• Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Journal  Entries   [Chinese  Cultural  Revolu3on]   By:  Nav  Vanishchinchai  
  • 2. The  Li=le  Red  Book   Turning  Point  #1    
  • 3. Mao  Zedong's  Li=le  Red  Books   Mao  Zedong  
  • 4. Journal  #1   •  •  •  •  •  •  •    On  December  2nd  1965,  the  Li=le  Red  Book  was  published.  It  had  a  vast  impact  on  the   Chinese  ci3zen’s  life.  The  Red  Guards  made  them  memorize  the  en3re  paragraph,  which  of   course  includes  me.  If  someone  was  caught  not  carrying  the  Li=le  Red  Book,  the  person   would  be  beaten  up  by  the  Red  Guards.  In  my  opinion,  this  is  very  nonsense  and  cruel.       Flash  back  in  3me,  Mao  Zedong  should  have  been  insane!  Didn’t  he  know  about  the  nega3ve   effect  of  “The  Great  Leap  Forward”  policy?  As  a  professor,  who  teaches  history  class,  at   Peking  University,  I  had  a  sense  since  the  very  beginning  that  this  would  not  work  out  well.     Although,  I  knew  that  Mao  would  like  to  improve  China’s  industry  rapidly  to  increase  the   industrial  produc3on  for  100%.  In  addi3on,  to  increase  the  agricultural  produc3on  for  35%,   farming  conjointly  in  the  common  ownership  system.         Therefore,  the  farmers  had  to  work  in  the  industrial  factories  instead.  Nevertheless,  the   result  appeared  to  be  that  it  was  a  mistaken  poli3cal.  The  Great  Leap  Forward  used  more   labor  than  technology.  The  cul3va3on  was  insufficient  for  the  ci3zens,  around  twenty   millions  starved  to  death.  Piteous  China.   Luckily,  Mao  lost  some  power  from  that  horrified  event.  On  the  other  hand,  unfortunately,   Mao  regained  even  more  power  afer  he  showed  up  with  “Quota3ons  from  Chairman”.  The   book  Quota3ons  from  Chairman,  or  be=er  known  as  The  Li/le  Red  Book,  is  a  book  of   selected  statements  from  speeches  and  wri3ngs  of  the  former  leader  of  Chinese  Communist   Party,  Mao  Zedong.    
  • 5. •  •  •  •  •  Which  for  some  kind  of  reason,  most  ci3zens  respected  and  obeyed  the  speech,   incau3ously.  The  head  of  the  na3onal  army,  Lin  Biao,  was  the  one  who  organized   hundreds  of  Mao’s  quotes  into  the  book.  According  to  Mao,  the  red  book  was  the   main  propaganda  representa3on  used  to  reinforce  Chairman’s  dominance  over  the   party  line.  At  the  same  3me,  I  could  feel  the  signal  of  the  Cultural  Revolu3on.   Chaos.        Even  though,  I  am  not  agreeing  with  this  policy,  I  could  do  nothing,  no  ways  to   against  without  gejng  into  a  huge  trouble.  Everybody  was  given  a  copy.  It  has  33   chapters,  427  of  Chairman  Mao’s  quota3ons.  I  turned  the  pages  over  roughly.  “   There  are  two  kinds  of  personality  cults.  One  is  a  healthy  personality  cult,  that  is,  to   worship  men  like  Marx,  Engels,  Lenin,  and  Stalin.  Because  they  hold  the  truth  in   their  hands.  The  other  is  a  false  personality  cult,  i.e.  not  analyzed  and  blind   worship.  ”  Well,  to  be  honest,  Lenin  and  Stalin  were  the  reason  why  Russia  was  a   disaster.  Will  Mao  make  that  occur  in  China  too?         Unbelievably,  the  book  became  one  of  the  most  visible  icons.  I  s3ll  don’t  get  why   people  s3ll  obeyed  Mao  Zedong.  Don’t  they  remember  what  he  has  done  to  us   earlier  during  The  Great  Leap  Forward?  This  is  obviously  a  brainwashing.  And  I’m   sure  it  will  never  happen  to  me  just  like  those  fool  ci3zens.      
  • 6. Forma3on  of  the  Red  Guards   Turning  Point  #2  
  • 7. Red  Guard  ouoit  from  the     Cultural  Revolu3on   Li=le  Red  Guards  
  • 8. Journal  #2   •  •  •  •  This  is  disgruntled!  My  confident  for  being  a  great  teacher  incredibly  decreased.  I   thought  I  have  taught  my  students  well  enough  to  be  judicious  to  know  what  is   right  and  what  is  not.  On  the  opposite  side,  I  was  completely  wrong.    One  of  my   students,  Nie  Yuanzi,  was  one  of  the  leaders  of  group  of  university  and  high  school   students,  which  formed  into  paramilitary  units,  who  called  themselves  as  Red   Guards.  Or  maybe  Mao  Zedong  is  too  good  at  brain  washing.  The  Red  Guards  were   formed  on  May  29th  1966.  The  characters  of  the  Red  Guards  are  who  carries  the   Li=le  Red  Book  and  who  respected  Mao.  Which  meanwhile,  The  Great  Proletarian   Cultural  Revolu3on  have  started,  just  like  what  I  have  expected.         Driving  along  the  road,  I  consciously  waited  for  the  car  in  front  of  mine  to  move.   The  traffic  was  horrible.  Haply,  it  was  next  to  the  Tiananmen  Square.  Even  though   from  a  long  distance,  it  was  easy  to  no3ce  that  it  was  a  crowd  of  the  Red  Guards.   Ci3zens,  both  youths  and  adults,  with  a  green  ouoit  were  all  over  the  place.  There   was  Mao  Zedong,  the  god  of  brainwashing,  giving  out  a  speech  through   microphone.  His  voice  echoed  everywhere.  I  rolled  my  eyes,  3resomely.  The   policies  may  sound  benefit  to  the  ci3zens,  s3ll,  all  the  goods  would  return  to   himself.  Once  again,  what  a  selfish  thought.        
  • 9. •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •    However,  it  seemed  like  the  Red  Guards  did  not  no3ce  it,  not  even  a  li=le.  Respect,   admire,  was  in  their  eyes  expression  toward  their  bogus  god.    Exhaled  heavily,  I   closed  my  eyelids  down  to  calm  myself  as  my  sight  caught  a  group  of  students,  my   students,  in  the  large  crowd.  Afer  the  speech,  they  all  cheered  and  hold  up  the   Li=le  Red  Book  together  at  the  same  3me  as  if  they  rehearsed  it  before.       Selfish  Mao  has  gained  even  more  power,  since  there  were  more  to  support  him.   As  what  I  have  men3oned  earlier,  these  young  ci3zens  were  fooled  and  educated   to  respect  Mao  as  a  god.          “One  of  the  students  in  your  history  class  was  beaten  up!”  Mr.  Wang,  a  professor   in  the  university,  yelled  breathlessly  afer  he  ran  from  a  far  distance,  meanwhile  I   was  enjoying  my  lunch  break.  My  spoon  dropped  with  shock.  Stood  up  swifly,  I   followed  Mr.  Wang  un3l  we  got  to  the  end  of  the  building.   “Stop!”  I  shouted  madly  at  those  five  cruel  students.  They  suddenly  stopped.  One   of  them  kicked  the  pi3ful  kid  once  more  for  the  last  3me  right  in  front  of  me.  “I   said  stop!”  My  voice  rose  even  higher.  “What  is  the  ma=er?  Why  did  you  have  to   do  this?!”  I  yelled  at  them.  My  temper  have  reached  to  the  highest  point.     “It  wasn’t  our  fault!  He  blamed  on  Mao  Zedong  first!”,  one  of  them  answered   loudly  as  he  pointed  at  the  poor  young  man,  blood  at  the  corner  of  his  lips,  purple   bruises  all  over  his  body.  The  signal  of  disaster  that  would  occur  in  China  have   appeared.        
  • 10. Destroy  the  Four  Olds   Turning  Point  #3  
  • 11.  A  pro-­‐Revolu3on  propaganda  poster   featuring  Jiang  Qing,  bearing  the   slogan  "Let  the  new  socialist   performing  arts  occupy  every  stage"    Buddhist  images  of  worship  being   burnt  in  public  under  the  Destruc3on   of  the  Four  Olds  campaign  
  • 12. Journal  #3   •  •  •  Turning  my  face  away  from  the    propaganda  with  shock,  I  squeezed  my  fist  3ghtly.   On  June  1st  1966,  the  term  of  “Destroying  the  Four  Olds”  have  appeared.  I  took  a   look  at  the  most  painful  text  on  the  poster  once  again:  Destroy  the  old  customs,   old  habits,  old,  ideas,  and  old  culture.  Terribly  unlucky,  they  all  related  to  history.   History  is  my  life!  I  am  even  more  familiar  with  history  than  my  very  own  family.   Mao  Zedong  has  announced  the  reason  of  the  term  that  it  was  the  only  way  for   China  to  change,  for  a  new  China.    I  always  have  the  idea  of  how  China  was  hurt   from  World  War  II.  Nevertheless,  this  term  will  obviously  not  going  to  fix  this   situa3on,  at  all.  This  is  all  nonsense!  S3ll,  the  result  appeared  to  be  that  everybody   believed  him!       Fast  as  the  speed  of  light,  I  ran  into  my  study  room.  Selec3ng  a  few  of  the  most   important  history  books  I  owned,  I  held  them  in  my  arms  while  looking  at  the  rest   though  my  sad  eyes.  I  didn’t  have  much  3me.  Toward  my  bedroom,  I  ran  with   hurry.  I  lowered  my  head  to  be  able  to  reach  the  space  under  my  bed.  Moved  a   huge  box  away,  opened  one  of  the  wooden  plank  of  the  floor,  before  I  stuffed  the   books  into  it.  I  put  everything  into  place  where  it  originally  was.  
  • 13. •  •  •  •  •          My  room  was  kicked  open  by  the  Red  Guards.  It  nearly  scared  my  to  the  death.   One  of  them  ordered  the  other  four  to  search  my  house.  I  couldn’t  move  my  own   feet.  I  was  able  to  catch  my  breath  was  when  they  threw  my  proper3es  into  the   fire.  Two  guards  on  both  of  my  sides,  I  watched  my  precious  violin  burned  by  the   red  flame  slowing  into  a  black  dust,  along  with  uncountable  valuable  books.  A  drop   of  tear  slowly  rolled  down  from  the  corner  of  my  burning  eyes.       This  is  extremely  unacceptable!  Around  June  1966,  middle  schools  and  universi3es   throughout  the  country  closed  down.  The  result?  I  am  no  longer  a  professor,  my   precious  job  at  all  3me.  According  to  Mao  Zedong,  he  said  that  who  are  highly   educated  at  dangerous,  because  or  else  everybody  would  not  be  equal.  Guess   what?  I  don’t  think  that  is  his  truly  thought.  Nevertheless,  he  may  have  an  idea   that  who  has  a  higher  knowledge  would  be  harder  to  control  and  brainwash.     From  my  bedroom’s  window,  I  looked  out  at  a  crowd  of  Red  Guards  marching   down  along  the  street  through  the  white  thin  curtain.  Suddenly,  the  door  was   opened  violently.  Two  of  the  Red  Guards  in  a  green  ouoit  started  to  capture  and   drag  me  out.  Then,  I  no3ced  that  they  were  one  of  my  students  at  the  university.  I   was  sure  they  recognized  me,  but  it  did  not  ma=er  to  them  at  all.    
  • 14. Down  the  Countryside   Movement   Turning  Point  #4  
  • 15. He  humilia3on  of  two  men  at  a  mass  rally  in   Shenyang,  had  been  accused  of  being  a   'Capitalist  Roader’”.   This  poster  shows  how  to  deal   with  a  so-­‐called  "enemy  of  the   people"    
  • 16. Journal  Entry  #4   •  My  consciousness  was  gone,  un3l  I  was  already  on  the  stage.  Many  of  my   professor  friends  were  there,  kneeling  down,  yelled  by  his  student.  At  the   same  3me,  the  same  youth  Red  Guard  who  dragged  me  here  pushed  my   shoulders  down  for  me  to  kneel  down.  The  pain  ran  though  my  knees;   however,  my  heart  was  much  worst.  He  started  to  rebuke  me  rudely.  The   professor  next  to  me  suddenly  stood  up  and  shouted  about  how  this  is   nonsense  and  foolish.  The  crowd  of  inhabitants  gasped  with  horror.  The   student  slapped  him,  followed  with  a  kick  and  dragged  down  from  the   stage  without  mercy.   •  “He  would  probably  be  killed  with  a  gun”   •  “Or  even  by  hanging  him”   •  “But  I  think  he  would  be  hit  to  the  death”  The  crowd  started  the   cha=ering.  I  was  stunned.  With  no  wonder,  I  surrendered  and  face  the   truth.  Stared  at  the  calendar  on  the  wall,  I  exhaled  exhaustedly.  December   24th  1968.  Two  years  have  past,  only  two?  The  moment  of  happiness   always  past  swifly,  conversely,  the  moment  of  depression  and  pain   always  past  by  lazily.  For  not  gejng  myself  into  trouble,  I  deigned  to  be   on  Mao  Zedong’s  side.  Even  though,  I  truly  and  seriously  don’t,  at  all.  My   ac3ons  and  my  thoughts  was  completely  the  opposite.    
  • 17. •  Reluctantly,  I  got  to  the  Tiananmen  Square,  wearing  the  Red  Guard  ouoit   with  a  Li=le  Red  Book  in  my  hand.  Listened  to  Mao  giving  out  a  ridiculous   speech,  I  was  standing  in  the  middle  of  an  enormous  crowd.  I  may  look   like  I  was  interested;  on  the  other  hand,  I  was  rolling  my  eyes  secretly.     •      •  Mao  Zedong  started  to  talk  about  the  new  policy,  Up  to  the  Mountains   and  Down  to  the  Countryside  Movement.  Many  of  the  graduated  high   school  students,  which  became  known  as  the  Rus3cated  Youth  of  China,   were  forced  to  get  out  of  the  ci3es  and  exiled  to  remote  areas  of  China,  in   order  for  them  to  learn  from  the  workers  and  farmers  there.  On  the  other   hand,  man  of  them  lost  the  opportunity  to  a=end  universi3es.  Mao  was   born  to  destroy  my  life,  to  destroy  China.   •      •  “Move!  Move!  Faster!  Get  in!”  Another  Red  Guard  shouted  at  youths  who   were  gejng  on  the  bus,  unwillingly.  Meanwhile,  I  spo=ed  a  young  man.   He  was  my  neighbor’s  only  son.  From  my  memory,  he  was  an  intelligent   and  talented  kid.  Earlier,  I  have  predicted  that  he  would  have  an  excellent   occupa3on  with  a  bright  future.  A  cleaver  student  who  was  raised  in  a   high-­‐class  family,  turned  into  an  ordinary  present. From living in a comfortable  environment  with  others  doing  things  for  him  for  most  of  the   3me,  was  forced  to  farm  and  work  all  day  long.  Unfortunately,  Mao   Zedong  destroyed  it  pi3lessly.    
  • 18. •      •  As  the  truck  drove  away,  I  could  no3ce  the  sadness  in  their   eyes.  All  looked  back  at  their  hometown,  Beijing,  with  pain.   The  vibra3on  of  the  truck  shook  their  body,  as  if  it  was   racking  their  heart  bit  by  bit.  The  vehicle  shrunk  smaller   and  smaller,  un3l  it  was  out  of  sight.  
  • 19. Gang  of  Four   Turning  Point  #5  
  • 20. "Decisively  Throw  Out  the   Wang-­‐Zhang-­‐Jiang-­‐Yao  An3-­‐ Party  Clique!"   The  body  of  the  "Great  Chairman"  lying  in  state,   as  people  came  to  pay  their  last  respects  to  him   afer  his  death  on  September  9,  1976  
  • 21. Journal  #5   •  •  •  Along  the  past  ten  years,  I  have  never  been  this  cheerful  and  happy.  The  devil  of   China,  Mao  Zedong  is  dead.  I  marked  the  important  date  into  my  mind,  September   9th  1976,  the  date  of  freedom.  His  death  symbolized  as  the  loss  of  the   revolu3onary  founda3on  of  Communist  China.  When  Mao’s  death  was  declared   on  September  9th  in  the  afernoon,  they  have  en3tled  “A  No3ce  from  the  Central   Commi=ee,  the  NPC,  State  Council,  and  the  CMC  to  the  whole  Party,  the  whole   Army  and  to  the  people  of  all  na3onali3es  throughout  the  country.”  A  while  later,   the  Gang  of  Four  lost  their  remaining  power  and  were  imprisoned.  Which  includes   Mao’s  third  wife,  Jiang  Qing,  and  the  three  Shanghai  poli3cians,  Yao  Wenyuan,   Zhang  Chunqiao,  and  Wang  Hongwen.  On  October  6th  1976,  each  member  of  the   Gang  of  Four  was  informed  to  a=end  an  emergency  session  of  the  Politburo,  took   place  in  the  Great  Hall  of  the  People  in  Beijing.       Afer  Mao’s  death,  a  power  struggle  occurred  between  the  “lefists”,  the  Gang  of   Four,  and  the  righ3st,  an  alliance  led  by  Deng  Xiaoping  and  Marshell  Ye  Jianying.  At   that  moment,  the  nominal  head  of  the  country  was  Mao’s  denominated  heir,  Hua   Guofeng.  Even  though,  Hua  had  a  clear  faith  toward  Mao.  At  the  same  3me,  it  was   unclear  if  he  should  support  the  “lefist  or  the  “righ3st.”    
  • 22. •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  In  regard  to  Mao  Zedong’s  death,  both  sides  turned  out  to  convinced  or  even   forced  Hua  to  surrender  power  to  them.  The  Gang  of  Four  was  especially   aggressive,  radical  and  forceful.  They  con3nued  blaming  Deng  and  his  righ3st  ally.         Finally,  Hua  leaning  toward  the  righ3st,  afer  almost  three  weeks  struggle.   Marshell  Ye  suggested  arres3ng  the  Gang  of  Four,  Hua  agreed  with  him.  S3ll,  they   had  an  idea  of  how  it  was  not  an  easy  task.  The  military  was  in  the  control  of  the   Gang  of  Four.         One  by  one,  military  crew  captured  them  as  soon  as  they  passed  through  the   doors.  It  was  all  done  excellently  efficiency.  Without  gunfire,  the  members  and   some  of  the  associates  were  apprehended.  Transported  to  Qincheng  prison,  the   Gang  of  four  and  their  associates  were  sent  to  the  maximum-­‐security  prison   located  in  northwestern  Beijing,  in  the  same  night.         In  1981,  the  prosecu3on  separated  poli3cal  errors  from  actual  crimes.  The   scramble  of  state  power  and  party  leadership,  the  persecu3on  of  some  750,000   people,  34,375  of  whom  died  during  the  period  of  1966-­‐1967.  The  official  records   of  the  tril  have  not  yet  been  released.       Received  death  sentences,  Jiang  Qing  and  Zhang  Chunqiao  that  were  later   commuted  to  life  imprison.  Meanwhile,  Wang  Hongwen  and  Yao  Wenyuan  were   given  life  and  twenty  years  in  prison.  All  of  the  members  have  since  died;  Jiang   Qing  commi=ed  suicide  in  1991,  Wang  Hongwen  died  in  1992,  and  Zhang   Chunqiao  and  Yao  Wenyuan  died  in  2005.  The  Gang  of  Four  deserved  it.  They  have   done  extremely  uncountable  horrified  and  cruel  things  to  the  Chinese  ci3zens.   China  has  met  peaceful  once  again.  Finally.    
  • 23. Cita3on   •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  "Asia  Finest  Discussion  Forum  China's  School  Uniform."  Asia  Finest  Discussion  Forum  China's   School  Uniform.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  26  Feb.  2014.    "Cultural  Revolu3on  Age2  by  Fizzykim  on  DeviantART."  Cultural  Revolu3on  Age2  by  Fizzykim   on  DeviantART.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  26  Feb.  2014.   "Epoch  Times  Commentaries  on  the  Communist  Party  -­‐  Part  7."  The  Epoch  Times.  N.p.,  n.d.   Web.  26  Feb.  2014.   "Evolu3on  and  Revolu3on:  Chinese  Dress  1700s-­‐1990s  -­‐  The  Cultural  Revolu3on:  The  Four   Olds."  Evolu;on  and  Revolu;on:  Chinese  Dress  1700s-­‐1990s  -­‐  The  Cultural  Revolu;on:  The   Four  Olds.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  26  Feb.  2014.   "Gang  of  Four."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia  Founda3on,  22  Feb.  2014.  Web.  26  Feb.  2014.   "James'  Info  Matrix:  When  a  ‘Chinese  God’  Died  –  Mao  Zedong  and  the  Cultural  Revolu3on   (Part  1b)."  James'  Info  Matrix:  When  a  ‘Chinese  God’  Died  –  Mao  Zedong  and  the  Cultural   Revolu;on  (Part  1b).  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  26  Feb.  2014.   "Mao  Zedong's  Li=le  Red  Book  and  Posters."  Mao  Zedong's  LiVle  Red  Book  and  Posters.  N.p.,   n.d.  Web.  26  Feb.  2014.   "Mao  Zedong."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia  Founda3on,  25  Feb.  2014.  Web.  25  Feb.  2014.   "        OCR,  Edexcel,  CiGCSE,  WJEC."  China.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  26  Feb.  2014.    "Un3tled  Document."  Un;tled  Document.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  26  Feb.  2014.