<< CHAPTER 13                                                                  < CONTENTS >District Spatial Plan - Thrissu...
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District Spatial Plan - Thrissur                                         TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT    183much variatio...
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District Spatial Plan - Thrissur                                            TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT    187rural area...
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Dsp thrissur ch14
Dsp thrissur ch14
Dsp thrissur ch14
Dsp thrissur ch14
Dsp thrissur ch14
Dsp thrissur ch14
Dsp thrissur ch14
Dsp thrissur ch14
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Dsp thrissur ch14

  1. 1. << CHAPTER 13 < CONTENTS >District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 161 Chapter – 14 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT14.1 INTRODUCTION are the proposed second order settlements. Once the goals and objectives of the District Spa- Kodungallur Municipal Council, Guruvayur Municipaltial Plan are set, the ways and means to achieve them Council and Grama Panchayats of Alagappanagar,have to be explored. Formulation of Tentative devel- Pananchery, Venkitangu, Valappad and Wadakkancheryopment concept of the district by synthesis of the find- are proposed as third order settlements. In generalings of the spatial analysis and sectoral analysis, in the there is one first order settlement, 5 second orderorbit of the goals and objectives, over the district plat- settlements and 7 third order settlements in the Dis-form that will provide the required development frame trict. The first order settlement is supposed to providework for integrated development of the district is there- higher order facilities in Education, Health and in otherfore attempted in this chapter. sectors to the entire district population and is conceptualised as the regional centre of the district. This chapter discusses the Tentative develop- The second order settlements are supposed to providement concept derived for District Spatial Plan Thrissur. second order facilities of various development sectorsWe have the spatial structure of the district evolved to the surrounding area and are hence envisaged as thefrom the hierarchy of settlements, connectivity and sub regional centers. A district level road network withactivity pattern. The environmental aspects of the dis- roads of three hierarchies viz major roads, sub majortrict are also studied. Even though sectoral analysis of roads and minor roads is suggested, such that it con-some of the sectors are yet to be completed, we have nects all the higher order settlements each other. Theresults of sectoral analysis of following sectors namely details of formation of development concept of ThrissurAgriculture, Industries and Tourism which have physi- district is described hereunder:cal manifestation on land. The resource pattern of thedistrict evolved through spatial analysis of these sec- 14.2 DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT FORMATIONtors is also available. The development concept is de- Analysis of various parameters pertaining to therived by incorporating these with the spatial structure development of the district and findings emerged outof the district and that of the macro region. from them clearly show that the district has As per the settlement analysis, it is found that underutilized or un-utilized potential in primary as wellthe settlements in the District can be grouped in to four as in secondary sector. The district shows a flourishinghierarchies. The future hierarchy of settlement of the tertiary sector without having proper backward and for-district evolved shows that Thrissur Municipal Corpo- ward linkages with primary and secondary sectors. Moreration is the highest order settlement in the District. over the district is bestowed with natural resources,Chalakkudy Municipal Council, Irinjalakkuda Municipal tourism potential spots, cultural richness etc. At theCouncil, Kunnamkulam Municipal Council are the ex- same time there are areas/regions of environmentalisting and Chelakkara and Mattathur Grama Panchayats concern. The resource base of the district as well as Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  2. 2. 162 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissurthe spatial structure including transportation network erates as never before. The loss of forest cover andplay a crucial role in the development of the district. In conversion to other land uses can adversely affect freshaddition, the spatial structure of the macro region, cov- water supplies, threatening the survival of millions ofering Thrissur and surrounding districts will also have a people and damaging the environment. So, protectiondeterminant role in evolving the development concept. of environment sensitive areas is important for ensur-No doubt, the development concept for Thrissur shall ing sustainable development.be formulated only through a synthesis of all such fac- Environmentally sensitive areas of Thrissur Dis-tors namely, trict include the eastern forests, kole lands of the cen- 1. Environmentally sensitive areas tral region, the coastal areas and the inland water bod- ies of the district. (figure 14.1). 2. Spatial structure of the district 3. Resources pattern of the district 14.2.2 Spatial Structure of Thrissur District 4. Spatial structure of the macro region Spatial structure of the district is derived mainly from Hierarchy of settlements and nodes, the trans- Since the sectoral analysis is incomplete, the re- portation network and activity pattern. As per the settle-sources pattern of the district is not fully evolved and ment analysis, it is found that the settlements in theonly the development concept evolved here is tenta- District can be grouped in to four hierarchies. The studytive which may need fine tuning on completion of of the suggested hierarchy of settlement of the districtsectoral analysis of all sectors. shows that Thrissur Municipal Corporation is the high-14.2.1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas est order settlement in the District. Chalakkudy Mu- nicipal Council, Irinjalakkuda Municipal Council, Deforestation and environmental exploitation Kunnamkulam Municipal Council, Chelakkara andwhen reaches the pinnacle of endurance, nature reit- Fig: 14.1 Environmentally sensitive areas of the DistrictDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  3. 3. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 163 Fig: 14.2 Spatial structure of the DistrictMattathur Grama Panchayats are the proposed second profile is derived taking in to account occupational struc-order settlements. In general there is one first order ture and hierarchy of settlements, the land use con-settlement, 5 second order settlements and 7 third or- centration pattern is studied based on the land useder settlements in the District. The first order settle- analysis). The spatial structure derived is shown in figment is supposed to provide higher order facilities in 14.2.Education, Health and in other sectors to the entire dis-trict population. The second order settlements are sup- 14.2.3 Resource Pattern of the Districtposed to provide second order facilities of various de- a. Agriculturevelopment sectors to the surrounding area. The pro- Nearly 25% of the total area of the district is un-posed road network of the district is derived based on der agricultural land use. Most of the agricultural areasthe hierarchy of settlements and nodes such that the are concentrated in the mid land and high and regionsroad network should connect the higher order settle- of the district. Also the general character of settlementsments and nodes. shows that most of them are rural in nature, indicating that there is scope for developing the agriculture sec- Activity pattern within the district is derived tor as one of the economic base of the District.based on the land use concentration pattern, functionalcharacter and future urban profile. In other words the Four distinctive agriculture development pat-activity pattern cover all the aspects taken for the study terns can be clearly delineated in the district viz. theof the settlements (functional character is determined coastal and low land regions where homestead cultiva-based on population distribution and land use, urban tion, predominantly of coconut, arecanut, nutmug, jack- Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  4. 4. 164 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissur Fig.14.3 Spatial distribution of major cropsfruit etc. can be promoted; mixed cultivation area in necting Thrissur Municipal Corporation with urban ac-the low –mid land area where paddy cultivation (kole tivity areas of the district such as Kunnamkulam-land & pokkali area) has to be sustained and nut mug, Chavakadu-Guruvayur and Irinjalakuda-Kodungallur-plantain, vegetable and fodder cultivation etc can be Methala. The concentration of house hold industriespromoted; intense crop cultivation area in the mid land and hand loom industries are found along the coastalwhere rubber to be sustained and pineapple, pepper, areas and in Thiruvillwamala Grama Panchayat as well.plantain, vegetable and paddy cultivation to a certain The district also has potential for clay based industries,extent etc. can be promoted and finally resource base diamond & gold based industries, agro based indus-area where forest resources are to be conserved. Here, tries, handloom industries, book making industries etc.intense afforestation has to be promoted while exist- The spatial distribution of industries in Thrissuring plantations and rubber and pepper cultivation are district is shown in fig 14.4.to be sustained. The spatial distribution of major cropsin Thrissur district is shown in fig. 14.3 c. Tourism Thrissur district has got potential to develop theb. Industry tourism spots in connection with eco tourism, adven- The analysis of industrial sector shows the con- ture tourism, religious tourism and heritage tourism.centration of industrial activity (large, medium, small The tourism potential areas include Thrissur Municipalscale) in the south-west, south-east and north-west Corporation, Guruvayoor Municipal Council,regions of the district spatially located along the major Kodungalloor Municipal Council, Irinjalakuda Munici-transportation corridors such as NH-47, NH-17, SH con- pal Council, Grama Panchayats of Athirappaly,Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  5. 5. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 165 Fig: 14.4 Spatial distribution of industriesMattathoor, Puthur, Vallathol Nagar, Varandarappilly observed. Primary activity is more concentrated at theetc. boundary between Thrissur and Palakkad districts.14.2.4 Spatial Structure of the Macro Region 14.3 THE TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT Influence of neighbouring Districts especially The development Tentative concept for ThrissurErnakulam, plays significant role in the development District is derived integrating all the above factors withof Thrissur district. The Thrissur – Kochi corridor linking the development goals and objectives set for the dis-Thrissur to the Metro City of Kochi, the trade and com- trict. Hence the development concept embraces as-mercial capital of the State, is functioning as a corridor pects of:of vibrant development. The spatial structure of this Environmental Protection & Sustainable devel-region is shown in figure 14.5. A contiguous belt of opment. includecoastal LSGs exhibiting prominence of tertiary activi-ties supported by fisheries, Small Scale Industries and Optimum utilization of resources through inte-House Hold Industries are existing in Thrissur and gration of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary SectorsErnakulum districts. A contiguous belt of urban activity Ensuring the local economic development andcovering Grama Panchayats of Methala, Eriyad, and generation of better opportunitiesEdavilngu and the Kodungallur Muncipal Council in Certain level of self-sufficiency in productionThrissur district and extending upto Kochi can also be (primary and secondary) sectors Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  6. 6. 166 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissur Balanced development and equitable spatial 14.6. As per the tentative development concept thusdistribution of facilities derived, the district is divided in to eight development The process of integrating these, to evolve de- zones and future hierarchy of each settlement andvelopment concept is schematically shown in Figure node are set and a future transportation network con- Fig.14.5 Spatial structure of the macro regionDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  7. 7. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 167 Fig: 14.6 Tentative Development concept - IDDP Thrissurnecting the higher order settlements and nodes are 4. Accelerated growth zone - Industrialplanned. A development zone is delineated by group- 5. Accelerated growth zone - Institutionaling the settlements possessing similar major economicactivity pattern as per the Spatial Analysis. In other 6. Accelerated growth zone - Marinewords, the thrust development sector of each Grama 7. Multifunctional zone IPanchayat or Municipal Council is specified. Develop- 8. Multifunctional zone IIment Concept of Thrissur District is depicted in Figure14.7. The list of LSGs in each development zone is given 14.4.1 Environmental Concern Zonein Annexe 16. In order to preserve the environmentally sensi-14.4 DEVELOPMENT ZONES tive areas of the district so as to ensure sustainable development, areas where environmentally sensitive The eight development zones evolved for land uses are concentrated are delineated as Environ-Thrissur district are as follows mental Concern Zone. This zone includes the natural 1. Environmental Concern Zone. forests, environmentally sensitive ‘kole’ lands, the 2. Intensive Agricultural Zone coastal zone and inland water bodies of the district. In Thrissur district the environmental sensitive areas are 3. Economic Development Corridor (EDC) Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  8. 8. 168 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissurmore concentrated in the eastern region where forest rice granaries located in the central Kerala. These areasis more concentrated. Peechi-Vazhani Sanctuary (situ- are valuable assets of the district. So the protection ofated in Wadakkanchery, Pazhayannur, Pananchery and these areas is important. Activities that affect the wa-Puthur Grama Panchayats) and Chimmony Wildlife ter resources and natural drainage basin of these areasSanctuary (situated in Mattathur and Varantharapilly are not permitted in this zone.Grama Panchayats) are situated here. Within this zone, The coastal zone of the district and inland waterin the areas where natural forest land use is concen- bodies of the district are also included in this zone andtrated, no activity that causes deforestation of any kind their conservation deserve due attention.shall be permitted. Afforestation, plantation, cultiva-tion of crops like Rubber, Pineapple and Pepper are 14.4.2 Intensive Agricultural Zonefound most suitable in the non forest areas of this zone. The intensive agricultural area as per the spatialForest related activities including eco tourism; Aromatic analysis of settlement studies and the area of concen-& Medicinal plant cultivation, small scale HH industry tration of agricultural activity as per the spatial analysisbased on natural resources of the region, outlets for of the Agricultural sector are included in Intensive agri-forest related products. watershed related activity & cultural zone of the district where intensive agricul-soil conservation etc may also be promoted. Agricul- tural activity can be promoted. The list of Gramature and Allied activity non detrimental to forests can Panchayats which fall in Agro Development Zone isbe promoted as supporting activity in this zone while given in Annexe 16. This zone is suitable for the inten-deforestation, wet land reclamation, industrialization, sive cultivation of crops like Paddy, Coconut, Arecanut,urbanisation etc will be restricted here. Nutmeg, Plantain, Banana etc. and also for agro based Other environmentally sensitive areas of the dis- industries like food processing units, coir industry etc.trict include ‘kole’ lands in mid land region which are In this zone providing agricultural infrastructure like Fig 14.7 Tentative Development conceptDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  9. 9. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 169wholesale markets, seed centers, warehousing facili- south, along either sides of Irinjalakuda – Thrissur –ties etc for supporting the agriculture activities shall be Shornur corridor where the activity pattern is ‘second-given priority. This zone is also suitable for promoting ary’ is delineated as Accelerated growth zone -Indus-animal husbandry related activities. trial. In this Zone special types of developmental ac- tivities, in line with the existing activities, which are Thus Agriculture, small scale industries to pro- found very much suitable for those particular places,mote value addition of produces of agriculture and ani- are intended. This zone should enhance the small scalemal husbandry may be promoted as major activity in and house hold industrial activities which support valuethis zone. Animal husbandry, SSI & HH industries may addition of agriculture, fisheries and marine products.be promoted as supporting activity in this zone where This zone can also accommodate supporting industriesas conversion of agriculture land and urbanisation will which enhance the industrial activity in the Economicbe restricted. Development Corridor.14.4.3 Economic Development Corridor (EDC). 14.4.5 Accelerated growth zone - Institutional The areas where tertiary activities and second- The region along SH-69, (the transportation cor-ary activities (especially industrial activity to trigger eco- ridor that connects Thrissur Municipal Corporation andnomic development) are more concentrated or can be Kunnamkulam Municipal Council) is zoned as Acceler-concentrated due to locational advantages are zoned ated growth zone –Institutional. Activities of the Gramaas the Economic Development Corridor (EDC). Two de- Panchayats in the region will definitely have influencevelopment corridors, namely the Thrissur - Ernakulam of the urban centers of Thrissur Municipal Corporation(NH-47) corridor and Thrissur – Irinjalakuda - and Kunnamkulam Municipal Council. Social infrastruc-Kodungalloor – Paravoor - Ernakulam (SH-22 & NH-17) ture facilities including hospitals, health institutionscorridor are gaining importance in this regard. This zone and educational facilities are already in existence inis also influenced by Ernakulam, the commercial and the region and there is scope for future institutionalindustrial hub of the state. Industrial activities, espe- developments here. The zone is located near to thecially large scale production industries, are being at- Intensive Agricultural zone, so agro based industriestracted to this region. This Zone has profound implica- can be promoted, to a certain extent in this zone.tion in terms of good transportation linkages with seaport, airport, nearest urban centre etc. This zone has 14.4.6 Accelerated growth zone - Marinegot wide influence region in terms of employment gen- The zone where fisheries and tertiary activitieserated, raw resources utilised and products marketed. are more concentrated are designated as AcceleratedThis zone has to play a key role to trigger the economic growth zone - Marine. This zone is located in the coastalgrowth and generating employment opportunities. This region of Thrissur district. The LSGs along NH-17 are in-zone is suitable for large/ medium scale industries, in- cluded in this zone. From the activity analysis, it is founddustrial parks, Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s), IT & Info that nature of most of the LSGs fall under the categoryParks, Quality Education and Health care institutions of urban or secondary activities. Hence this zone can beetc. Care shall be taken to restrict polluting industries. promoted for service sector activities and industrialAgriculture and allied activity and agro based indus- sector which enhance the fisheries and allied activi-tries may be allowed as supporting activities. ties. We can promote Fish markets, fish preservation14.4.4 Accelerated growth zone - Industrial and production units, export and import of marine prod- ucts, ice plants, Aquaculture Farms, Ornamental fish The mid land areas of the district, extending north Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  10. 10. 170 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissurtrading units, fish seed farms Fish Farmers clubs, value industries etc are existing. This zone has intense po-added marine product outlet units, development of fish tential in infrastructure facilities like super specialtyharbour & Boat building Yards, production and mainte- hospitals, five star hotels, Health institutions, IT parks,nance units of Machineries. This zone is also influenced educational facilities etc. This zone is surrounded byby Ernakulam, the commercial and industrial hub of the intensive agriculture zone. So agro and allied indus-state. The zone has immense potential with HH indus- tries like processing units, value addition units etc intrial activities in connection with allied activities and this connection also has potential.also tourism potential. Thus, Thrissur Municipal Corporation, the pro-14.4.7 Multifunctional zone I posed regional centre of Thrissur District, will develop as a regional centre in the state next only to Cochin. This zone includes the jurisdictional area of The development of the zone should be in such a wayThrissur Municipal Corporation. In this zone all urban that it should minimize the degradation of nature andactivities including higher order educational and health other pollution related activities.care facilities and a transportation network copping upwith the requirements etc are to be made available. 14.4.8 Multifunctional zone IIThis zone will act as a service centre for the entire dis- This zone is the multifunctional zone of secondtrict. Suitable projects and programmes are to be imple- order activities which also serve various sectors effec-mented to exploit the urban potential of this zone. tively. In this zone, all types of 2nd order urban activi- Thrissur Municipal Corporation which is the only ties, 2nd order educational and health care facilitiesfirst order settlement is the heart of the district due to and enabling transportation facilities etc. are to be pro-its multifunctional character (seat of specialized and vided. This zone will act as a service centre for the hinterregional level facilities, status as administrative head lands and this zone is very much suitable for industriesquarters, trade and commercial centre of the district utilizing agricultural produces of hinter land. Theand Art & Cultural Centre) and also its spatial location Guruvayur – Chavakkad - Kunnamkulam region as wellwithin the district. Thrissur Municipal Corporation is as Kodungallur -Irnjalakkuda -Eriyad Methala regionlocated almost in the geographic centre of the District come under this zone. All the LSGs in this zone are lo-and reflects the character of activities of the whole dis- cated along major coastal transportation corridors oftrict. Also Thrissur Municipal Corporation has good in- NH-17/SH 69/ SH 22.ter district and intra district connectivity both by roadand railway. This zone plays a crucial role both in ser- 14.5 HIERARCHY OF SETTLEMENTSvice sector and other sectors and also plays a crucial The proposed hierarchy of settlements requiredrole in creating good link between all sectors in an effi- for a balanced distribution of facilities to all the Localcient way. Governments in the district consists of Regional Cen- tre, Sub regional centers and Service centers. The pro- Thrissur Municipal Corporation has rich in tour- posed hierarchy of settlements is shown in Figure 14.8.ism, heritage, cultural, religious and archaeologicalwealth and acts as cultural centre of District as well as 14.6 TRANSPORTATION NETWORKthe state. Thrissur Municipal Corporation has also good Conceptual road network is prepared based onrole in industrial sector also. Gold and diamond indus- the existing and proposed hierarchy of settlements.try, textile industry, real estate, banking, brick and tile The entire district depends upon the monocentricindustry, furniture making, automobile industry and HH single first order settlement ie, Thrissur Municipal Cor-Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  11. 11. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 171 Fig 14.8 The proposed hierarchy of settlements Fig 14.9 The proposed Road network Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  12. 12. 172 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissurporation for higher order facilities. Considering the ser- nut oil extraction, food processing units etc. Also wevice area of the first order settlement, Thrissur Munici- have rich potential in information technology andpal Corporation shows the clear primacy. As far as the knowledge based industry, textiles & garments, plasticlinkage between the first order settlement and second & gem and jewelry etc.order settlement is concerned, there is already exist a The function of the LSGs is determined by com-radial pattern of roads which support the planning con- bining the effect of activity pattern which is alreadycept of road network for a settlement which is cen- explained in chapter 10 and the zones which are de-trally located. In corporating the spatial distribution of rived from the development concept and real to groundsettlement in the District, the proposed districtl road scenario. The activity pattern of the district shows thatnetwork can be suggested and it is shown in fig 14.9. there exist five major zones which are urban activity,14.7 FUNCTION OF SETTLEMENT agricultural activity non detrimental to forests, primary activity, secondary activity and agricultural & allied ac- Thrissur district has rich potential in primary, sec- tivity. Based on the development concept, Thrissur dis-ondary and tertiary activities. Nearly 25% of the land trict is divided into eight zones which are already de-use in the district is agricultural, indicating that there is scribed above. The various activities in each zone area scope for developing the agriculture sector as one of also well explained. By considering both the activitiesthe economic base of the district. Thrissur district is of development zones & the activity pattern of district,also blessed with Kole lands which are rice granaries. it is seen that there is not much difference in the func-The major crops in the district are paddy, tapioca, rub- tion of a LSGs.ber, ginger, cashew, tea, coconut, arecanut etc. Majorindustrial sectors are handloom, khadi handloom, pot- There are seven major classifications are donetery tiles, wood based units, rubber based units, coco- for determining the function of a LSGs. There are as Fig 14.10 Funtion of settlementDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  13. 13. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 173follows erate the declining trend of the growth rate of popula- tion through the maximum optimal utilization of re- 1. Tertiary activity which is similar to urban activity sources available in the district and developing the pro- area duction sector along with other sectors such as animal 2. Primary activity husbandry, industrial and tourism etc as one of major 3. Primary activity – Agricultural the economic bases of the district. At the same time 4. Primary activity – Plantation this will not interfere with the protection of natural 5. Agricultural activity non detrimental to forests resources and environmental sensitive areas. Mani- 6. Agricultural activity + Animal Husbandry activity festly, optimum utilization of the resources in the Dis- which is similar to agricultural & allied activity trict will have reflection in the future occupational struc- 7. Agricultural activity + Animal Husbandry activity ture and future population of the District. + Small scale industrial activity which is similar to secondary activity area. From the development concept, Thrissur district The major functions of each LSGs in the district is is divided into eight development zones. They are asshown in figure 14.10. follows14.8 PROJECTION OF POPULATION 1. Environmental Concern Zone. 2. Intensive Agricultural Zone Population growth of an area depends on num-bers of births, death, in migrants and out migrants over 3. Economic Development Corridor (EDC)a time period taken for the population projection. If 4. Accelerated growth zone - Industrialone can predict the exact future values of all these fac- 5. Accelerated growth zone - Institutionaltors, population projection of that area can be done 6. Accelerated growth zone - Marinevery accurately. 7. Multifunctional zone I Thrissur district shows an increasing trend in the 8. Multifunctional zone IIpopulation figures during the period 1981-2001. But at Each development zone has its own develop-the same time the growth rate of population is decreas- ment potential and this has to be taken into account ining during 1981-2001. The spatial development plan of ascertaining the future occupational structure, popula-Thrissur district envisage the planned sustainable de- tion and its distribution within the district. Another fac-velopment of Thrissur district with optimum utilization tor to be considered in the projection of occupationalof resources, planned diversification of economic ac- structure and population distribution is the projectedtivities to trigger the local economic growth, genera- urban scenario of the District. The urban populationtion of better opportunities, balanced development, content of Thrissur District will increase to 29.8% byequitable spatial distribution of facilities and thus to 2021 from the value of 18.13% in 2001. It is projectedimprove the quality of life. The development goal also that 11 rural LSGs, will attain urban status by the end ofenvisage to develop the district as an eco-friendly and the plan period. The population in the district is to beeconomically vibrant region in the state. Obliviously so redistributed (to the possible extent) that it has morethe programs and projects developed and imple- concentration in multifunctional zones, acceleratedmented based on this planning concept will attract more growth zone and economic development corridor, lesspopulation to the district in terms of creation of new concentration in intensive agricultural zone and lest inand better paid employment opportunities, access to environmental concern zone.facilities and so forth. Hence the main intention of thespatial development plan of Thrissur district is regen- The nature of the each development zone and Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  14. 14. 174 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissurhow they make impressions on the occupational struc- zone. Hence a population growth rate slightly higherture and population growth rate is discussed hereun- than the natural growth rate can be envisaged in thisder. zone. Environmental concern zone includes the natu- Economic development corridor has profoundral forests, environmentally sensitive ‘kole’ lands, the implication in terms of good transportation linkagescoastal zone and inland water bodies of the district. In with sea port, airport, nearest urban centre etc. ThisThrissur district the environmental sensitive areas are zone has got wide influence region in terms of employ-more concentrated in the eastern region where forest ment generated, raw resources utilized and productsis more concentrated. Any activity that causes defores- marketed. For that reasons we can expect floatingtation shall not be permitted in this area. Agriculture population for a period of time. Also it is located nearand allied activity non detrimental to forests can be the intensive agricultural zone and accelerated growthpromoted as supporting activity in this zone while de- zone and also it is well connected to multifunctionforestation, wet land reclamation, industrialization, zones. More over this zone is mainly to provide infra-urbanisation etc will be restricted here. Hence an en- structure and other facilities so as to generate devel-hanced growth in population and work force is not ex- opment impulses to the scale and as such is not sup-pected in this zone. Only natural growth in population posed to create high density residential population. Itand slight increase in agricultural work force can be is perceived that the major chunk of floating popula-expected. tion in this zone may likely to settle in the hinterland as well as nearby urban centers within and outside the Intensive agricultural zone is suitable for the in- district. So we can expect a slight enhancement in thetensive cultivation of crops like Paddy, Coconut, population. Also an increase in service sector workersArecanut, Nutmeg, Plantain, Banana etc. and also for and industrial workers.agro based industries like food processing units, coirindustry etc. In this zone providing agricultural infra- Accelerated growth zone (Industrial) should en-structure like wholesale markets, seed centers, ware- hance the small scale and house hold industrial activi-housing facilities etc for supporting the agriculture ac- ties which support value addition of agriculture, fish-tivities shall be given priority. This zone is also suitable eries and marine products. This zone can also accom-for promoting animal husbandry related activities, modate supporting industries which enhance the in-servise sector activities which support primary sector dustrial activity in the Economic Development Corri-key activities envisaged in this zone and industrial ac- dor. Secondary workers are more concentrated in thattivities (mainly small scale) which enhance the value area, so we can expect high enhanced growth rate ofaddition of the production from this zone. This will bring population.more cultivators and agricultural laborers into this zone. Accelerated growth zone (Institutional) shouldConsequently there will be increase in growth rate of enhance the social infrastructure facilities includingpopulation in this zone along with increase in agricul- hospitals, health institutions and educational facilities.tural workers. The increase in the workforce will mainly The zone is located near to the Intensive Agriculturalbe in primary sector- i.e. agriculture sector. However zone, so agro based industries can be promoted, to athe growth of the population in this zone is limited to certain extent in this zone. Here also we can expect athe extent that the attraction of further population to slight enhanced growth. Also service sectoral workersthis zone is enhanced only after satisfying the demands are more concentrated in that area.of the present population and its natural growth in this Accelerated growth zone (Marine) zone is locatedDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  15. 15. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 175in the coastal region of Thrissur district. This zone pro- cupational structure in each development zone is sum-motes service sector activities and industrial sector marized in table 14.1.which enhance the fisheries and allied activities. The 14.8.1 Projection of decadal population growthzone has immense potential with House Hold Indus- ratetrial activities in connection with fisheries, marine al-lied activities and also tourism potential. So we can Decadal growth rate of population of Thrissur dis-expect high enhanced growth in this zone. The main trict is 8.66% as per 2001 census which is less than thework participation rate contributed from House Hold average growth rate of 9.42% of the State. Trend basedand Service sectors. population projection is explained in chapter 3 by two methods namely decreasing rate method and appor- The multifunction zones where urban activities tionment method. The projected total population inincluding higher order educational, health care facili- 2011 and 2021 is taken as average of these two valuesties and transportation network copping up with the obtained in the above two methods.requirements are available. This zone will act as a ser-Table 14.1: Zone wise impact on population growth rate and occupation structure No Zone Impact on population growth Impact on occupational structure 1 Environmental concern zone Only natural growth Slight increase in cultivators & agricultural labourers 2 Intensive agricultural zone Enhanced growth Increase in cultivators & agricultural labourers 3 Economic Development Corridor moderate Enhanced growth Increase in industrial & service sector (EDC) workers 4 Accelerated growth zone - Industrial High enhanced growth Increase in secondary workers & industrial workers 5 Accelerated growth zone - Slight Enhanced growth Increase in industrial & service sector Institutional workers 6 Accelerated growth zone - Marine High enhanced growth Increase in HH & service sector workers 7 Multifunctional zone I High enhanced growth Increase in tertiary workers 8 Multifunctional zone II High enhanced growth Increase in tertiary workersvice centre for the entire district. For that reason we The population growth rate of 2011 and 2021 iscan expect a high enhanced growth in this region and given in the table 14.2. From the table, it is clear that thethe tertiary workers are more concentrated in that area. growth rate is 6.03% during 2001- 2011 and 4.21% during 2011- 2021. The average figure of 5% can be assumed as The effect of growth rate of population and oc- the lower limit of the accelerated population growth Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  16. 16. 176 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissurrate during the plan period, assuming that the induced Kodungallur – Paravur – Ernakulam (SH-22 & NH -17)development will push up the population growth rate corridors. The areas of some localbodies are not com-above the trend based projected value. pletely included in this zone. But the effect of influ- ence due to this zone is fully covered by that LSGs. For The temporal variation of the population growth getting more clarified picture about the influence ofrate of the district as well as that of state shows a de- the development due to this zone, we take the entireclining trend. So the future accelerated population area and population of these LSGs in this zone. The samegrowth rate of the district should be less than the cur- is also done in the case of accelerated growth zones.Table 14.2: Population growth rate – Projected (Trend Based) Year Total population Population Growth rate 1971 2,128,877 1981 2,439,633 14.6 1991 2,737,311 12.2 2001 2,974,232 8.66 2011 3,153,564 6.03 2021 3,286,439 4.21rent population growth rate of 8.66%. It can be assumed The percentage of area of Economic Development Cor-that the accelerated future population growth rate of ridor (EDC) is only 13.05% and it shows 15.67% popula-Thrissur will be between 5% and 8.66%. The actual value tion where we expect slight enhanced growth. In theof population growth rate depends on the extent of similar manner we can expect slight enhanced growtharea and the population comes under various zones. in Accelerated growth zone – Institutional where theThe zone wise population and area (2001) is shown in area (5.48%) of zone is very less and the populationTable 14.3. (7.64%) corresponding to area is high. In Multifunction zones where we expect high enhanced growth, nearly From the table, the agriculture zone shows both 20% population is distributed in only 7% area of thethe maximum percentage of population (28.56%) and district which clearly indicates the multifunctional de-area (44.71%) where we are expecting a slight enhanced velopment potential of that zone in various sectors.growth above the natural growth rate. In the economic As a whole 96% population is distributed in 85% of areadevelopment corridor we consider the Thrissur – of the district where we expect enhanced growth.Ernakulam (NH-47) and Thrissur – Irinjalkkuda –Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  17. 17. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 177Table 14.3: Zone wise population and area (2001) No Zone Impact on population Total Population % of Population Total Area % of Area w.r.t growth 2001 w.r.t district District 1 Environmental concern zone Only natural growth 105188 3.54 430.28 14.16 2 Intensive agriculturalzone Enhanced growth 849296 28.56 1358.78 44.71 3 Economic Development Corridor Moderate Enhanced 465897 15.67 (EDC) growth 396.64 13.05 4 Accelerated growth zone - High enhanced growth 296892 Industrial 9.98 230.05 7.57 5 Accelerated growth zone - Slight Enhanced growth 227085 Institutional 7.64 166.44 5.48 6 Accelerated growth zone - Marine High enhanced 473733 growth 15.93 244.34 8.04 7 Multifunctional zone I High enhanced growth 317526 10.68 101.42 3.34 8 Multifunctional zone II High enhanced growth 238407 8.02 111.02 3.65 It is clear that most of the population is distrib- is to be known. This is calculated hereunder.uted in the zones where enhanced growth is anticipated The average annual birth rate and death rate inas per the development concept. Thus the population 2001 in Thrissur District are 18.51 and 7.34 respectivelygrowth rate for these zones will be near to the upper for 1000 population. [Source of Data: Vital Statisticslimit of the deduced population growth rate range of 5 Bulletin 2001, Directorate of Economics and Statistics,- 8.66. The actual value of population growth rate, in Thiruvananthapuram]. This implies that the naturalbetween 5% and 8.66%, depends mainly on the migra- growth rate for the period 1991-2001 will be 18.51 –tion pattern of population due to the development sce- 7.34 = 11.17 %.nario visualized in the development concept assumingbirth rate and death follows the same pattern of the Projected population of 2001, taking into accountyester years. the natural growth component alone is (Population in 1991 as per census is 2737311) Population 2021= Population 2001+ {Birth – Death+ In migration – Out migration} during two decades. Population of 2001 =2737311+ 0.1117 xi.e., Population 2021= Population 2001+ (Population 2737311=30430692001 x future birth rate) - (Population in 2001 x future But as per 2001 census, Population of District inDeath Rate) + (Future in migrants) - (Future out mi- 2001 is 2974232 which take into account the total num-grants) ber of births, deaths, in migration and out migration In order to ascertain the migration trend in fu- taken place in the district during 1991-2001 periods. Theture, the existing scenario of migration (from 1991-2001) difference between the two population figures ac- Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  18. 18. 178 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissurcounts for the net migration which has taken place dur- 14.8.2. DISTRIBUTION OF PROJECTED POPULATIONing this period. AMONG THE DEVELOPMENT ZONES. The difference is negative (i.e. 2974232-3043069= The projected population is distributed in vari--68837), indicating that there is out migration during ous zones by considering the following factors.the period 1991-2001. Percentage wise, it is 2.5% of the 1. Existing population growth ratetotal population of 1991. 2. The trend based projected population growth As per the Development Concept, 90% of the ratepopulation of the district lives in the zones of enhanced 3. The type of development in each zone as pergrowth rate. Hence, a reversal in the above trend is development conceptexpected. Instead of the net migration being out mi-gration at present, in migration is expected. There is all Considering the growth rate scenario of the dis-the probability that the net migration will become zero trict, it shows a declining trend during 1981- 2001. Theby the end of the plan period. This means that, during population growth rate is more concentrated in the midthe plan period, there will be in migration of 68837 per- – up land and coastal region in 1991 and in 2001 thesons. It is 2.3% of the total population of district in 2001. growth rate is more concentrated in mid land region only. The decadal growth rate of various zones is shown The trend based growth rate of population in in table 14.5. From the table it is clear that the growth Table 14.4: Projected growth rate (Induced) – 2021 of the district Year 1991 2001 2011 2021 G.R 12.2 8.66 7.5 6.512011- 2021 decade will be 4.21% shown in table14.2. rate of Multifunction zone I is 8.38% in 2001 and it showsThe assumption is that the existing trend in birth rate, decreasing trend in future. But the percentage of de-death rate and migration will continue. But the Devel- crease is not too large. But considering the Multifunc-opment Plan visualizes a change in pattern of migra- tion zone II, the growth rate is decreased to 1.55% fromtion as discussed above. By taking this into account the 5.87% where we have to enhance the population growthfuture population growth is calculated as follows. rate to some extent as per development concept. This may be due to the fact that the percentage of decrease Adding the net percentage of migrants to the in growth rate is high in the previous decades. But sometrend based decadal growth rate of population in 2021, of the LSGs cover the Multifunction zone II is raised toexpected population growth rate (accelerated growth) urban criteria in future, so it will help to increase thein 2021 comes to be 6.51% (4.21+2.3). (ie within the growth rate in that region. Thus we can expect a highrange of 5 - 8.66 and towards the upper side of the enhanced growth rate in that region. As a whole, therange). The population growth rate during 2001-2011 is LSGs cover the multifunction zones show a positiveinterpolated as 7.5%. The projected population growth trend in the growth rate which implies the future de-rates (induced) are shown in Table 14.4 and Figure 14.11. velopment in that zone. As per the development concept, various activi-Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  19. 19. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 179 Fig 14.11 Projected growth rate (Induced) of the district Table 14.5: zone wise growth rate –Trend based No Zone Impact on Decadal G.R 1991- Trend based decadal G.R population growth 2001 2021 1 Environmental concern Only natural growth zone 9.02 4.05 2 Intensive agricultural zone Enhanced growth 9.73 4.98 3 Economic Development Moderate Corridor (EDC) Enhanced growth 8.60 4.07 4 Accelerated growth zone - High enhanced Industrial growth 10.58 4.83 5 Accelerated growth zone - Slight Enhanced Institutional growth 12.39 7.59 6 Accelerated growth zone - High enhanced Marine growth 5.52 0.72 7 Multifunctional zone I High enhanced growth 8.38 5.65 8 Multifunctional zone II High enhanced growth 5.87 1.55 Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  20. 20. 180 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissurties which contributing the development is limited to slight decreasing trend. The high value of growth ratesome extent in Environmental concern zone due to prior of population in 2001 clearly indicates the developmentimportance given to the protection of natural resources of that area through service activities. The same pat-and environment sensitive area. So we can expect only tern is also seen in the case of accelerated growth zonenatural growth of population in the zone. The growth – Industrial and Economic Development Corridor (EDC).rate of environmental concern zone in 2001 is 9.02% The growth rates of accelerated growth zone – Indus-which is comes to the fourth place when considering trial and Economic Development Corridor (EDC) arethe growth rate in various zones. The high value of 10.58% and 8.60% respectively in 2001. And it is reducedgrowth rate is due to the positive growth rate shown by to 4.83% and 4.07 respectively in 2021. As per develop-the some Grama Panchayat which cover the zone where ment concept also, we expect enhancement in theplantation related primary activity are predominant. growth rate of these zones to utilize the potential ofConsidering the trend, it is reduced to 4.05% in 2021. urban activities. The growth rate of intensive agricultural zone is We have to calculate the induced growth rate of9.73 in 1991-2001. But considering the trend of the popu- 2021 by considering the impact on population growthlation growth rate of LSGs included in that zone, it show rate derived based on development concept, growthhigh decreasing trend. Based on that the projected rate of 1991-2001 periods and trend based decadalpopulation growth rates become 4.98% in 2021. In view growth rate 2021. Considering the environmental con-of envisaged intensive agricultural activity and allied cern zone, where the trend based growth rate in 2021 isactivities in this zone, we have to enhance the growth 4.05%. As per the development concept, various activi-rate of that zone to some extent for the future devel- ties which contributing the development is limited toopment through agriculture sector. However a high some extent in Environmental concern zone due to priorgrowth rate of population is not expected in this zone. importance given to the protection of natural resources and environment sensitive area. Hence the trend based In similar manner the growth rate of accelerated growth rate of 4.05% in 2021 will remain in that zone.growth zone – Marine (5.52%) is also show the high We are not providing any enhancement of populationdecreasing trend. This is due to the fact that the popu- in that area.lation growth rate of coastal region during the period1981-1991 comes in the range 15-20% which shows the In the case of intensive agricultural zone, thestrength of the economic base once existed in there growth rate in 2001 is 9.73% and in 2021 it is reduced toand when comes in 1991-2001, growth rate of popula- 4.98%. But as per development concept, we providetion in coastal region is decreased in the range 5 – 10%. enhanced growth in that zone. The induced growth rateBut as per development concept, this zone is promoted of intensive agricultural zone in 2021 will be less thanfor service sector and industrial sector activities which 9.73% and more than 4.98%. It is assumed that an aver-enhance the fisheries and allied activities and utilizing age growth rate of 6% which is slightly less than aver-the potential of coastal line. Also we can promote eco age of the above two values (9.73% and 4.98%) will at-friendly tourism. Hence we have to enhance the popu- tain within two decades.lation growth rate in the zone to achieve the develop- In the case of economic development corridorment through a strong economic base. (EDC), the growth rate in 2001 is 8.6% and in 2021 it is The growth rates of accelerated growth zone – reduced to 4.07%. But as per development concept, weInstitutional show high growth rate (12.39%) in 2001.The provide moderate enhanced growth in that zone. Thetrend based growth rate in 2021 is 7.59% and it show induced growth rate of EDC in 2021 will be less thanDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  21. 21. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 1818.6% and more than 4.07%. It is assumed that an aver- reduced to 7.59%. But as per development concept, weage growth rate of 7% which is slightly more than aver- provide slight enhanced growth in this zone. Consider-age of the above two values (8.6% and 4.07%) will at- ing the fact of enhancement in growth rate, the inducedtain within two decades. growth rate of Accelerated growth zone - Institutional in 2021 will be less than 12.39% and more than 7.59%. It In the case of Accelerated growth zone - Indus- is assumed that an average growth rate of 9.3% which istrial, the growth rate in 2001 is 10.58% and in 2021 it is slightly less than average of the above two valuesreduced to 4.83%. But as per development concept, we (9.73% and 4.98%) will attain within two decades.provide high enhanced growth in this zone. The inducedgrowth rate of Accelerated growth zone - Industrial in In the case of Accelerated growth zone – Marine2021 will in the range 4.83-10.58. Due to the high en- and Multifunctional zones, we are expecting high en-hanced growth, it is assumed an average growth rate of hanced growth rate in 2021. Due to the high enhanced10.58% which is the upper limit of the range will attain growth, it is assumed an average growth rate of 5.52%,within two decades. 8.38% and 5.87% which is the upper limit of the range in each zone will attain within two decades in Acceler- In the case of Accelerated growth zone - Institu- ated growth zone – Marine, Multifunction zone I andtional, the growth rate in 2001 is 12.39% and in 2021 it is Multifunction zone II respectively.Table 14.6: Zone wise induced growth rate No Zone Impact on population Decadal G.R Trend based decadal Range of Induced Average Induced growth 1991-2001 growth rate 2021 growth rate – growth rate 2021– Projected Projected 1 Environmentalconcern zone Only natural growth 4.05 9.02 4.05 4.05 2 Intensive agricultural zone Enhanced growth 6 9.73 4.98 9.73 – 4.98 3 Economic Development Moderate Enhanced 7 Corridor (EDC) growth 8.60 4.07 8.6 – 4.07 4 Accelerated growth zone - High enhanced growth 10.58 Industrial 10.58 4.83 10.58 – 4.83 5 Accelerated growth zone - Slight Enhanced growth 9.3 Institutional 12.39 7.59 12.39 – 7.59 6 Accelerated growth zone - High enhanced 5.52 Marine growth 5.52 0.72 5.52 – 0.72 7 Multifunctional zone I High enhanced growth 8.38 8.38 5.65 8.38 8 Multifunctionalzone II High enhanced growth 5.87 5.87 1.55 5.87 Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  22. 22. 182 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissur The trend based population growth rate and av- period 2001-11 & 2011-2021. And it is given in table 14.7.erage induced population growth rate is calculated zone Zone wise population based on the projected in-wise and it is given in Table 14.6. duced growth rate is shown in Table 14.8. The table 14.6 gives the average growth rate of The change in scenario of the population distri-each zone which will attain within two decades. And it bution within district due to projected population isis well explained that the induced growth rate of dis- depicted by the change in zone wise percentage oftrict in 2011 and 2021 is 7.5% and 6.51% respectively. By population. It is shown in Table 14.9. From the table it isincorporating the above facts, the average growth rate clear that the percentage of population does not showof each zone can be extrapolated to growth rate for theTable 14.7: Zone wise population in 2021 No Zone Impact on population Average Induced Induced growth Induced growth growth growth rate 2021– rate 2001-2011 rate 2011-2021 Projected 1 Environmentalconcern zone Only natural growth 4.05 5.50 4.05 2 Intensive agriculturalzone Enhanced growth 6 6.50 5.50 3 Economic Development Moderate Enhanced 7 Corridor(EDC) growth 7.50 6.50 4 Accelerated growth zone - High enhanced growth 10.58 Industrial 11.08 10.08 5 Accelerated growth zone - Slight Enhanced 9.3 Institutional growth 9.80 8.80 6 Accelerated growth zone - High enhanced 5.52 Marine growth 6.02 5.02 7 Multifunctional zone I High enhanced growth 8.38 8.88 7.88 8 Multifunctional zone II High enhanced growth 5.87 6.37 5.37Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  23. 23. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 183much variation in the zones. It is slightly increasing in zones. And it is decreasing in environmental concernMultifunction zones, and some accelerated growth zones and intensive agricultural zone.Table 14.8: Zone wise population based on projected induced growth rate Table 14.9: Percentage of population in 2001& 2021 Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  24. 24. 184 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissur Consider the percentage of increase in popula- increase is more than 15% in Accelerated growth zonetion density for getting clearer picture about the pro- – Industrial (22.28%), Multifunctional zone I (17.46%)jected population which is given in each zone. The popu- and Accelerated growth zone - Institutional (19.46%).lation density of various zones is given in table 14.10. The percentage of increase is more than 10% in the restConsidering the percentage of increase in population of the zones except Environmental concern zonedensity, it is seen that the percentage of increase is (9.77%). The Population density variation is shown inmaximum in Accelerated growth zone – Industrial figure 14.12. This shows a population distribution sup-(22.28%) and the percentage of increase is least in En- ports with the development concept.vironmental concern zone (9.77%). The percentage of Table 14.10: Population Density – Zone wiseDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  25. 25. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 185 Fig 14.12 Zone wise Population Density14.8.2.1 Distribution of projected population From the figure it is clear that growth rate is moreamong LSGs concentrated in the central region and mid upland area The LSGs wise distribution of growth rate of of the district. It covers the multifunction zone I andpopulation in 2021 based on the trend wise analysis is accelerated growth zones. There are four LSGsshown in figure14.13. (Mattathur Grama Panchayat, Melur Grama Panchayat, Kolazhi Grama Panchayat, Anthikkad Grama Panchayat) Figure 14.13 G.R of population 2021-trend based Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  26. 26. 186 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissur Figure 14.14 G.R of population 2021-Acceleratedshowing growth rate more than 15. Nine LSGs showing range more than 15 and all are located near the Multi-growth rate in the range 10-15 and ten LSGs are in the function zones. Eight LSGs showing growth rate in therange 5-10. The rest of the LSGs (76 in no) showing range 10-15 which are in the accelerated growth zones.growth rate less than 5. In the intensive agriculture zone In the trend wise analysis, only ten LSGs are havingand accelerated growth zone marine are having growth growth rate in the range 5-10 and it is increased to 39rate less than 5. The growth rate of Multifunction zone LSGs while considering the induced projected growthII also showing less growth rate in the trend based analy- rate. The rest of 45 LSGs show a growth rate less than 5.sis. Out of 99 LSGs in the district, 76 LSGs having growthrate less than 5 which cover the agricultural zone and 14.9. PROJECTION OF WORK FORCEaccelerated growth zone (Marine) and some industrial The analysis of the occupational structure of thezone area. District (Chapter 4) shows a very alarming situation about the economic base of the district. The produc- The LSGs wise distribution of growth rate of popu- tion sectors including agriculture shows declining trendlation in 2021 based on induced growth rate analysis is in the district. Meanwhile service sector shows growthshown in figure 14.14. From the figure it is clear that both in urban and rural areas. The occupational struc-growth rate is more concentrated in the central region, ture also reveals that the secondary sector also takes amid upland area and some coastal regions of the dis- determinant role in the district’s economy. More thantrict. In the trend wise analysis, only four LSGs are hav- 50% of the population depends on the service / sec-ing growth rate more than 15. But when the growth ondary sector for their lively hood. It is observed thatrate is accelerated there are seven LSGs come in theDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  27. 27. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 187rural areas of the district are slowly withdrawing from LSGS and the tertiary workers are more concentrated inprimary sector and started depending more on the ser- and around the urban areas.vice sector. The boundary distinguishing the character The existing trend of work participation rate andof rural and urban areas is narrowing down. It is clear existing occupational structure of the District are ana-that primary workers are more concentrated in high land lyzed in Chapter 4. The existing work participation andregion and some mid land LSGS. Secondary workers are occupational structure is shown in Figure 14.15 and Fig-concentrated in the mid land region and some coastal ure 14.16 respectively. Fig 14.15: Work participation rate (Existing) Fig 14.16: Occupational Structure (Existing) Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  28. 28. 188 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissur The Work Participation Rate (WPR) of Thrissur Malappuram district has the lowest work participationDistrict from 1981 to 2001 is shown in figure 14.15. WPR rate (24%). The work participation rate of Thrissur Dis-is increased by 8.40 % from 1981 to 2001. If the same trict is equals to that of the state (ie 32%) in 2001). Thattrend is continued, work participation rate at the end means, out of the total population of 29.74 lakhs, 9.55of the plan period (2021) will be about 33.26. (Figure lakhs are workers.14.17). As per the likely impact in the occupational struc- But the proposed developments (as per devel- ture due to future developments (Table 14.11), increaseopment concept) will open up new avenues of employ- in work force is expected in 7 out of the 8 development Fig 14.17 projected WPR – Trend basedment and consequently there will be enhanced work zones. This will surely increase the WPR significantlyparticipation rate. Just like in the case of population well above the trend based projected WPR of 33.26%.projection, the trend based projected WPR can be taken It is accepted that a WPR of 40% indicates a well offas the lower limit of the work participation rate at the society as far as the job opportunities are concerned.end of the plan period, on the assumption that the ac- The present WPR of Thrissur District is only 32.12% andcelerated WPR will be higher than this. attaining a WPR of 40% by two decades is very difficult. The WPR of the surrounding Districts shows (Figure The work participation rate of Kerala is 32% as 14.18) a maximum value of 34% (in Palakkad andper 2001 census. As per census 2001, the work partici- Ernakulam District). The WPR of the State as per 2001pation rate of Idukki district is maximum (43%) andTable 14.11 Projection of WPR –Thrissur DistrictDepartment of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  29. 29. District Spatial Plan - Thrissur TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT 189 Fig 14.18: WPR of Districts surrounding to Thrissurcensus is only 32.3%. Considering all these a WPR of in the WPR.36% is targeted (2.74% above the lower limit of 33.26%)as the WPR for future population of Thrissur District. 14.9.1 Zone wise distribution of WPR Zone wise distribution of WPR based on 2001 cen- The projected WPR of the District is given in Table sus data is shown in Table 14.12.14.11 and Figure 14.19 by assuming a uniform increase Fig 14.19: Projection of WPR –Thrissur District Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala
  30. 30. 190 TENTATIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT District Spatial Plan - Thrissur Table 14.12: Zone wise WPR - 2001 The existing scenario of WPR shows that WPR is Consider the Multifunction zone I and Acceler-more in the environmental concern zone (33.72) and ated growth zones, they have WPR less than even in-least in the Accelerated growth zone-Marine (26.92). tensive agricultural zone. From the analysis of occupa-Intensive agricultural zone also shows WPR greater than tional structure, it is very clear that WPR of the urbanmultifunction zone and Accelerated growth zones. area is equal to that of the rural area indicates a uni- form picture about the number of job opportunities The environmental concern zone is rural in na- created in urban and rural areas against the popularture and primary workers are more concentrated in that belief that urban area creates more job opportunities.region. But the primary activity non detrimental to na- This trend has to be changed in such a way that urbanture is only allowed in that region as per the develop- area creates more job opportunities. Otherwise it willment concept. As per the present scenario, WPR is high- affect the environmental and economical sustainabilityest in that zone. But we cannot provide a high WPR of a region. There will be migration of people from ur-considering the development concept derived and in ban to rural areas resulting in the possible destructionview of environmental and economical sustainability of the resources like agricultural area, water bodies andof a region. environmentally sensitive areas in the rural area for WPR of Economic Development Corridor (EDC) is residential purpose and thus destroying the economicslightly more than intensive agricultural zone. The ser- base of the District.vice activities are mainly concentrated in Economic Table 14.13 shows the combined average WPR -Development Corridor (EDC). So we can expect a high zone wise of the District. In this Accelerated growthWPR as per development concept in that zone.Department of Town & Country Planning, Kerala

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