cloud.so that we are using two clouds at a time.In second cloud,their cant modify/corrupt the real data,if they made an attempt, they will fail. 4.5.5 Send Mail: The Mail will be sent to the end user along with file decryption key,so as to end user can download the file. Owner sends the mail to the users who are registered earlier while uploaded the file into the correct cloud. Working Of Cloud Computing: Cloud computing system can be divided it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. Thefront end is the side the computer user, or client, sees.The back end is the "cloud" section of the system. On the back end there are various computers,servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computingservices. A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It followsa set of rules called protocols Servers and remote computers do most of the work and store the data. Implementation is the stage of the project when the theoretical design is turned out into a working system. Thus it can be considered to be the most critical stage in achieving a successful new system and in giving the user, confidence that the new system will work and be effective. The implementation stage involves careful planning, investigation of the existing system and it‘s constraints on implementation, designing of methods to achieve changeover and evaluation of changeover methods. The emergence of yet more cloud offerings from a multitude of service providers calls for a Meta cloud to smoothen the edges of the jagged cloud landscape. This Meta cloud could solve the vendor lock-in problems that current public and hybrid cloud users face.
  • 53. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 53 5. IMPLEMENTATION 5.1 ABOUT SOFTWARE: 5.1.1 Frontend software Java Technology Java technology is both a programming language and a platform. The Java Programming Language The Java programming language is a high-level language that can be characterized by all of the following buzzwords:  Simple  Architecture neutral  Object oriented  Portable  Distributed  High performance  Multithreaded  Robust  Dynamic  Secure With most programming languages, you either compile or interpret a program so that you can run it on your computer. The Java programming language is unusual in that a program is both compiled and interpreted. With the compiler, first you translate a program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes —the platform-independent codes interpreted by the interpreter on the Java platform. The interpreter parses and runs each Java byte code instruction on the computer. Compilation happens just once; interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. The following figure illustrates how this works.
  • 54. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 54 You can think of Java byte codes as the machine code instructions for the Java VirtualMachine (Java VM). Every Java interpreter, whether it‘s a development tool or a Web browser that can run applets, is an implementation of the Java VM. Java byte codes help make ―write once, run anywhere‖ possible. You can compile your program into byte codes on any platform that has a Java compiler. The byte codes can then be run on any implementation of the Java VM. That means that as long as a computer has a Java VM, the same program written in the Java programming language can run on Windows 2000, a Solaris workstation, or on an iMac. The Java Platform A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs. We‘ve already mentioned some of the most popular platforms like Windows 2000, Linux, Solaris, and MacOS. Most platforms can be described as a combination of the operating system and hardware. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that it‘s a software-only platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms. The Java platform has two components: The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM) The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API) The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful capabilities, such as graphical user interface (GUI) widgets. The Java API is grouped into libraries of related classes and interfaces; these libraries are known as packages. The next section, What Can Java Technology Do? Highlights what functionality some of the packages in the Java API provide.
  • 55. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 55 The following figure depicts a program that‘s running on the Java platform. As the figure shows, the Java API and the virtual machine insulate the program from the hardware. Native code is code that after you compile it, the compiled code runs on a specific hardware platform. As a platform-independent environment, the Java platform can be a bit slower than native code. However, smart compilers, well-tuned interpreters, and just-in-time byte code compilers can bring performance close to that of native code without threatening portability. What Can Java Technology Do? The most common types of programs written in the Java programming language are appletsand applications. If you‘ve surfed the Web, you‘re probably already familiar with applets. An applet is a program that adheres to certain conventions that allow it to run within a Java- enabled browser. However, the Java programming language is not just for writing cute, entertaining applets for the Web. The general-purpose, high-level Java programming language is also a powerful software platform. Using the generous API, you can write many types of programs. An application is a standalone program that runs directly on the Java platform. A special kind of application known as a server serves and supports clients on a network. Examples of servers are Web servers, proxy servers, mail servers, and print servers. Another specialized program is a servlet. A servlet can almost be thought of as an applet that runs on the server side. Java Servlets are a popular choice for building interactive web applications, replacing the use of CGI scripts. Servlets are similar to applets in that they are runtime extensions of applications. Instead of working in browsers, though, servlets run within Java Web servers, configuring or tailoring the server.
  • 56. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 56 How does the API support all these kinds of programs? It does so with packages of software components that provides a wide range of functionality. Every full implementation of the Java platform gives you the following features: The essentials: Objects, strings, threads, numbers, input and output, data structures, system properties, date and time, and so on. Applets: The set of conventions used by applets. Networking: URLs, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP (User Data gram Protocol) sockets, and IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. Internationalization: Help for writing programs that can be localized for users worldwide. Programs can automatically adapt to specific locales and be displayed in the appropriate language. Security: Both low level and high level, including electronic signatures, public and private key management, access control, and certificates. Software components: Known as JavaBeans TM , can plug into existing component architectures. Object serialization: Allows lightweight persistence and communication via Remote Method Invocation (RMI). Java Database Connectivity (JDBCTM ):
  • 57. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 57 Provides uniform access to a wide range of relational databases. The Java platform also has APIs for 2D and 3D graphics, accessibility, servers, collaboration, telephony, speech, animation, and more. The following figure depicts what is included in the Java 2 SDK. How Will Java Technology Change My Life? We can‘t promise you fame, fortune, or even a job if you learn the Java programming language. Still, it is likely to make your programs better and requires less effort than other languages. We believe that Java technology will help you do the following: Get started quickly: Although the Java programming language is a powerful object-oriented language, it‘s easy to learn, especially for programmers already familiar with C or C++. Write less code: Comparisons of program metrics (class counts, method counts, and so on) suggest that a program written in the Java programming language can be four times smaller than the same program in C++. Write better code: The Java programming language encourages good coding practices, and its garbage collection helps you avoid memory leaks. Its object orientation, its JavaBeans component
  • 58. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 58 architecture, and its wide-ranging, easily extendible API let you reuse other people‘s tested code and introduce fewer bugs. Develop programs more quickly: Your development time may be as much as twice as fast versus writing the same program in C++. Why? You write fewer lines of code and it is a simpler programming language than C++. Avoid platform dependencies with 100% Pure Java: You can keep your program portable by avoiding the use of libraries written in other languages. The 100% Pure Java TM Product Certification Program has a repository of historical process manuals, white papers, brochures, and similar materials online. Write once, run anywhere: Because 100% Pure Java programs are compiled into machine-independent byte codes, they run consistently on any Java platform. Distribute software more easily: You can upgrade applets easily from a central server. Applets take advantage of the feature of allowing new classes to be loaded ―on the fly,‖ without recompiling the entire program. ODBC Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard programming interface for application developers and database systems providers. Before ODBC became a de facto standard for Windows programs to interface with database systems, programmers had to use proprietary languages for each database they wanted to connect to. Now, ODBC has made the choice of the database system almost irrelevant from a coding perspective, which is as it should be. Application developers have much more important things to worry about than the syntax that is needed to port their program from one database to another when business needs suddenly change.
  • 59. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 59 Through the ODBC Administrator in Control Panel, you can specify the particular database that is associated with a data source that an ODBC application program is written to use. Think of an ODBC data source as a door with a name on it. Each door will lead you to a particular database. For example, the data source named Sales Figures might be a SQL Server database, whereas the Accounts Payable data source could refer to an Access database. The physical database referred to by a data source can reside anywhere on the LAN. The ODBC system files are not installed on your system by Windows 95. Rather, they are installed when you setup a separate database application, such as SQL Server Client or Visual Basic 4.0. When the ODBC icon is installed in Control Panel, it uses a file called ODBCINST.DLL. It is also possible to administer your ODBC data sources through a stand- aloneprogramcalledODBCADM.EXE. From a programming perspective, the beauty of ODBC is that the application can be written to use the same set of function calls to interface with any data source, regardless of the database vendor. The source code of the application doesn‘t change whether it talks to Oracle or SQL Server. We only mention these two as an example. There are ODBC drivers available for several dozen popular database systems. Even Excel spreadsheets and plain text files can be turned into data sources. The operating system uses the Registry information written by ODBC Administrator to determine which low-level ODBC drivers are needed to talk to the data source (such as the interface to Oracle or SQL Server). The loading of the ODBC drivers is transparent to the ODBC application program. In a client/server environment, the ODBC API even handles many of the network issues for the application programmer. The advantages of this scheme are so numerous that you are probably thinking there must be some catch. The only disadvantage of ODBC is that it isn‘t as efficient as talking directly to the native database interface. ODBC has had many detractors make the charge that it is too slow. Microsoft has always claimed that the critical factor in performance is the quality of the driver software that is used. In our humble opinion, this is true. The availability of good ODBC drivers has improved a great deal recently. And anyway, the criticism about performance is somewhat analogous to those who said that compilers would never match the speed of pure assembly language. Maybe not, but the compiler (or ODBC) gives you the opportunity to write cleaner programs, which means you finish sooner. Meanwhile, computers get faster every year.
  • 60. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 60 JDBC In an effort to set an independent database standard API for Java; Sun Microsystems developed Java Database Connectivity, or JDBC. JDBC offers a generic SQL database access mechanism that provides a consistent interface to a variety of RDBMSs. This consistent interface is achieved through the use of ―plug-in‖ database connectivity modules, or drivers. If a database vendor wishes to have JDBC support, he or she must provide the driver for each platform that the database and Java run on. To gain a wider acceptance of JDBC, Sun based JDBC‘s framework on ODBC. As you discovered earlier in this chapter, ODBC has widespread support on a variety of platforms. Basing JDBC on ODBC will allow vendors to bring JDBC drivers to market much faster than developing a completely new connectivity solution. JDBC was announced in March of 1996. It was released for a 90 day public review that ended June 8, 1996. Because of user input, the final JDBC v1.0 specification was released soon after. The remainder of this section will cover enough information about JDBC for you to know what it is about and how to use it effectively. This is by no means a complete overview of JDBC. That would fill an entire book. JDBC Goals Few software packages are designed without goals in mind. JDBC is one that, because of its many goals, drove the development of the API. These goals, in conjunction with early reviewer feedback, have finalized the JDBC class library into a solid framework for building database applications in Java. The goals that were set for JDBC are important. They will give you some insight as to why certain classes and functionalities behave the way they do. The eight design goals for JDBC are as follows: SQL Level API The designers felt that their main goal was to define a SQL interface for Java. Although not the lowest database interface level possible, it is at a low enough level for higher-level tools and APIs to be created. Conversely, it is at a high enough level for application programmers to use it
  • 61. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 61 confidently. Attaining this goal allows for future tool vendors to ―generate‖ JDBC code and to hide many of JDBC‘s complexities from the end user. SQL Conformance SQL syntax varies as you move from database vendor to database vendor. In an effort to support a wide variety of vendors, JDBC will allow any query statement to be passed through it to the underlying database driver. This allows the connectivity module to handle non-standard functionality in a manner that is suitable for its users. JDBC must be implemental on top of common database interfaces The JDBC SQL API must ―sit‖ on top of other common SQL level APIs. This goal allows JDBC to use existing ODBC level drivers by the use of a software interface. This interface would translate JDBC calls to ODBC and vice versa. Provide a Java interface that is consistent with the rest of the Java system Because of Java‘s acceptance in the user community thus far, the designers feel that they should not stray from the current design of the core Java system. Keep it simple This goal probably appears in all software design goal listings. JDBC is no exception. Sun felt that the design of JDBC should be very simple, allowing for only one method of completing a task per mechanism. Allowing duplicate functionality only serves to confuse the users of the API. Use strong, static typing wherever possible Strong typing allows for more error checking to be done at compile time; also, less error appear at runtime.
  • 62. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 62 Java is also unusual in that each Java program is both compiled and interpreted. With a compile you translate a Java program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes the platform-independent code instruction is passed and run on the computer. Compilation happens just once; interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. The figure illustrates how this works. You can think of Java byte codes as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). Every Java interpreter, whether it‘s a Java development tool or a Web browser that can run Java applets, is an implementation of the Java VM. The Java VM can also be implemented in hardware. Java byte codes help make ―write once, run anywhere‖ possible. You can compile your Java program into byte codes on my platform that has a Java compiler. The byte codes can then be run any implementation of the Java VM. For example, the same Java program can run Windows NT, Solaris, and Macintosh. Networking TCP/IP stack The TCP/IP stack is shorter than the OSI one: JavaProgram Compilers Interpreter My Program
  • 63. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 63 TCP is a connection-oriented protocol; UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless protocol. IP datagram’s The IP layer provides a connectionless and unreliable delivery system. It considers each datagram independently of the others. Any association between datagram must be supplied by the higher layers. The IP layer supplies a checksum that includes its own header. The header includes the source and destination addresses. The IP layer handles routing through an Internet. It is also responsible for breaking up large datagram into smaller ones for transmission and reassembling them at the other end. UDP UDP is also connectionless and unreliable. What it adds to IP is a checksum for the contents of the datagram and port numbers. These are used to give a client/server model - see later. TCP TCP supplies logic to give a reliable connection-oriented protocol above IP. It provides a virtual circuit that two processes can use to communicate.
  • 64. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 64 Internet addresses In order to use a service, you must be able to find it. The Internet uses an address scheme for machines so that they can be located. The address is a 32 bit integer which gives the IP address. Network address Class A uses 8 bits for the network address with 24 bits left over for other addressing. Class B uses 16 bit network addressing. Class C uses 24 bit network addressing and class D uses all 32. Subnet address Internally, the UNIX network is divided into sub networks. Building 11 is currently on one sub network and uses 10-bit addressing, allowing 1024 different hosts. Host address 8 bits are finally used for host addresses within our subnet. This places a limit of 256 machines that can be on the subnet. Total address The 32 bit address is usually written as 4 integers separated by dots.
  • 65. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 65 Port addresses A service exists on a host, and is identified by its port. This is a 16 bit number. To send a message to a server, you send it to the port for that service of the host that it is running on. This is not location transparency! Certain of these ports are "well known". Sockets A socket is a data structure maintained by the system to handle network connections. A socket is created using the call socket. It returns an integer that is like a file descriptor. In fact, under Windows, this handle can be used with Read File and Write File functions. #include <sys/types> #include <sys/socket> int socket (int family, int type, int protocol); Here "family" will be AF_INET for IP communications, protocol will be zero, and type will depend on whether TCP or UDP is used. Two processes wishing to communicate over a network create a socket each. These are similar to two ends of a pipe - but the actual pipe does not yet exist. JFree Chart JFreeChart is a free 100% Java chart library that makes it easy for developers to display professional quality charts in their applications. JFreeChart extensive feature set includes: A flexible design that is easy to extend, and targets both server-side and client-side applications; Support for many output types, including Swing components, image files (including PNG and JPEG), and vector graphics file formats (including PDF, EPS and SVG); JFreeChart is "open source" or, more specifically, free software. It is distributed under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), which permits use in proprietary applications.
  • 66. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 66 1. Map Visualizations Charts showing values that relate to geographical areas. Some examples include: (a) population density in each state of the United States, (b) income per capita for each country in Europe, (c) life expectancy in each country of the world. The tasks in this project include: Sourcing freely redistributable vector outlines for the countries of the world, states/provinces in particular countries (USA in particular, but also other areas); Creating an appropriate dataset interface (plus default implementation), a rendered, and integrating this with the existing XYPlot class in JFreeChart; Testing, documenting, testing some more, documenting some more. 2. Time Series Chart Interactivity Implement a new (to JFreeChart) feature for interactive time series charts --- to display a separate control that shows a small version of ALL the time series data, with a sliding "view" rectangle that allows you to select the subset of the time series data to display in the main chart. 3. Dashboards There is currently a lot of interest in dashboard displays. Create a flexible dashboard mechanism that supports a subset of JFreeChart chart types (dials, pies, thermometers, bars, and lines/time series) that can be delivered easily via both Java Web Start and an applet. 4. Property Editors The property editor mechanism in JFreeChart only handles a small subset of the properties that can be set for charts. Extend (or reimplement) this mechanism to provide greater end-user control over the appearance of the charts. Tomcat 6.0 web server Tomcat is an open source web server developed by Apache Group. Apache Tomcat is the servlet container that is used in the official Reference Implementation for the Java Servlet and Java Server Pages technologies. The Java Servlet and Java Server Pages specifications are
  • 67. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 67 developed by Sun under the Java Community Process. Web Servers like Apache Tomcat support only web components while an application server supports web components as well as business components (BEAs Web logic, is one of the popular application server).To develop a web application with jsp/servlet install any web server like JRun, Tomcat etc to run your application. Fig.5.1 Tomcat Web server 5.1.2 Back end software: Features of SQL-SERVER: The OLAP Services feature available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services. The term OLAP Services has been replaced with the term Analysis Services. Analysis Services also includes a new data mining component. The Repository component available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Meta Data Services. References to the component now use the term Meta Data Services. The term repository is used only in reference to the repository engine within Meta Data Services SQL-SERVER database consist of six type of objects,
  • 68. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 68 They are, 1. TABLE 2. QUERY 3. FORM 4. REPORT 5. MACRO Table: A database is a collection of data about a specific topic. Views of table: We can work with a table in two types, 1. Design View 2. Datasheet View Design View: To build or modify the structure of a table we work in the table design view. We can specify what kind of data will be hold. Datasheet View: To add, edit or analyses the data itself we work in tables datasheet view mode. Query: A query is a question that has to be asked the data. Access gathers data that answers the question from one or more table. The data that make up the answer is either dynaset (if you edit it) or a snapshot (it cannot be edited).Each time we run query, we get latest information in the dynaset. Access either displays the dynaset or snapshot for us to view or perform an action on it, such as deleting or updating.
  • 69. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 69 6. SYSTEM TESTING 6.1 TESTING FUNDAMENTALS: The purpose of testing is to discover errors. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product. It provides a way to check the functionality of components, sub-assemblies, assemblies and/or a finished product It is the process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the Software system meets its requirements and user expectations and does not fail in an unacceptable manner. There are various types of test. Each test type addresses a specific testing requirement. 6.2 WHITE BOX TESTING: White Box Testing is a testing in which in which the software tester has knowledge of the inner workings, structure and language of the software, or at least its purpose. It is purpose. It is used to test areas that cannot be reached from a black box level. 6.3 BLACK BOX TESTING: Black Box Testing is testing the software without any knowledge of the inner workings, structure or language of the module being tested. Black box tests, as most other kinds of tests, must be written from a definitive source document, such as specification or requirements document, such as specification or requirements document. It is a testing in which the software under test is treated, as a black box .you cannot ―see‖ into it. The test provides inputs and responds to outputs without considering how the software works. 6.4 SAMPLE TEST CASES: Unit testing Unit testing involves the design of test cases that validate that the internal program logic is functioning properly, and that program inputs produce valid outputs. All decision branches and internal code flow should be validated. It is the testing of individual software units of the application .it is done after the completion of an individual unit before integration. This is a structural testing, that relies on knowledge of its construction and is invasive. Unit tests perform
  • 70. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 70 basic tests at component level and test a specific business process, application, and/or system configuration. Unit tests ensure that each unique path of a business process performs accurately to the documented specifications and contains clearly defined inputs and expected results. Unit testing is usually conducted as part of a combined code and unit test phase of the software lifecycle, although it is not uncommon for coding and unit testing to be conducted as two distinct phases. Test strategy and approach Field testing will be performed manually and functional tests will be written in detail. Test objectives All field entries must work properly. Pages must be activated from the identified link. The entry screen, messages and responses must not be delayed. Features to be tested Verify that the entries are of the correct format No duplicate entries should be allowed All links should take the user to the correct page. Integration testing Integration tests are designed to test integrated software components to determine if they actually run as one program. Testing is event driven and is more concerned with the basic outcome of screens or fields. Integration tests demonstrate that although the components were individually satisfaction, as shown by successfully unit testing, the combination of components is correct and consistent. Integration testing is specifically aimed at exposing the problems that arise from the combination of components.Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects. The task of the integration test is to check that components or software applications, e.g. components in a software system or – one step up – software applications at the company level – interact without error.
  • 71. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 71 Test Results: All the test cases mentioned above passed successfully. No defects encountered. Functional test Functional tests provide systematic demonstrations that functions tested are available as specified by the business and technical requirements, system documentation, and user manuals. Functional testing is centered on the following items: Valid Input : identified classes of valid input must be accepted. Invalid Input : identified classes of invalid input must be rejected. Functions : identified functions must be exercised. Output : identified classes of application outputs must be exercised. Systems/Procedures: interfacing systems or procedures must be invoked. Organization and preparation of functional tests is focused on requirements, key functions, or special test cases. System Test System testing ensures that the entire integrated software system meets requirements. It tests a configuration to ensure known and predictable results. An example of system testing is the configuration oriented system integration test. System testing is based on process descriptions and flows, emphasizing pre-driven process links and integration points. User acceptance Testing: User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any project and requires significant participation by the end user. It also ensures that the system meets the functional requirement.
  • 72. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 72 7. RESULTS
  • 73. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 73 Server login: Fig 7.1: Server login Here we open the apache tomcat 7.0 version and click the manager apps.
  • 74. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 74 Browsing project: Fig.7.2: Browsing project Here we login as the admin and enter the password then the list of from the list of applications we browse and select the project.
  • 75. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 75 Homepage: Fig.7.3: Home page This is the homepage which describes the Meta cloud and shows the architecture of meta cloud.
  • 76. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 76 Owner Registration: Fig.7.4: Owner registration page In this webpage owner can register himself by filling the form.
  • 77. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 77 User Registration: Fig.7.5: User registration page In this webpage user can register himself by filling the form.
  • 78. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 78 TTP registration page: Fig.7.5: TTP registration page In this webpage TTP can register himself by filling the form.
  • 79. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 79 CSP Registration: Fig.7.9 CSP Registration In this webpage CSP can register himself by filling the form.
  • 80. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 80 Owner login page: Fig.7.11 Owner login page In this webpage owner can login by filling the form with his username and password.
  • 81. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 81 File Upload: Fig.7.12 File Upload In this webpage owner can login and fill the form and submit the details.
  • 82. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 82 TTP login: Fig, 7.13 TTP login In this webpage TTP can login and fill the form and submit the details.
  • 83. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 83 File details: Fig.7.14 File details In this webpage we can see the files which were uploaded previously, Containing the file details like, date of created, file size, key number etc.
  • 84. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 84 File Upload: Fig.7.15 File Upload The file can be uploaded by choosing the file, and submitting after selecting the file.
  • 85. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 85 CSP login: Fig. 7.16 CSP login In this webpage TTP can login and fill the form and submit the details.
  • 86. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 86 CSP files details: Fig.7.18 CSP files details In this webpage CSP verifies the uploaded file details.
  • 87. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 87 File key number: Fig.7.20 File key number By clicking on get key button the key will be generated in this webpage.
  • 88. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 88 Change cloud: Fig.7.21 Change cloud If the owner thinks to change the cloud he can do so by selecting from the list of clouds service providers available in the Meta cloud.
  • 89. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 89 Send mail: Fig.7.22 Send mail The owner can send a mail to any of the users who already registered and the mail contains the file key.
  • 90. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 90 Mail search: Fig.7.24 Mail search After successfully uploading the file the user can check and download the file by using thefile key which is sent to the user‘s mail.
  • 91. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 91 8. CONCLUSION& FUTURE WORK The Meta cloud can help mitigate vendor lock-in and promises transparent use of cloud computing services. Most of the basic technologies necessary to realize the Meta cloud already exist, yet lack integration. Thus, integrating these state-of-the-art tools promises a huge leap toward the Meta cloud. To avoid Meta cloud lock-in, the community must drive the ideas and create a truly open Meta cloud with added value for all customers and broad support for different providers and implementation technologies. To some extent, we can realize the Meta cloud based on a combination of existing tools and concepts, part of which we just examined. The Meta cloud‘s main components.We can categorize these components based on whether they‘re important mainly for cloud software engineers during development time or whether they perform tasks during runtime. The emergence of yet more cloud offerings from a multitude of service providers calls for a Meta cloud to smoothen the edges of the jagged cloud landscape. This Meta cloud could solve the vendor lock-in problems that current public and hybrid cloud users face.
  • 92. Winds Of Change: From Vendor Locking To The Meta Cloud CSE DEPT, PDIT 92 REFERENCES 1. M. Armbrust et al., ―A View of Cloud Computing,‖ Comm. ACM, vol. 53, no. 4,2010, pp. 50–58. 2. B.P. Rimal, E. Choi, and I. Lumb, ―A Taxonomy and Survey of Cloud Computing Systems,‖ Proc. Int’l Conf. Networked Computingand Advanced Information Management, IEEE CS Press, 2009, pp. 44–51. 3. J. Skene, D.D. Lamanna, and W. Emmerich, ―Precise Service Level Agreements,‖Proc. 26th Int’l Conf. SoftwareEng. (ICSE 04), IEEE CS Press, 2004, pp. 179–188. 4. Q. Zhang, L. Cheng, and R. Boutaba, ―Cloud Computing: State-of-the-Art and Research Challenges,‖ J. Internet Servicesand Applications, vol. 1, no. 1, 2010, pp. 7–18. 5. M.D. Dikaiakos, A. Katsifodimos, and G. Pallis, ―Minersoft: Software Retrieval in Grid and Cloud Computing Infrastructures,‖ACM Trans. Internet Technology. 6. http://www.infoworld.com/article/08/04/07/15FE-cloud-computing- reality_1.html, ―What Cloud Computing Really Means‖. 7. http://www.spinnakerlabs.com/CloudComputing.pdf―Welcome to the new era of cloud computing PPT‖. 8. http://www.johnmwillis.com/―Demystifying Clouds‖ - discusses many players in the cloud space. 9. Cloud Computing – MLADEN .A.VOUK -Issues, Research an Implementations,Information Technical Interfaces, June 2008.