Impact of apartheid

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Sekolah Bogor Raya, Grade 12

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  • In definition, apartheid is a policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race. The word itself is derived from the Afrikaan language during 1945 to 1950 meaning apart and –hood. It was a severe policy of separation between the Black people and the White people and many who disagrees with Apartheid had fought for its eradication. It was unclear when exactly apartheid stopped, but with the release of Mandela in 1999, apartheid is gradually dissolved in South Africa.
  • There are several great leaders that are involved in the apartheid regime, whether for or against it. The leaders who agrees to apartheid are PW Botha, a hardheaded politician, also known as the Great Crocodile, who lead South Africa’s white minority government during the most violent years of anti-apartheid resistance, and DF Malan who was a member of the Afrikaner Broederbond (AB). Leaders who are against apartheid are, among all else, Nelson Mandela, Stephen Biko, Walter Sisulu, and Chief Albert Luthuli, all who are intensively involved in anti-apartheid organizations such as the ANC and made a difference to the condition of Black South African by their persistent struggles.
  • During the Apartheid, the black and the white people were separated and even though they lived in the same countries, their rights were completely different. Even though the whites only took up 20 per cent of the population, they were determined to have control over the people. Black people were all cheap labour but their wages were not fair. An act passed in 1953 called the Bantu Act of 1953, gave white people education that was better and different to the education given to the black people. Black people forbidden to own houses in the cities, instead they were forced to live in houses that were unsatisfactory and had to be approved by local administration boards.
  • It is obvious that the people who suffered the most from Apartheid are people who are non-white in race. That includes the tribes and people native to South Africa such as the Sotho-Tswana people, a group of people which speak the Bantu language, Zulu people who are also found in East Africa, and the Khoikhoi people which includes the San people who are mostly bushmen and hunter gatherers and the Namaqua people who are living a semi nomadic pastorial life. Even before apartheid was legalized as a law, they are forced to leave their territory and their cattle taken from them by the White people. When the Black people resisted the White people’s intrusion to their hunting grounds, the White sent killing squads. They mostly kill the adults and take the children as slaves. After apartheid was legalized as a law, the status difference between the White and the Black got bigger. The Black people were assigned ‘homelands’ or Bantustans, a territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South-west Africa, as a part of the policy of apartheid. Public facilities such as transportations or public rest rooms were also differentiated between race. Aside from Black people, people of color are also discriminated during the Apartheid regime in South Africa although not as severely. This category includes Asian and Indians who reside in South Africa during that time period. Rules or policy that restricts Black people during the Apartheid regime are also applicable to people of color, but as they are a minority of the population that are mostly Black people, slave cases related to people of color are not as common.
  • Nelson Mandela:Born on the 18th of July 1918, Nelson Mandela was a South African politician who was against apartheid. For this purpose, he led a protest group that was originally a passive resistant protest, meaning that the protest was in the form of non-violence. However, upon realizing that passive resistance is not going to distinctly change the Black’s situation, he joined the African National Congress in 1944. His actions of trying to round up South Africans in demonstrations as well as joining the ANC were considered rebellious, therefore, in 1964, he was imprisoned for life. The fact that he was in prison didn’t stop his attempts to lead protest groups against apartheid and he refused to compromise his political status in exchange to freedom from prison—his actions eventually caught the public’s attention and he was soon recognized as one of the most significant Black leader in South Africa. People campaigned for his freedom and when he was released in 1990, the existence of apartheid gradually dwindled to nonexistence. For his great contribution to free the Black people from the apartheid regime, he was elected as the first South African president. Stephen Biko:Stephen Biko was born on the 18th of December, 1946. He is, up until now, recognized as one of the most influential Black figures that led South African out of the apartheid regime. He was expelled from his high school because of his political activities, but still managed to go to college and medical school. During his time in medical school, he was involved in the NUSAS (National Union of South African Students) a multiracial politically moderate organization. However, his concern for the apartheid policy and the struggle of his fellow Black people led him to quit high school to establish the first ever all-Black South African Students’ Organization (SASO) in 1968. Biko’s political activities drew the attention of the South African government resulting him to be banned in South Africa. By being banned, it means that he was forbidden to talk to more than one person at a time in an attempt to strike a demonstration against apartheid. Biko was disobedient to his orders and in 1977, he was imprisoned indefinitely. He died in prison where he was interrogated, starved and beaten to death—he was the 41st Black people who died in prison and was considered a martyr for the Black community. Chris Hani:Chris Hani was born on the 28th of June, 1942. In 1957, he joined in the ANC youth league established by Mandela, Sisulu, and Tambo before becoming the Commissar in the Luthuli Detachment Joint ANC/ZAPU military campaign only ten years later. He was a young freedom fighter compared to the likes of Nelson Mandela, Stephen Biko and Walter Sisulu, however during the course of his life, he had fought for the freedom of Black from apartheid and was Commissar and Deputy Commander of the armed wing of ANC.
  • Walter Sisulu:Born on 18th May 1912, Walter Sisulu was of mixed heritage with a White father, and his mother a local Black woman. From the very beginning, he already felt distanced from his peers and was subjected to various different mockeries from both parties: Black and White. He finally chose to side by the Black people fighting for their freedom from apartheid when he joined the ANC in 1940. It was also in the 1940’s that he began honing his leadership skills and was given the executive post of ANC in the Transvaal division. He was once jailed for punching a train conductor when he confiscated a Black man’s rail pass and was banned and jailed repeatedly for his active role in the anti-apartheid struggle. Sisulu was finally released at around the same time Mandela was released. When the ANC was no longer banned in 1991, Sisulu was elected as deputy president of the ANC and was given the task of restructuring the ANC in South Arica. Chief Albert Luthuli:Chief Albert Luthuli was a South African politician and activist fighting for the freedom of Black South African from apartheid. He joined the ANC in 1945 and was one of the leaders of Defiance Campaign, a non-violent protest against the pass laws. He has been offered to renounce his membership of ANC for various different rewards of which he refused, and he was elected as president-general of the ANC in 1952. Because of this, he was repeatedly banned and in in 1956, he was arrested. Nevertheless that didn’t stop him from campaigning for the right of the Black people. In 1960, Luthui called for protest following the Sharpeville Massacre and as a sign of protest, he publicly burned his pass book. His actions led him to again be detained on the 30th of March under the ‘State of Emergency’ declared by South African government. Upon release, he was confined to his home in Stanger, Natal. His contribution to the fight against apartheid earned him the 1960 Nobel Peace Prize in 1961, and he was elected to be Rector of Glasgow University in 1962. In 1967, he mysteriously died near his home when he was going for a walk around the neighborhood.
  • One major study case that has been observed and analyzed by different parties ever since the fall of apartheid was how the Black community united together to fight against apartheid. When apartheid was made as a law in 1948, despite the fact that it was considered to be a violation of international law, people originating from different ethnic background who speaks different languages gathered together to make up an anti-apartheid force. Contrary to how people suffered during the apartheid regime, a lot of people have argued that not everything was bad during that time period. They completely agree with the fact that things that were bad were extremely bad: people weren’t treated as equals and were basically stripped of their human rights, but the apartheid regime has given rise to influential leaders South Africa has ever seen such as the likes of Nelson Mandela, Stephen Biko, Chris Hani, etc. It showed how competent Black South African are at leading organizations that were commonly protest organizations against apartheid such as the ANC, PAC and SACP, during the apartheid regime. The regime brought solidarity to a lot of smaller groups that wouldn’t normally mix and it has encouraged a spirit within human nature to strive for a better future for all mankind. The trampling of human dignity and also the information kept from Black South Africans by their own government was clearly unacceptable; therefore it was obvious that apartheid had to end. Because of this, Nelson Mandela led the passive resistant protest against apartheid which later on joined forces with ANC; Stephen Biko was concerned about the nature of apartheid and the fellow of his fellow Black people that he quit medical school and pursued a political life where he established the first all-Black student organization and also rounding up people for demonstration against apartheid; Chris Hani became commissar and Deputy Commander for the armed wing of ANC; and Joe Slovo founded the armed wing of ANC. Even Black South Africans now believe that without the initial push ignited by apartheid, South Africa might never have the charismatic leaders that they once had.
  • After 14 years after apartheid South Africa is not what it seems. It is not the harmonious “rainbow nation” so celebrated by Nelson Mandela on his inauguration day. In November 2008, there’s a power struggle in which the governing African National Congress, replaced the South African President, Thabo Mbeki with a stand-in, Jacob Zuma. Despite that, Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma are both not trusted by the people. Originally, people perceive them to be well intentioned however aloof, but through the years, Mbeki’s motivations were beginning to be questioned by the people and Zuma was even tried on rape charges. It’s as if South Africa has moved to a stand still in the midst of its glory and in turn, got worse. The economics growth slowed down and prices shot up. The country also often run out of electricity and even rationed supply. The rich purchased generators while the poor had to make use of kerosene and paraffin, showing just how big the gap is between the rich and poor in South Africa. Crime rates increased drastically in the form of xenophobic riots in several cities and mobs killing dozens of impoverished foreigners, even robberies are often followed by violence and murder. The current South African government is also guilty of discrimination and there is a clear lack of drive for success. People have argued that South Africa needs a system where there is definite incentive to try harder and harder, and regardless of race, put in their biggest effort. Local Black South African have even come to say that they wished the present African government would take the legislation and other things that worked well for everyone during apartheid and use them to change what is considered to be bad now.
  • Impact of apartheid

    1. 1. A POLICY OR SYSTEM OF SEGREGATION ORDISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF RACE ORIGINS:1945-50—DERIVED FROM THEAFRIKAAN LANGUAGE MEANING: APART (APART) AND –HOOD (- HEID)
    2. 2. FOR APARTHEID AGAINST APARTHEIDPW BOTHA NELSON MANDELADF MALAN STEVEN BIKO WALTER SISULU CHRIS HANI CHIEF ALBERT LUTHULI
    3. 3. DIFFERENTIATIONBETWEEN BLACK AND WHITE- THE BLACK AND WHITE - CHEAP BLACK LABOR PEOPLE WERE AND UNFAIR WAGES SEPARATED AND FOR THE BLACK DISTINGUISHED FROM PEOPLE EACH OTHER. - BLACK PEOPLE ARE - THE WHITES: 20% OF FORBIDDEN TO OWN THE WHOLE SOUTH HOUSES AFRICAN POPULATION –INSISTED ON CONTROLLING THE MAJORITY.
    4. 4. WHO SUFFERED THE MOST FROM APARTHEID?ALL NON-WHITE SOUTH AFRICANS SOTHO-TSWANA PEOPLE ZULU PEOPLE SAN (BUSHMEN/HUNTER GATHERERS) NAMAQUA (PEOPLE LIVING A SEMI NOMADIC PASTORAL LIFE)NON-WHITE PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT NATIVE PEOPLE OF SOUTH AFRICA ARE ALSO DISCRIMINATED THOUGH NOT AS SEVERELY.
    5. 5. WHO DISAGREES WITH APARTHEID? Nelson Mandela:  1968: Co-founder and first president of the all- Black South African Students‘ Organization  Born: 18 July 1918 (SASO)  A South African Politician—against apartheid, led  1973: Because of political activities, he was protest group ‗banned‘ in South Africa  1944: Joined African National Congress (referred  18 August 1977: imprisoned to: ANC)  12 September 1977: died while in prison due to  1964: Was imprisoned extremely severe treatments from police officers.  Recognized as the most significant Black leader  The first South African president Chris Hani:  Born: 28 June 1942 Stephen Biko:  1957: Joined ANC youth league  Born: 18 December 1946  1967: Commissar in the Luthuli Detachment joint  Expelled from his high school because of political ANC/ZAPU military campaign activities  Commissar and Deputy Commander of the  Was involved in the NUSAS (National Union of armed wing of ANC South African Students)  Quits medical school for his concern of the Apartheid policy and the struggle of the Black
    6. 6. Walter Sisulu: Chief Albert Luthuli: Born: 18 May 1912  Born: c. 1898 Sisulu was of mixed heritage—his father was a  1945: joined the ANC visiting White foreman supervisor, his mother a  One of the leaders of Defiance Campaign local  Refused to renounce membership of ANC Felt distanced from his peers  1952: elected president-general of ANC 1940: he joined the ANC—allied with those fighting for Black freedom  He was repeatedly banned and in 1956 he was arrested Was given the executive post in the Transvaal division  1960: Luthuli called for protest following the Sharpeville Massacre Was jailed for punching a train conductor when he confiscated a Black man‘s rail pass.  He publicly burned his pass book as a sign of protest He was repeatedly banned for his active role in the anti-apartheid struggle.  Was detained 30th March under the ‗State of Emergency‘ Was also imprisoned several times and was released in the same time Mandela was  Was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize at 1961 released.  1962: was elected Rector of Glasgow University Given the task of restructuring the ANC in South Africa—elected deputy president of ANC in 1991.  1967: mysteriously died near his home.
    7. 7. STEVEN BIKO NELSON MANDELA WALTER SISULU CHRIS HANI DF MALANCHIEF ALBERT LUTHULI PW BOTHA
    8. 8. APARTHEID AND THE PEOPLE OF SOUTHAFRICA
    9. 9. - 1948-1994: APARTHEID MADE AS A LAW- SOUTH AFRICAN WERE SEGREGATED INTO CATEGORIES, DEPRIVED OF THEIR CITIZENSHIP AND DIFFERENT LAWS ARE ALSO ESTABLISHED.- THIS LED TO A PASSIVE RESISTANCE PROTEST AGAINST INEQUALITY LED BY NELSON MANDELA—WHICH LATER ON JOINED FORCES WITH ANC.- STEPHEN BIKO QUIT MEDICAL SCHOOL AND PURSUED A POLITICAL LIFE, ROUNDING UP PEOPLE FOR DEMONSTRATIONS AGAINST APARTHEID.- CHRIS HANI BECAME COMMISSAR AND DEPUTY COMMANDER OF THE ARMED WING OF ANC.- JOE SLOVO FOUNDED THE ARMED WING OF ANC
    10. 10. - POST APARTHEID: SOUTH AFRICA IS NOT THE HARMONIOUS ―RAINBOW NATION‖ SO CELEBRATED BY NELSON MANDELA ON HIS INAUGURATION DAY.- NOVEMBER 2008: POWER STRUGGLE IN WHICH THE GOVERNING AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, REPLACED THE SOUTH AFRICAN PRESIDENT, THABO MBEKI WITH A STAND-IN, JACOB ZUMA.- ECONOMIC GROWTH SLOWED DOWN AND PRICES SHOT UP.- XENOPHOBIC RIOTS IN SEVERAL CITIES AND MOBS KILLING DOZENS OF IMPOVERISHED FOREIGNERS.- THE COUNTRY‘S POWER COMPANY RAN OUT OF ELECTRICITY AND RATIONED SUPPLY.- SOUTH AFRICA HAS ONE OF THE WORST CRIME RATES. ROBBERIES ARE OFTEN FOLLOWED BY VIOLENCE EVEN MURDERED.- LOCAL SOUTH AFRICAN GIVING OUT IDEAS TO ADOPT LEGISLATIONS THAT WORKED DURING THE APARTHEID REGIME.
    11. 11. Apartheid Dictionary.com, LLC, Available:http://http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/apartheid Last accessed: 4th March,2012Apartheid Legislation in South Africa About.com, African History, Available:http://http://africanhistory.about.com/library/bl/blsalaws.htm Last accessed: 4thMarch, 2012The Khoikhoi HistoryWiz, Available: http://http://www.historywiz.com/khoisan.htmLast accessed: 4th March, 2012Hani, C (1991) Chris Hani, My Life - An Autobiography Written in 1991 SouthAfrican Communist Party, Available:http://http://www.sacp.org.za/main.php?ID=2294 Last accessed 4th March, 2012Mandela, Nelson. Nelson Mandela Speaks: Forging a Democratic, NonracialSouth Africa. New York: Pathfinder, 1993.Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom. The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela.Boston & New York: Little Brown, 1994.Mandela, Nelson. The Struggle Is My Life. New York: Revised, Pathfinder, 1986.Originally published as a tribute on his 60th birthday in 1978. Speeches, writings,historical accounts, contributions by fellow prisoners.Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela.Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1994Stephen Bantu Biko (2007) ZAR, Available: http://http://zar.co.za/biko.htm Lastaccessed: 4th March, 2012Bearak, B (2008) Post-Apartheid South Africa Enters Anxious Era New YorkTimes, Available:http://http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/06/world/africa/06safrica.html?_r=2&pagewanted=all Last accessed 4th March, 2012Smitha, F (2011) African into the 1990s Macrohistory, Available:http://http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch34-sa.htm Last accessed 4th March, 2012Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (2012) About.com, African History, Available:http://http://africanhistory.about.com/library/biographies/blbio-WalterSisulu.htmLast accessed: 5th March, 2012PW Botha (2012) About.com, African History, Available:http://http://africanhistory.about.com/od/pwbotha/PW_Botha.htm Last accessed:5th March, 2012

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