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Standardization and strategy in agilePresentation Transcript
AGENDA• What is Agile ?• Agile manifesto and principles• Agile Success factors• Waterfall Verses Agile• Agile Development Process• Agile Development Software Methods• Xtreme programming – Agile XP Values – XP Practices• Scrum – Scrum Terminology – Scrum Roles – Key characteristics of a Scrum Team – Scrum principles – Sprint execution• Various agile practices across industries – Lean principles – Kaizen process and principles – Kanban• Agile Groups and Activities• ISO 9000 quality standards• Strategy and Quality Approaches• Agile and Standardization• References
What is AGILE?• Agile is Buzzword now and used in many ways like Agile workplaces, Agile labs, Agile teams, Agile leadership, and more.• Borrows principles from lean manufacturing• Started picking momentum in 2001 as a new management paradigm• Formalized by 17 pioneers of agile methodology who met in Snowbird Ski Resort in Utah and issued the Agile ManifestoAGILE IS– Iterative and incremental development– Evolving requirements– Emergent design– Collaboration between self-organizing, cross-functional teams.– Adaptive planning, evolutionary development and delivery, a time-boxed iterative approach– Encourages rapid and flexible response to change
What is AGILE?• There are many agile frameworks and they all revere these statements of value:• That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. (www.agilemanifesto.org) Interactions and Individuals Customer Collaboration over over Processes and Tools Contract Negotiation Agile Manifesto Working Deliverables Responsive to Change over over Comprehensive Documentation Following a Plan
Principles behind Agile Manifesto1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer 7. Working software is the primary measure ofthrough early and continuous delivery of valuable progress.software. 8. Agile processes promote sustainable2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development.development. Agile processes harness change for The sponsors, developers, and users should bethe customers competitive advantage. able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.3. Deliver working software frequently, from acouple of weeks to a couple of months, with a 9. Continuous attention to technical excellencepreference to the shorter timescale. and good design enhances agility.4. Business people and developers must work 10. Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amounttogether daily throughout the project. of work not done--is essential.5. Build projects around motivated individuals. 11. The best architectures, requirements, andGive them the environment and support they need, designs emerge from self-organizing teams.and trust them to get the job done. 12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how6. The most efficient and effective method of to become more effective, then tunes and adjustsconveying information to and within a development its behavior accordingly.team is face-to-face conversation.
Agile techniques shine where innovation and changing requirements are part of the business model. Where stability is the norm, Agile may not be the right answer
Success factors by paradigm (Scale is from -10 to +10).
Waterfall Verses Agile
Waterfall is like a cannonball Assumptions: The customer knows what he wants The developer knows how to build it Nothing will change along the way 8
Agile is like a homing missile Assumptions: The customer discovers what he wants The developer discovers how to build it Many things change along the way
Scrum Verses Waterfall Scrum Waterfall• Allows new ideas to be • Assumes that most of the good incorporated right through the ideas come up in the beginning course of the project • Involvement mainly during• More involvement and ownership requirement and UAT phase from business users • ROI realized only at the end of the• Faster realization of ROI project• Inefficiencies get surfaced very • Inefficiencies are hidden and not quickly exposed until validation phases • Top down communication/decision• Bottom up making communication/decision making• Reduced Risk in project execution • Higher Risk
Agile Succeeds Three Times More Often Than Waterfall
Agile development process
Agile Communication and Modes• The various modes of communication – email, telephone, face-to-face conversation – can be placed on a “richness” scale, which looks something like this:“Richer” CommunicationFace-to-face conversation with a physical whiteboardHigh-resolution, large-screen videoconference with a virtual whiteboardHigh-resolution, large-screen videoconferenceLow-resolution, small-screen videoconferenceTelephone call using high quality phone hardware and a land line (=clearconnection)Telephone call using poor quality phone hardware and VOIP (=noisyconnection)Instant messaging and real-time text chatWikis and electronic discussion boardsEmail Communication“Poorer” Communication
Agile Software Development MethodsWell-known agile software development methods include:• Agile Modeling• Agile Unified Process (AUP)• Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)• Essential Unified Process (EssUP)• Extreme Programming (XP)• Feature Driven Development (FDD)• Open Unified Process (OpenUP)• Scrum• Crystal ClearAmong These XP and Scrum are mostwidely used.
Extreme Programming (XP)
Agile XP Values• Simplicity• Communication• Feedback• Respect• Courage
Scrum Terminology• Three roles• Product Owner: responsible for the business value of the project• Scrum Master: ensures that the team is functional and productive• Team: self-organizes to get the work doneTogether they form the Scrum Team.• Four ceremonies• Sprint planning: the team meets with the product owner to choose a set of work to deliver during a sprint• Daily scrum: the team meets each day to share struggles and progress• Sprint reviews: the team demonstrates to the product owner what it has completed during the sprint• Sprint retrospectives: the team looks for ways to improve the product and the process.• Three artifacts• Product backlog: prioritized list of desired project outcomes/features• Sprint backlog: set of work from the product backlog that the team agrees to complete in a sprint, broken into tasks• Burndown chart: at-a-glance look at the work remaining (can have two charts: one for the sprint and one for the overall project)
Scrum Roles Product Owner Team• Responsible for maximizing the value of • Responsible for doing the workthe work the team does. • 7 +/- 2• Owns the list of what has to be achieved • Cross-functional• Decides the order of product backlog • Self organizingitems• Decides when enough is done to ship Scrum Master • Responsible for ensuring the Scrum process is understood and followed • 3P’s: Process Owner • Teaches scrum to team, PO and stakeholders • Coaches the team, PO and stakeholders to achieve maximum value and ROI by improving practices • Change agent for organization Problem Solver • Helps remove blocks and assists the team and PO Protector • Protects the team from disruption
Key Characteristics of a Scrum Team• Intensely collaborative• Self-organizing• Empowered by each other and by Management• Committed to delivering their Sprint Goals• Trusting of one another• Make decisions as a Team• Constructive in their criticism of themselves and each other• Creative and innovative• Responsible and accountable• Business-value oriented• Reliable• Multi-skilled• Self-disciplined
Scrum Principles• Cross functional team that is stable and 100% dedicated• Team is self-organizing• Team plans its sprint one at a time at the start of the sprint• The team decides how much to commit. Team can over-deliver or under-deliver depending on how the sprint plays out• Product Owner (PO) decides what should be produced• Length of a sprint does not change during a sprint• Each sprint produces well tested, defect free product.• The final product of a sprint conforms to the ‘Definition of Done’.• At the end of each sprint, the team inspects and adapts both product and process.
Various Agile practices across industries
Lean Principles L.E.A.N. – Lets Eliminate All Non-value addsThe Five Principles of Lean Thinking• Identify Customers and Specify Value (3C – customer care, change in Product, Correct in time)• Identify and Map the Value Stream• Create Flow by Eliminating Waste• Respond to Customer Pull• Pursue Perfection
Seven Kinds Of Waste L.E.A.N. – Lets Eliminate All Non-value addsTaiichi Ohno, the mastermind behind the Toyota Production System (TPS), identified seven commontypes of waste or non-value add activities;• Overproduction,• Inventory,• Extra Processing Steps,• Waiting,• Transportation,• Defects,• Motion.
KAIZEN – Continuous ImprovementKaizen means improvement, continuous improvement involving everyone in theorganization, from top management, to managers then to supervisors, and toworkers.• SEIRI ->Sort - All unneeded tools, parts and supplies are removed from the area• SEITON - >Set in Order - A place foreverything and everything is in its place• SEISO ->Shine and Clean - The area isCleaned as the work is performed• SEIKETSU ->Standardize - Cleaning andidentification methods are consistently applied• SHITSUKU->Sustain - 5S is a habit and iscontinually improved Also - Work areas are safe and free of hazardous or dangerous conditions
Kaizen – Continuous ImprovementKaizen process can be defined in 4 steps:• Establish the existing standard work.• Analyze the current process.• Make improvements (Plan-Do-Check-Act).• Document the new standard work.Standardized work consists of three elements:• Takt time, which is the rate at which products must be made in a process to meet customer demand.• The precise work sequence in which an operator performs tasks within takt time.• The standard inventory, including units in machines, required to keep the process operating smoothly.
KANBAN• Kanban (かんばん(看板)?) (literally signboard or billboard) is a scheduling system for lean and just-in-time (JIT) production. According to its creator, Taiichi Ohno, kanban is one means through which JIT is achieved.• Kanban is concept related to Lean Thinking and Just In Time production system.Define• Kan: Visual / Sign• Ban: Card / Board
Agile Groups and Activitieswww.Agileallinace.org• The Agile Alliance is a nonprofit organization with global membership, committed to advancing Agile development principles and practices. Agile Alliance supports those who explore and apply Agile principles and practices in order to make the software industry more productive, humane and sustainable. We share our passion to deliver software better everyday.www.Scrumalliance.orgThe Scrum Alliance is a not-for-profit professional membership organization created to share the Scrum framework andtransform the world of work. (Learn more about Scrum.)The Scrum Alliances mission is to increase awareness and understanding of Scrum, provide resources to individualsand organizations using Scrum, and promote the iterative improvement necessary to succeed with Scrum. The ScrumAlliance hosts Scrum Gatherings and supports Scrum User Groups, providing a forum for interactive learningthroughout the world.www.agileindia.org - Agile Software Community of India• Agile Software Community of India (ASCI) is a registered society founded by a group of agile enthusiasts and practitioners from companies that practice Agile Software Development methodologies.• ASCI is formed to create a platform for people from different software organizations to come together and share their experience with Software development methodologies. ASCIs focus is Agile and related light weight methodologies/philosophies. ASCI evangelizes itself to be a facilitating body which fosters and innovates lightweight methodologies in software development in India. ASCI is working with Universities and Student chapters to increase Agile awareness within the academic circles.• So far ASCI have successfully organized various conferences and workshops on Agile in different cities of India. Continued……
Agile Groups and Activitieswww.isec.coIndia Scrum Enthusiasts Community (ISEC) was established in February 2010 with the goal of providing a commonplatform to Scrum and Agile community across India for knowledge sharing, networking and sharing experiences. Aimand Objectives under which association is established are as under:• To promote and nurture, the use of Agile process methodologies among IT professionals in India.• To foster the growth of knowledge in and supporting areas of Agile Processes.• To promote and support research in Project Management methods based on Agile principles.• To organize, seminars, lectures and events based to promote collaboration and usage in the field of Agile Methods.www.agilencr.org• Agile NCR 2013 would bring a unique concept not seen before in an Agile conference in India. The conference would be shaped as a cluster of four sub-conferences including within it the ethos and the elements of all round Enterprise Agility. Continued…..
Agile Groups and Activitieswww.Agileindia.in
ISO 9000 quality standardsNew program called ISO 9000 has evolved in response to the need for a standardized set ofprocedures for supplier quality verification.ISO 9000 is a standard of quality measurement developed by the International Organization forStandardization in Geneva. ISO 9000 has been a success in Europe and U.S.The standards center on the concept of documentation and control of nonconformance and change.The ISO 9000 is a series of following five international quality standards.• ISO 9000: Quality management and quality assurance models-Guidelines for selection and use• ISO 9001: Quality Systems – Model for quality assurance in design/development, production , installation and servicing.• ISO 9002: Quality systems – Model for quality assurance in production and installation• ISO 9003: Quality systems – Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test• ISO 9004: Quality management and quality system elements – GuidelinesISO 9000 standards have been adopted by companies in more than 120 countries. Many largecompanies including Dupont, General Electric, Eastman Kodak and British Telecom areinsisting their supplier to obtain certificates to get orders.
Strategy and Quality ApproachesFor anyone involved in managing strategy and performance, applying the powerful strategy mappingtechniques will move your balanced scorecard from an operational tool to one of strategy and change.It will help you capture, communicate and manage your strategy more effectively.However, strategy can no longer be simply a top down, annual process. It needs to be more iterative,emergent and involving. Many agile organizations have adopted rolling plans and budgets.Choice of Quality Standards:The Traditional Approach: Based on Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) standardsThe Total Quality Approach : Based on ZERO-DEFECTS StandardsQuantifying the Quality standards : based on the fact Quality can be measured by its costs.Physical standards : based on physical measures of quality like number of defects per unit.Interim standards : based on taking Zero defects as long term goal.
Agile and StandardizationAgile manifesto is the basic guiding principles behind all implementation types across the globe.Adoption of agile practices are customized by the organizations on the basis of in house knowledge,convenience and to match customer demand in process definitions.Maturity and nature of implementation of Agile practices also influenced by different accreditationadopted or complied by the Organization like CMMI level and Six Sigma level. Quality focus also playsimportant role in maturity of Agile implementation across organization.There are certifications body like Scrum Alliance and PMI (Project Management Institute) are thereOn Agile Practices.Certifications provided by Scrum Alliance:Certified Scrum Master (CSM)Certified Scrum Product Owner(CSPO)Certified Scrum Developer (CSD)Certified Scrum Professional (CSP)Certified Scrum Coach (CSC)Certified Scrum Trainer (CSP)Certification provided by Project Management InstituteAgile Certified Practitioner [ACP]