A process by which individualsorganize and interpret their sensoryimpressions in order to givemeaning to their environment.People’s behavior is based on theirperception of what reality is, not onthe reality itself.
When you changethe way you look at things, the things you look at change !!!
People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. Perception shows different behaviors in different situations. Since perception varies from individual to individual, it gives more than one perspective to the subject-in-hand.
The Vertical lines are both the same length.The center circles are both the same size.
Factors in the Perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests ExperienceFactors in the Situation Expectations Time Work Setting PERCEPTION Social Setting Factors in the Target Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity
The processes by which the bits and pieces of visual information that are available in the retinal image are structured into the larger units of perceived objects and their interrelations. Principles of Perceptual Organization Figure and Ground Principle of Similarity Principle of Proximity Principle of continuity
Figure-ground relationship is an important way in which perception is organized. A Figure is the pattern that is most clearly perceived at a given time, while the rest of the perceptual field becomes the background or ground. A figure stands against a background. We perceive the figure and not the ground because of some characteristics of the figure, which clearly differentiate the figure from the background.
The principle of similarity states that things which share visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be seen as belonging together. In the example above, the larger circles appear to belong together because of the similarity in size.
The principle of proximity or contiguity states that things which are closer together will be seen as belonging together. Looking at the above picture, since the first two columns and the last two columns have less space between them than the center two columns, we perceive two groups of two columns.
The principle of continuity predicts the preference for continuous figures. Looking at the above picture, we perceive it as two crossed lines instead of 4 lines meeting at the center.
It was proposed by Kelly in 1972. It suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we try to find whether it was caused internally or externally. Internally caused behaviors are under the personal control of an individual whereas externally caused behavior is due to some outside causes or situation. The three factors in this regard are - ◦ Distinctiveness ◦ Consensus ◦ Consistency
Distinctiveness is whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. The behaviors are observed. If the behavior is unusual, it is due to an external factor. If it is usual, it is internal. Consensus occurs, if, everyone responds in the same direction to a particular situation. Consistency is the regularity in a person’s actions. Highly consistent behavior is due to internal causes.
Research has shown that people have a tendency to underestimate(undervalue) the effect of external factors and overestimate (overvalue) the effect of internal or personal factors. People give credit to internal factors like ability or effort for their success and blame external factors like luck for their failure.
Consistency Distinctiveness Does this person Consensus Does this person behave Do other person behave in in this same Behave in the this manner manner at other Same manner?in other situation times ? No Yes YES Low Low High Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness NO No Yes Low High High Distinctiveness Consistency Consensus
Individuals use short cuts to judge others. Understanding these short cuts help to recognize when they can cause significant misrepresentation.Selective perception Any characteristic that makes a person, object or an event separate from others has a better chance of being perceived. Selectivity is judging others quickly but there is a risk of misjudgment.
Halo Effect Halo effect is judging a person on the basis of single characteristic.Contrast Effects Individuals do not evaluate a person in separation. Their reactions to one person are affected by other persons they have recently met. This is known as contrast effect. For example, in an interview a candidate’s evaluation may depend on his or her place in the interview schedule.
Projection It is the tendency of individuals to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people. It misrepresents their perceptions about others.Stereotyping It is the tendency to judge somebody on the basis of the group to which he or she belongs. This type of judgment is sometimes inaccurate. In organizations stereotypes are based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, etc.
1. Employment Interview Evidences show that interviewers make perceptual judgments while interviewing candidates. These judgments are mostly inaccurate. Different interviewers see different things in the same candidate. Interviewers get an impression about the candidate in the first four or five minutes and rarely change their view after that.
2. Performance Expectations Individuals try to support their perceptions of reality, even when they are not appropriate. A good example of this is self-fulfilling prophecy. It is the tendency for someone’s expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. Self fulfilling prophecy is of two types ◦ Pygmalion Effect: It is positive example of self-fulfilling prophecy. In this people who have high expectations from others improve their performance. ◦ Golem Effect: It is negative example of self-fulfilling prophecy. In this people who have low expectations from others lower their performance.
3. Performance Evaluation An employee’s performance appraisal depends on the perceptual process. Appraisals can be both - objective and subjective. The perception of an evaluator about the characteristics or behavior of the employees, affect the result of the appraisal4. Employee Effort An individual’s future in the organization does not only depend on his performance. The evaluation of an individual’s effort is a subjective judgment which can be biased.
5. Intuitive Decision Making Some researchers feel that the decision maker takes decision on the basis of his/her perception, extrasensory power or sixth sense, while some believe that decision making is a part of the personality and people are born with it. When there is a high level of uncertainty. When there is little guidance or pattern available. When variables cannot be predicted scientifically. When facts are limited and misleading. When there are many good alternatives to choose from. When there is shortage of time and the decision has to taken quickly.
What we take to be true is what we believe.What we believe is based upon our perceptions.What we perceive depends upon what we lookfor.What we look for depends upon what we think.What we think depends upon what we perceive.What we perceive determines what we believe.What we believe determines what we take to betrue.What we take to be true is our reality."