Chapter 7-motivation


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Chapter 7-motivation

  1. 1. CHAPTER-7MOTIVATION Chapter-7 1
  2. 2. Objectives of the Chapter Definition of motivation Classifications of motives The content theories of work motivation The process theories of work motivation The contemporary theories of work motivation Motivation of performance through job design and goal setting Application of goal setting to organizational system performance Chapter-7 2
  3. 3. Definition of Motivation Motivation is defined as “The willingness to exert high level of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by efforts, and ability to satisfy some individual needs.” Stephen P Robbinsit is condition that is initiated by a physiological or psychological deficiency or need in an individual, which causes the individual to behave in a certain manner in order to achieve a particular goal or incentive. Chapter-7 3
  4. 4. Elements of Motivationthese elements are interactive and interdependent Physiological/ Individual Achieves a Psychological behaves in a particular goal deficiency certain (INCENTIVE) (NEED) manner (DRIVE) Chapter-7 4
  5. 5.  Need : physiological or psychological deficiency or imbalance in an individual will result in a need. For e.g. hunger thirst  But psychological need may sometimes arise without any deficiency or imbalance. e.g. strong need for progress. Drive: physiological drive is a condition which causes a person to work in a particular direction. Incentive : anything that mitigate the drive and decrease the intensity of the drive Chapter-7 5
  6. 6. Classification of Motives: Primary Motives General Motive Secondary Motives Chapter-7 6
  7. 7. Primary Motives: A motive is termed as a primary motive when it satisfies both the criteria : it is learned as well as it is physiologically based. It is not earned, and it is physiological based. all human beings have same primary motives Example: Hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain Chapter-7 7
  8. 8. General Motives: A motive is considered to be a general motive if it is not learned, but is also not based on physiological need. general motives stimulate tension within the individual. They are also called “stimulus motives” The motives of curiosity, manipulation and motive to remain active The affection motive Chapter-7 8
  9. 9. The Curiosity, Manipulation and Activity Motives The motives of curiosity, manipulation and activity are very beneficial for a person, as they often result in innovations and better ways of doing things. If individuals were restricted from satisfying these motives, there would be no improvement in the way things are done, which would result in stagnation. Chapter-7 9
  10. 10. The Affection Motive: Affection or love is a somewhat complex general motive. The complexity arises due to that fact that love is similar to the primary motives in some ways, while in some other ways, it resembles secondary motives. Chapter-7 10
  11. 11. Secondary Motives: It is a motive that has been learned or acquired over time The power motive The achievement motive The affiliation motive The security motive The status motive Chapter-7 11
  12. 12. The Power Motive The person’ drives to gain power and prove himself superior to others. Chapter-7 12
  13. 13. Achievement Motive The achievement motive is a person’ desire to perform excellently or to handle complex or competitive situations successfully. David C. McClelland Profile of High achievers:  Moderate degree of risk  Need for precise feedback  Satisfaction with accomplishment  Total dedication towards task Chapter-7 13
  14. 14. Affiliation Motive Employees especially those at the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy, have a strong desire to belong to and be accepted by other employees or the whole group Chapter-7 14
  15. 15. Security Motive Security motive is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented i.e., people try to avoid insecurity rather than attempt to achieve security Chapter-7 15
  16. 16. Status Motive Status is defined as the rank a person holds relative to others within a group. The status motive is extremely important Chapter-7 16
  17. 17. The Content Theories of Work Motivation The content theories of motivation attempt to identify and prioritize the needs and derives that motivate people at work. The theories are:  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory of Motivation  Alderfer’s ERG theory Chapter-7 17
  18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow Challenging projects, ( Self actualization Opportunities for innovation needs and creativity, training) Esteem needs (Important projects, Recognition, prestigious office location) Social needs (Good coworkers, peers, superiors, customers) Safety or Security Needs (Job security; benefits like life insurance; safety regulations) Physiological needs (Basic pay, Workspace, heat, water company cafeteria) Chapter-7 18
  19. 19. Two-Factor Theory: Herzberg’s classification of needs as hygiene factors and motivators. He conducted a study to find out the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors Job satisfiers were associated with job content and job dissatisfiers were related to job context ( circumstances/ situation) satisfiers were called motivators and dissatisfiers were called hygiene factors Chapter-7 19
  20. 20.  Hygiene Factors (Needs): they are preventive in nature they are responsible for preventing dissatisfaction. They are similar to lower level needs in Maslow’s hierarchy  Presence of able supervisors  administrative policies of the org.  Fair pay  Good interpersonal relations  Conducive working conditionsOnce hygiene factors have been addressed, organization can make use of motivators to make people feel motivated and satisfied Chapter-7 20
  21. 21. TWO-FACTOR THEORY: Contd… Motivator Factors (Needs): were essential to keep employees satisfied  the wok itself: Meaningful and challenging work,  Appreciation for good work  Giving adequate responsibility to employees  Clear achievable goals  career growth (opportunity for growth, opportunity for advancement) Chapter-7 21
  22. 22. Chapter-7 22
  23. 23. CONTRIBUTION OF HERZBERG’STHEORY Theory proposed that the employers will not be able to motivate employees if they concentrate only on the hygiene factors. hygiene factors are necessary only to retain their employees. but they cannot motivate the employees Chapter-7 23
  24. 24. Alderfer’s ERG Theory: Clayton Alderfer : proposed a continuum of needs rather than a hierarchy Existence needs – These are associated with the survival and physiological wellbeing of an individual. Relatedness needs – These needs emphasize the significance of social and interpersonal relationship. Growth needs – These needs are related to a person’s inner desire for personal growth and development. Chapter-7 24
  25. 25.  Acc. To Alderfer : a person’s background or cultural environment may cause the relatedness needs to predominate over unfulfilled existence needs.It is also possible that intensity of growth needs will increase in the degree to which they are satisfied.limitations of content theories :They do not explain the complexities involved in the process of motivation. Chapter-7 25
  26. 26. The Relationship between Maslow,s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Needs Work itself AchievementSelf-actualization factors Possibility of growth Growth and fulfillment Responsibility Motivation Advancement RecognitionEsteem and status Status Relatedness Relations with supervisors Peer relations Belongings and Relations with subordinates social needs Quality of supervisions factors Hygiene Safety and Company policy security and administration Job security Existence Physiological Working conditions needs Pay Chapter-7 26
  27. 27. The Process Theories of Work Motivation The process theories of motivation deal with “How” of Motivation. It deal with the cognitive antecedents (preceding factor) that go into motivation or effort, and more specifically, with the way the cognitive antecedents of an individual relate to one another. The theories are  Vrooms’ Expectancy Theory of Motivation  The Porter-Lawler Model Chapter-7 27
  28. 28. Vrooms’ Expectancy Theory of Motivation The theory is based on three variables – valence, instrumentality and expectancy – and is therefore commonly termed VIE theory. An individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Valence (V) denotes the strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. valence is value or expected utility Valence is +ve if person prefer to attain a particular outcome valence is –ve if person is not interested in the outcome Chapter-7 28
  29. 29. Vrooms’ Expectancy Theory of Motivation Contd… Instrumentality refers to the degree to which a first-level outcome would help in attaining the desired second-level outcome. Instrumentality serves as an input for valence Expectancy is the probability that performing a specific action would produce a particular first-level outcome or effort. Chapter-7 29
  30. 30. Outcome Valence Performance Value of the outcome Effort Instrumentality Expectancy to the person beliefBelief that if I try had that if I do better, I can do better Vs indifference or aversion I get a better reward Motivation Chapter-7 30
  31. 31. Relationships Identified In Vroom’s ExpectancyTheory  Effort performance relationship- an individuals perception of the probability that a specific level of the performance would result if he put a certain effort  performance- reward relationship – the extent of an individuals belief that a particular level of performance would result in achieving the desired outcome.  Rewards- personal goals relationships- the degree to which an individuals need are satisfied by the rewards given by the org. and his perception of the attractiveness of these rewards.  Managers need to asses the relationship between the three factors and personal goals . Chapter-7 31
  32. 32. Vrooms’ Expectancy Theory Goals and associatedPerson possessing preference Outcomes (Direct andAmong Various outcomes Correlated) 1st level 2nd level Expectancy outcomes outcomesMotivational force = Walence*Expectancy Action Outcome Outcom e 1 1a Accompanied by perceived probabilities of various Outcome actions leading to Different 1b outcomes OutcomeFeedback (Modification of preferences) 1c Net Valence or Values of all outcomes (satisfaction –dissatisfaction) *Walence = ΣValence x Instrumentality Chapter-7 32
  33. 33. The Porter-Lawler Model Porter and Lawler tried to explore the complex relationship between motivation, satisfaction and performance, and pointed out that efforts put in by an employee did not directly result in performance. it gives a comprehensive explanation of work motivation. Chapter-7 33
  34. 34.  Acc to porter Lawler model performance is dependent on three factors :  An employee should have the desire to perform i.e. he must feel motivated  Motivation alone cannot ensure successful performance of a a task: he should have the necessary skills and abilities.  The employee should also have the clear perception of his role in the org. and accurate knowledge of the job requirement. Chapter-7 34
  35. 35. The Porter-Lawler Model contd… 8. Perceived Equitable Rewards 4. Abilities & Traits1. Value of Reward 7.a Intrinsic Rewards 6. Performance 3. Effort 9. Satisfaction2. Perceived EffortReward Probability 5. Role Perception 7b Extrinsic Rewards Chapter-7 35
  36. 36.  Effort: the amount of energy expended by an individual to perform a specific task. Effort depends upon the attractiveness of the reward and the probability that his efforts will lead to the reward. Performance : it is not necessary that the effort will result in performance. Performance in turn is depended on the abilities and skills and the way the individual perceives his role. Chapter-7 36
  37. 37. important variables in the model Reward: employee is rewarded acc. To performance. Reward can be intrinsic or extrinsic.  intrinsic rewards : are those a person grants to himself for having performed a task well  Extrinsic rewards : are the rewards given to the employee by the organization Satisfaction: depends upon whether the actual reward offered fall short of, match or exceed what the individual perceives as an equitable level of reward. Chapter-7 37
  38. 38. The Contemporary Theories of Work Motivation Equity Theory : J. Stacy Adams This theory states that the degree of equity or inequity perceived by an employee with reference to his work situation plays a major role in work performance and satisfaction. Chapter-7 38
  39. 39.  Employees generally compares their output – input ratio with that of others. If they perceives the ratio of their outcomes and inputs are equal to that of their peers and others , it will result in equity Chapter-7 39
  40. 40. Equity Theory Contd… Equity theory represented schematically as: Person’s Outcomes = Other’s Outcomes Person’s inputs Other’s inputs Inequity is represented as follows: Person’s Outcomes < Other’s Outcomes Person’s inputs Other’s inputs (or) Person’s Outcomes > Other’s Outcomes Person’s inputs Other’s inputs Chapter-7 40
  41. 41.  Various referent comparison used by employees:  Self-inside - comparing ones experience in the present position with the experiences of those holding a similar position in same org.  Self-outside - comparing ones experience in the present position with the experiences of those holding a similar position in another org  Other-inside- comparing ones experience in the present position with the experiences of those holding a a different position but belonging to the same org.  Other-outside - comparing ones experience in the present position with the experiences of those holdingChapter-7 a different position in41 another org
  42. 42. Equity Theory Contd… After comparing his position with that of his referent, if an employee perceives an inequity, he will make certain choices. The choices that an employee is likely to make are as described below:  Change in inputs: he may reduce the effort he puts in a particular job  Change in outcomes: the employee may act an manner that brings about change in the outcome or end result.  Distort perceptions of self: the employee may distort the perception he held about his own performance  Distort perception of others: an employee may change the way Chapter-7 he perceives others jobs, positions and 42
  43. 43.  Equity theory proposed four methods for overcome inequity : Chapter-7 43
  44. 44. Attribution Theory Attribution theory deals with the cognitive processes of an individual, which help interpret his behavior as being caused by aspects pertaining to the relevant environment. Harold H.Kelley Chapter-7 44
  45. 45. Locus of Control Attributions ‘Locus of control’ refers to the chief source of factors that creates a result or gives rise to an outcome in the employee’s perceptions. Chapter-7 45
  46. 46. Other Attributions Consensus: Behave in similar manner Consistency: Pattern of behavior, which may be relatively stable or unstable Distinctiveness: Indicates whether a person’s behavior is similar for all tasks Chapter-7 46
  47. 47. Motivation of Performance Through Job Design and Goal Setting:  “Job design” can be defined as the process of structuring tasks and responsibilities into a job in an attempt to make the job more meaningful, significant and satisfying.  The theory of goal setting as propounded by Locke, Wood and Mento is based on the principle that difficult goals stimulate performance and commitment. Chapter-7 47
  48. 48. Motivation of Performance Through Job Design Approaches to job design  Job engineering approach to job design  Job enlargement approach  Job rotation  Job enrichment Chapter-7 48
  49. 49. Approaches to Job Design Job engineering approach to job design: Concerned with issues like plant layout, design of products, processes and tools. Job enlargement approach: Deals with the horizontal expansion of jobs Chapter-7 49
  50. 50. Approaches to Job Design Contd… Job rotation: This approach involves the regular switching of jobs among employees. Job enrichment: The job enrichment approach carries out a vertical expansion of jobs. Chapter-7 50
  51. 51. Quality of Work Life and Socio-Technical Approach to Job Design QWL approach deals with the impact of work on the employees and on organizational effectiveness. The sociotechnical aspect of job design aims at creating a harmonious interface between the human and technological aspects of work so as to enhance the quality of work life. Chapter-7 51
  52. 52. Job Characteristics Approach to Job Design The Job Characteristics approach identifies certain features of jobs that result in certain psychological states. The core dimensions or characteristics of a job :  Skill variety  Task identify  Task significance  Autonomy Chapter-7 52
  53. 53. Measuring Task Scope: Task scope refers to a dimension for describing jobs at various levels of the organization. Hackman and Oldham have developed a qualitative method MPS = (Skill variety + task identify + task significance) x autonomy x feedback/3 Chapter-7 53
  54. 54. Redesigning Jobs Combination of tasks Vertical Loading of jobs Introduction of an open feedback system Formation of natural teams Chapter-7 54
  55. 55. Motivating Performance Through Goal Setting: A goal can be defined as the desired consequence of an action. Performance enhancement through goal setting:  Goals should be specific  Goals should be difficult and challenging  Goals must be owned and accepted  Goals must have a specific time frame  Goals should be measurable Chapter-7 55
  56. 56. Barriers to Effective Goal Setting Lack of top management-support Lack of Communication Content of the goal Technical incompetence Chapter-7 56
  57. 57. Application of Goal Setting to Organizational System Performance  The theory of goal setting is usually implemented through a system called Management by Objectives, popularly known as MBO.  MBO refers to the process of setting goals and objectives through the participation of the management and he workers. Chapter-7 57
  58. 58. The Process of MBO Consensus on key goals and objectives Sketch a plan of action Control of behavior Periodic appraisal and reviews: Chapter-7 58
  59. 59. Summary of The Chapter Definition of motivation Classifications of motives The content theories of work motivation The process theories of work motivation The contemporary theories of work motivation Motivation of performance through job design and goal setting Application of goal setting to organizational system performance Chapter-7 59