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Multiple Intelligences Theory


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Why do most students excel in so few subject areas? Traditional education and performance indicators rely heavily on math and language, which can lead to low self-esteem and poor academic performance …

Why do most students excel in so few subject areas? Traditional education and performance indicators rely heavily on math and language, which can lead to low self-esteem and poor academic performance for struggling students. Learn how to boost every student’s confidence and strengthen all intelligences using multiple intelligences theory.

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  • 1. What’s in Common?¦  Martin Luther King Jr.¦  Mozart¦  Jane Goodall¦  Oprah Winfrey¦  Frank Lloyd Wright¦  Michael Jordan
  • 2. History and Background
  • 3. What is Multiple Intelligence (MI)?Each of us has preferred ways to understandand express information and ideas.¦  1983 - Howard Gardner¦  Potential varies by nature and experience¦  Can be measured individually¦  Typically used in combinations
  • 4. How were the intelligences determined?Specific criteria must be met to identify an intelligence: 1.  Potential isolation by brain damage 2.  Place in evolutionary history 3.  Presence of core operations 4.  Susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression) 5.  Distinct developmental progression 6.  Existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people 7.  Support from experimental psychology findings 8.  Support from psychometric findingsSource: Gardner, H. (1999) Intelligence Reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. NY: Basic Books.
  • 5. Benefits of Addressing MI¦  Goes beyond traditional academic focus¦  Allows more individuals to find their strengths¦  Does not focus on a grade or score¦  Validates that students learn or express things differently ¥  a variety of techniques/methods must be used¦  Compatible with other current methodologies ¥  E.g. flipped teaching, cooperative learning, formative assessment, personalized learning, etc.
  • 6. The Nine Intelligences
  • 7. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  move and manipulate ¥  professional athlete your body and objects ¥  mechanic within an environment in ¥  gymnast a fine-tuned, ¥  baker coordinated manner ¥  locksmith ¥  coordinate the mind and body to control muscle ¥  magician groups ¥  painter ¥  perform and remember ¥  tailor body movements
  • 8. Existential Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  view the “big picture” of ¥  philosopher how the world works ¥  theologist ¥  ask questions that go ¥  archeologist beyond our normal ¥  astrologer sensory experience ¥  chemist ¥  make connections ¥  mathematician between broad concepts and minute details ¥  researcher ¥  physicist
  • 9. Interpersonal Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  understand and work ¥  manager with people ¥  school principal ¥  establish and maintain ¥  social worker personal relationships ¥  barber ¥  see the world from ¥  demonstrator another’s perspective ¥  editor communicate well (verbally and non-verbally) ¥  historian ¥  co-operate in a group ¥  executive assistant ¥  influence others
  • 10. Intrapersonal Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  understand oneself ¥  artist ¥  law enforcement ¥  objectively reflect upon ¥  athlete your own thoughts and ¥  creative writer behavior ¥  fashion model ¥  seek future ¥  counselor self-improvement ¥  judge ¥  establish self-confidence ¥  politician
  • 11. Linguistic Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  understand and use ¥  translator language effectively ¥  wedding consultant using reading, writing, ¥  teacher speaking, sign language, ¥  call center agent Braille, etc. ¥  computer programmer ¥  recognize and use humor ¥  early childhood educator ¥  create verbal images ¥  historian ¥  understand language ¥  journalist patterns and relationships
  • 12. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  reason inductively ¥  engineer ¥  reason deductively ¥  insurance agent ¥  find relationships ¥  forensic scientist between abstract ideas ¥  valuator ¥  recognize logical ¥  technical writer sequences and patterns ¥  plumber ¥  identify & solve ¥  inspector problems ¥  judge
  • 13. Musical Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  play an instrument or sing ¥  composer ¥  create melodies and ¥  record producer rhythms ¥  singer ¥  enjoy and analyze music ¥  musician ¥  recognize and distinguish ¥  dance teacher tones, tonal patterns, ¥  art director rhythms, beats ¥  A/V recording technician ¥  understand musical ¥  interpreter structures
  • 14. Naturalist Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  recognize, appreciate ¥  zoologist and classify elements of ¥  botanist an environment ¥  geologist ¥  see connections within an ¥  taxidermist environment ¥  naturopath ¥  recognize when ¥  landscaper environmental changes occur ¥  metallurgist ¥  understand the impact of ¥  chemist environmental changes
  • 15. Spatial Intelligence¦  Ability to: ¦  Career examples: ¥  perceive objects ¥  architect accurately ¥  pilot ¥  transform and recreate ¥  photographer images ¥  art instructor ¥  recognize how shapes ¥  carpenter and objects relate to ¥  tattoo artist each other ¥  optometrist ¥  land surveyor
  • 16. MI AdvantageAssessment - Report - Careers
  • 17. The Story of Will
  • 18. The Story of Will
  • 19. The Story of Will
  • 20. The Story of Will
  • 21. The Story of Will
  • 22. ... who became a Won’t
  • 23. How does MI make a difference?Project SpectrumStudy of students who are exposed to a battery of targeted MI activities n  When working in their areas of strength, the majority students were characterized by their teachers as: n  easy to engage n  confident n  focused n  When working in their areas of weakness, the majority students were characterized by their teachers as: n  reluctant to engage n  distracted n  impulsive
  • 24. What difference has it made?¦  Project SUMIT¦  3-year study of 42 schools ¥  Examined applications of MI theory ¥  Findings for schools: n  78% improved standardized test score n  78% reported improved performance from students with LD n  80% reported improvement in parent participation n  81% reported improvement in student discipline More details in book: Multiple Intelligences: Best Ideas from Research and Practice by Mindy Kornhaber. 2004. Pearson.
  • 25. MI AdvantageAssessment - Report - Careers
  • 26. Assessment Structure¦  Surveys students’ experiences and inclinations to determine their level of each intelligence¦  72 questions¦  10-15 minutes to complete¦  Appropriate for students from 9th grade to college
  • 27. Assessment Question
  • 28. Assessment Metricsn = 830 330 (40%) male 500 (60%) femaleReliabilityInternal consistency (Chronbach’s alpha)Bodily-Kinesthetic .87Interpersonal .84Intrapersonal .78Linguistic .83Logical-Mathematical .88Musical .89Naturalist .79Spatial .70ValidityCorrelations between MI Advantage and the established instruments below were measured.•  The Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) – a measure of global intelligence•  The General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB)•  The Bar-On EQi – for measures of emotional intelligence. *Correlations rLinguistic + Logical-Mathematical vs. WPT .55Linguistic vs. GATB Verbal .55Linguistic + Logical-Mathematical vs. GATB – general apt. .51Interpersonal vs. Bar-On Interpersonal .67Interpersonal + Intrapersonal vs. Bar-On EQi total .59
  • 29. ReportGoals Methods Ø  Highlight strengths and ¥  Improve confidence expand their use ¥  Make learning easier Ø  Provide personalized strategies ¥  Appreciate intellectual Ø  Explain all intelligences and diversity where synergies exist
  • 30. Intelligence Profile
  • 31. Career Recommendations¦  See top matching career list that compares top 3 intelligences for a career to the levels the student has.¦  Or explore careers by one intelligence at a time.¦  Uses O*NET database
  • 32. Individual Intelligence Sections1.  Understand2.  Engage3.  Direct
  • 33. Understand
  • 34. Understand & Engage
  • 35. Direct
  • 36. Direct
  • 37. Direct
  • 38. MI AdvantagePractical Applications
  • 39. Student Applications1.  Self-awareness ü  Reflect on profile and report ü  Career research based on list2.  Strategic or Metacognitive approach to learning ü  Selecting and applying suggested learning strategies using strengths ü  Creation and sharing of learning strategies based on strengths3.  Seek to expand capabilities ü  Challenge strengths with extension activities ü  Look to improve moderate and challenge areas
  • 40. Teacher Applications1.  Take assessment and reflect on teaching style ü  Are activities varied across intelligences? ü  Is student evaluation varied?2.  Vary lessons and student evaluation ü  Use MI Advantage report and other resources ü  Team with educators who have other strengths3.  Mix and match students according to strengths ü  Similar strengths for metacognitive strategies and study groups ü  Different strengths for group projects (assigned roles) – valuing diversity
  • 41. Counselor Applications¦  Intervention with struggling students ü  Look for alignment between struggles and intelligence profile (validation). ü  Place focus on strengths to boost confidence ü  Search for ways to expand use of strengths¦  Metacognitive boost for average students ü  Move from Knowledge to Comprehension, Application, Analysis, and beyond¦  Increase challenge and interest for strong or bored students ü  Extension activities for strengths ü  Seek well-roundedness in developing moderate and challenge areas¦  Career and college planning ü  Career lists from report ü  Relate Tasks and Activities in career profile to intelligences ü  Discussion of college majors as they relate to different intelligences ü  Have student build portfolio of talents based on strengths
  • 42. Sample Activities Gut Response (Self-Awareness)¦  Students use words, their body, sounds, or a facial expression to display how they feel about their what they have read in their report especially their profile.  Let students show their reactions, one at a time, and then explain their reactions.  Hint: if doing as a group, try to get the strongly intrapersonal students to go first, and prompt them to describe how they connected what they read in their reports to their feelings.Visualization (Self-awareness & Metacognitive approach)¦  Ask your students to think of an experience they have had when they were able to use one or more of their intelligence strengths. It is preferable that they think of an experience in school, but not absolutely necessary. Get the students to visualize that experience in as much detail as possible. Help them visualize by getting them to find a comfortable position (lay on the floor, rest your head on the table, lounge in a chair) and close their eyes. Play relaxing music at a low volume.  Tell them to be aware of their breathing, ask them to leave their present thoughts and clear their minds.  Once the participants appear to have relaxed, ask them to begin remembering their experience. Encourage participants to remember how they felt during the experience, all their actions, thoughts, and anything else related to the experience.  Subject Strategies (Metacognitive approach)¦  Have each student, or if possible, get groups of students with similar strengths to generate some study strategies based on their strengths for each subject area. For example, a group of students with high musical intelligence can get together to strategize about how to use their musical intelligence to be successful in math, language arts, science, etc. They can use their MI Advantage reports to get started with ideas, but should be free to discuss further.
  • 43. Sample ActivitiesFinding Synergy (Appreciating diversity)¦  Match students up into groups of 2-4. Ensure that each person in the group has a different top strength. After reading their reports they will need to come up with ways that their diverse abilities can work together. Give them a sample school project that would need to be completed by the group. They should come up with roles for each person in the group that would take advantage of that person’s strengths.  Journals (Self-Awareness)¦  Ask students to keep a journal of their school experience through regular entries – paying special attention to how they use their intelligences, where they run into challenges and how they can overcome those challenges by using their strengths.3-3-3 (Self-Awareness & Metacognitive approach)¦  3 goals they have for school¦  3 ‘strategies’ they have been using to meet those goals¦  3 ways they might be able to apply information in their report to strengthen their strategies
  • 44. How can parents use MI?¦  Learn about each intelligence in order to: ¥  Recognize their own strengths ¥  Observe and recognize their child’s intelligences ¥  Appreciate unique strengths (differences) among siblings ¥  Nurture all intelligences in their child through extracurricular activities
  • 45. MI Advantage Resources¦  Counselor/Advisor Handbook¦  Statistical Analysis¦  Student Quick Start Guide¦  Staff Quick Reference Guide¦  Administrator Quick Reference Guide
  • 46. How MI Advantage works with…¦  Learning styles theory looks at ¦  Personality type theory classifies how individuals receive individuals into 16 types based information best – multiple on psychological preferences intelligence theory looks at how ¦  Combining both theories provide individuals understand and best greater insight to: communicate that information ¥  Personalize learning¦  Learning styles apply across all ¥  Enhance career selection the intelligences and can help improve any learning and productivity issues
  • 47. Additional MI Resources¦  Armstrong, T. (1994), Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.¦  Building Lesson Plans with MI in mind (includes many already completed lesson plans for multiple subjects and grade levels)¦  Index of Lesson Plans that consider MI
  • 48. Additional MI Research¦  Project Zero’s Project SUMIT¦  Project Zero Publications¦  MI Institute