Climate change and health effects
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Climate change and health effects

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  • Moderator SpeakersSurg. Capt. Dinesh Sharma DrAmol Capt. Naveen
  • Climate change will have greatest effect on those who have the least access to world’s resources and who have contributed least to its cause.The rich will find their world to be more expensive, inconvenient, uncomfortable, disrupted and colorless; in general, more unpleasant and unpredictable. The poor will die.
  • Schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, alveolar echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and hantavirus infections are all projected to increase as a result of global climate changeThe spread of animal infections, such as blue-tongue virus and other Orbiviruses.Dilution effect in Lyme, West Nile and hantavirus diseases.
  • Climate change threatens human health through itseffect on undernutrition and food insecurity
  • The main health effects of lack of access to clean water and sanitation are diarrhoeal and other diseases caused by biological or chemical contaminants.Poor drainage in human settlements increases exposure to contaminated water and provides habitat for mosquitoes, leading to increased incidence of water-borne and vector-borne diseases.Changing rainfall and temperature over the next decades are likely to make provision of clean water, good sanitation, and drainage even more complicated than it is now.Average annual rainfall is forecast to decrease in some regions and increase in others, and droughts and floods are likely to become more frequent and intense.Water scarcity might result in greater conflict between and within countries and communities
  • Need for secure emergency shelter for those displaced or affected by climate variability events, and also human settlements prepared for the future climate-changed environment.climate-related hazards, such as floods and landslides, as well as to related health problems, such as disease and injury.
  • In the long term, mental health conditions after a disaster, such as depression and anxiety, can also present serious problems.Extreme meteorological phenomena, including heat waves and cold waves, floods, droughts, and windstorms.The frequency of most meteorological extreme events is expected to continue to rise. Hot conditions, heat waves, and heavy precipitation events will continue to become more frequent.
  • Population growth will increase pressure and competition for scarce resources, such as food, water, and land.Rising sea levels, which result from oceanic thermal expansion and ice-cap melting, will be a major contributing factor to population displacement.
  • Activities carried out in order to adapt to climate change can in some cases lead to additional health risks.Construction of dams for water storageIrrigation of landWastewater for agricultural irrigationNeed for an integrated risk assessment during the development of new policies at national level or local level, taking into account the possible health effects and how to reduce these risks.
  • Climate change does not create new health hazards.It may act as a multiplier of existing health problems or change the location of health concerns.A cost-effective and prompt way of handling climate change adaptation is to add the climate dimension into existing international or community-based programs and actions.Cross-sectoral approaches are needed.
  • Strengthen health systems with a particular focus on human resources. Improve access to water and sanitation and improve knowledge about hygiene.Improve surveillance systems through strengthening access to primary care,improve laboratory facilities and standardize diagnosis and reporting. Increase international collaborations on surveillance.Make better use of the few existing early warning systems for particular diseases
  • The health sector should make better use of early warning information available nationally, regionally or through global providers such as academic institutions for climate variability extremes.Focus surveillance efforts at areas predicted to be at particularly high risk for changing patterns of disease. Where appropriate, invest in win-win solutions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as improve public health.Take health risks into account when planning adaptation measures.This should aid public health decision-making and preparedness for the state sector as well as the non-state sector, at all levels but especially down to the community level
  • Ensure the health sector is at the table when planning climate change adaptation in other sectors.When planning cities, take into account the urban heat island effect, ensure availability of shaded spaces and green areas, ensure that water and sanitation infrastructure is resilient to extremes of precipitation, and facilitate modes of transport that contribute to public health and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.Taking into account future sea level rise and flood-plains when planning infrastructure.Take into account changing temperatures during building design.

Climate change and health effects Climate change and health effects Presentation Transcript

  • Climate change and health Effects Speakers Dr Amol Nath Capt. Dr Naveen Phuyal
  • Climate change and health Effects Moderator Speakers Surg. Capt. Dinesh Sharma Dr Amol Capt. Naveen
  • Scheme of Presentation Global warming – Overview Causes of Global warming Health Effects of Global warming Adaptation & Mitigation Activities
  • The Cassandra Effect One who foresees, on available evidence, a likely disaster; yet judges that this can’t be prevented – and, that anyway, others won’t believe the forecast.
  • Drought turns Beijing orange Independent 22 March 2010
  • Drought in Kenya killed Thousands of Cattles
  • Climate Change- Examples 1914 2004
  • Climate Change- Examples June 2002 Dec 2003
  • Some Natural Disasters In Recent Years In India And Effects • India, like other countries in the world, have had natural disasters but its recurrence has enhanced in the new millennium.  Tsunami (December 2004)– affected Andaman & Nicobar, Pondicherry, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh loss of Agri crops, cattle wealth, housing and livelihood.  Mumbai Floods (26th July 2005) –city got paralyzed and floods in Maharashtra
  • Some Natural Disasters In Recent Years In India And Effects  Surat Flood (2006) – Estimated loss of Rs.22,000 crore. City’s infrastructure affected, individual losses and crops like sugarcane (Rs4,000 crore) were lost.  Heavy rains in 2007 in Rajasthan with flooding and consequent breakout of diseases, loss of crops and cattle wealth.  Bihar (2008) – Koshi river overflow caused flooding in large area of Bihar & UP  Current drought in Maharashtra state
  • What is Global Warming?
  • Global Warming ‘The rise in the surface air temperature, referred to as the global temperature, brought about by the enhanced greenhouse effect, which is induced by emissions of greenhouse gases into the air.’ • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that the 20th century saw an increase in global average surface temperature of approximately 0.7 °C Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • This Is A Big Problem….
  • What’s the difference between “global warming” and “climate change”?
  • Difference GLOBAL WARMING is the increase of the Earth’s average surface temperature due to a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. CLIMATE CHANGE is a broader term that refers to long- term changes in climate, including average temperature and precipitation. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • Why Global Warming is happening?
  • Greenhouse Effect: The Fundamentals
  • The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s windshield. This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and cannot pass back through the windshield, causing the inside of the car to warm up. Greenhouse Effect: The Fundamentals
  • Greenhouse Gases Nitrous oxide Water vapour Carbon dioxide Methane Sulfur hexafluoride
  • Selected Greenhouse Gases Water vapour: •Water vapour is the most important greenhouse gas, but human activity doesn’t have much direct impact on its amount in the atmosphere. •Increased evapouration leads to a greater concentration of water vapour in the lower atmosphere capable of absorbing long-wave radiation and emitting it downward Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • Selected Greenhouse Gases • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  Anthropogenic increase: 37%  Average atmospheric residence time: 500 years • Methane (CH4)  Anthropogenic increase: 145%  Average atmospheric residence time: 7-10 years • Nitrous oxide (N2O)  Anthropogenic increase: 15%  Average atmospheric residence time: 140-190 years Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • Sources of Greenhouse Gases Burning carbon-containing fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide
  • CO2 Significant greenhouse pollutant  Humans have increased carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere by more than 37% since the Industrial Revolution. - NOAA 2008  Currently the level of carbon dioxide in atmosphere is highest (385 ppm) in last 8,00,000 years. - Prof. Thomas Blunier, Univ. of Copenhagen; Monaco Declaration 2008. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • Methane from rice paddies, animal ranching, garbage in landfills and mining operations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • Nitrous oxide from fertilizers and other chemicals Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • Global Contributors to Greenhouse Gas Emissions  Leading sources of greenhouse gas emissions are combustion of fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas  More than 60% of the annual global industrial carbon dioxide emissions come from industrialized countries, accounting for 20% of the world’s population U.S. per capita emissions of carbon are over 20 times higher than India, 12 times higher than Brazil, and 7 times higher than China These per capita rates expected to change significantly as China, India, and other countries continue to develop economically  Global carbon dioxide emissions are projected to increase by at least 50% over the next 25 years under current conditions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • IPCC 2007: Human Impact is Evident Carbon dioxide concentration over the past 1000 years Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • Global Population Estimates • A vicious circle for our times More people use more energy; More energy means more emissions; More people want affluence; More affluence means more gadgets; More gadgets need yet more energy; Which produces yet more emissions
  • The consequences • The world is getting hotter (very slowly 0.1°C per decade) • Sea levels are rising (very slowly 3mm/yr) • Snow cover is decreasing Source-IPCC, WG1, Figure SPM.3, 2007
  • The last 10 years are all in the top 15 warmest years on record World Metrological Organization, Report on Climate Change,2010
  • Global Warming - Effects  Geographical effects  Climate change  Wildlife  Humans
  • Ice cover 23% smaller than previous minimum; 39% smaller than average  Ice 53% thinner in region of North Pole between 2001 and 2007 (NOAA Report Card 2008) In September 2007, an area the size of Florida (69,000 square miles) melted (NSIDC 2007) Melting Sea Ice
  • Arctic sea ice coverage is decreasing.. Less sea ice means less reflection of the sun’s energy; More exposure of dark coloured ocean means more absorption of the sun’s heat; These combined effects warm the Arctic, helping to melt more sea ice – another vicious circle Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • The Arctic Ocean could be ice-free in summer by 2040 (U.S National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2006) “Society can still minimize the impacts on Arctic ice.” ( Dr. Marika Holland, National Center for Atmospheric Research) 2000 2040
  • •More than half of the world's population now lives within 60km of the sea. •Most vulnerable regions: Nile delta in Egypt, the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh, many small islands, such as the Maldives, the Marshall Islands Sea-level Rise Projections : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • Sea-level Rise Projections • Ganges River delta and 1m sea level rise in Bangladesh-13 million will be displaced and 16% of rice production will be lost. • Similar 1 m sea level rise in China will displace 72 million people. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report(AR4),2007
  • The day is not far……..
  • As the temperature of oceans rise, so will the probability of more frequent and stronger hurricanes. Warmer waters and more hurricanes
  • Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves
  • Health effects of changing climates
  • Health inequalities between rich and poor • Climate change will have greatest effect on those who have the least access to world’s resources and who have contributed least to its cause. The rich world: more expensive, inconvenient, uncomfortable, disrupted and colorless, more unpleasant and unpredictable. Poor will die
  • Why suffering more for the poor?  The health systems are : • Disorganized • Inefficient • Under-resourced “The toxic combination of bad policies, economics, and politics – people do not enjoy the good health that is biologically possible.
  • Is fossil fuel to be blamed? Fossil fuel has contributed to development and huge improvement in global health and development in the past 100 yrs. Developed world and richer part of developing world - doubled their longetivity, reduced poverty, increased education and enhanced their security. Luxury emissions vs survival emissions
  • Effect of climate change on health • Changing pattern of the disease • Water and food insecurity • Vulnerable shelter and human settlements • Extreme climatic events • Population growth and migration
  • • The heat waves • Heat related stress and heat stroke • Heat island effect • Vector borne diseases and Rodent borne diseases • Cancers • Vectors access areas previously free from diseases Changing patterns of disease
  • Changing patterns of disease Schistosomiasis Fascioliasis Alveolar echinococcosis leishmaniasis Lyme borreliosis Tick-borne encephalitis Hantavirus infections Dilution effect in Lyme, West Nile and hantavirus diseases
  • Changing patterns of disease • Cholera outbreaks- increased planktons growth • Floods also promote outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis • Increased rainfall and flooding -leptospirosis outbreak.
  • Food insecurity • Chronic and acute child malnutrition, low birth weights, and suboptimal breastfeeding. • Climate change will compound existing food insecurity. • Hunger, illness, and death due to under nutrition are set to worsen as climate change affects crops, forestry, livestock, fisheries, aquaculture, and water systems. • Rising food prices.
  • Water and sanitation • Lack of access to clean water and sanitation • Biological or chemical contamination • Increased incidence of water-borne and vector-borne diseases • Changing rainfall and temperature • More intense droughts and floods • Water scarcity might result in greater conflict between and within countries and communities
  • Shelter and human settlements • Need for secure emergency shelter for those displaced or affected • Human settlements prepared for the future climate-changed environment • Disease and injury
  • Shelter and human settlements • Vulnerability for the poorest and most powerless- no opportunities to adapt • Energy security • Concern to many governments -potential source of international tension and conflict
  • Extreme events • Major disasters -directly linked. • Associated health problems( Indirect) loss or contamination of potable water leading to disease, destruction of crops resulting in food shortages, poor nutrition, and malnutrition.
  • Extreme events • In the long term-after a disaster- depression and anxiety • Extreme meteorological phenomena, including heat waves and cold waves, floods, droughts, and windstorms • Most meteorological extreme events is expected to continue to rise • Hot conditions, heat waves, and heavy precipitation events will continue to become more frequent
  • Population and migration Population growth - shelter, food, and water scarcity. Population growth also puts additional stress on already weak health systems. Exacerbates vulnerability to the adverse health effects of climate change.
  • • Population growth -increase pressure and competition for scarce resources • Rising sea levels, which result from oceanic thermal expansion and ice-cap melting, will be a major contributing factor to population displacement.
  • • Climate change might be one of many factors influencing violence, but where conflict occurs between migrant and host populations, it is a result of national identity clashes rather than of migration.
  • Health effects of adaptation and mitigation activities
  • Health effects of adaptation activities • Activities carried out in order to adapt to climate change can in some cases lead to additional health risks. 1. Construction of dams for water storage 2. Irrigation of land 3. Wastewater for agricultural irrigation • Need for an integrated risk assessment during the development of new policies at national level or local level However, it is likely that many such practices will take place informally in rural or peri-urban settlements so that national regulations may not be as effective.
  • Co-benefits of mitigation activities • Reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases • Transport policies • Better insulation of houses in cold climates
  • • Climate change does not create new health hazards. • It may act as a multiplier of existing health problems or change the location of health concerns. • To add the climate dimension into existing international or community-based programs and actions. • Cross-sectoral approaches are needed. Further research is needed on links between climate and health and projected effects, as well as the most effective adaptation measures
  • What to do? • Should we do the same things ?? OR • Do things differently?? Short term climate variability – Better Focus Longer term- Planning for how to ensure that systems remain resilient and adaptable to changing risks.
  • Doing more of the same • Strengthen health systems -human resources. • Improve access to water and sanitation. • Improve knowledge about hygiene. • Improve surveillance systems.
  • Doing more of the same • Improve laboratory facilities and standardize diagnosis and reporting. • Increase international collaborations on surveillance. • Make better use of the few existing early warning systems for particular diseases.
  • Doing things differently • Make better use of early warning information • Public health decision-making and preparedness • Focus surveillance efforts on high risk areas • Invest in win-win solutions • Take health risks into account when planning adaptation measures
  • Doing things differently • Ensure the health sector is at the table when planning • Taking into account future sea level rise and flood-plains when planning infrastructure • Take into account changing temperatures during building design
  • Doing things differently • When planning cities, take into account  The urban heat island effect  Ensure availability of shaded spaces and green areas  Ensure that water and sanitation infrastructure is resilient to extremes of precipitation  Facilitate modes of transport that contribute to public health and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • • There is a need to document, assess and disseminate experiences of adaptation as countries and regions undertake and plan such strategies.
  • WHAT CAN WE DO?
  • Plastic bags and cups do not decompose so harmful to environment Paper bags and cups are eco friendly and easily decomposable Reduce the usage of cars for short distances Walk /use cycles for short distances
  • Turn to compact florescent light which saves more than 80% of energy
  • Avoid turning up the air conditioner. Instead dress lightly or use a fan. Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds, shades, or curtains. Turn off the lights when you leave. Conserve electricity! DO NOT leave appliances on standby
  • REUSE Paper can be reused for various purposes Covers and boxes which comes with products can be used for decorative purposes Plastic bags can be used for carrying small things
  • What Can Be Recycled? Paper Items Paper Cardboard Envelopes Phone Books Post-it Notes Magazine Bottles and Cans Cans Plastic Bottles Glass Bottles Aluminum Foil Yogurt and Cottage Cheese containers
  • Use alternate energy courses Nuclear Wind Geothermal Hydroelectric Solar
  • Advantages of 3R’s Reduction of wastages Less pollution Efficient use of resources Increase in energy