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Official book of Kizhakekara kudumbam.

Official book of Kizhakekara kudumbam.

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Official Book Document Transcript

  • 1. i Ing-t°-°cIpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 2. iiName of the BookKizhakkekara Kudumbacharithram(History of Kizhakkekara Family)WrittenMalayalam K.T. Thomas, Mob: 9447139489English K.C. Mani, Mob: 09542029226Editorial BoardChief Editor: K.T. ThomasSub EditorsJohney GeorgeDr. Jose FrancisK.V. MammenK.C. ManiPublished on: 08.10.2011Published by:The President & SecretaryKizhakkekara KudumbayogamKizhathadiyoor P. O.PalaD.T.P. & Lay Out & PrintingPrintech Multi Color Press,ThodupuzhaPh: 227191President : Prof. Jose JosephSecretary: K.T. ThomasFor Private Circulation only
  • 3. iii ka¿∏Wwc‡w hnb¿∏m°n cm]-Iset∂y A≤zmn®v, ∑-bpsS hnØp-Iƒ hnX-®p-sIm-bvXv,-IpSpw-_sØ imtJm-]-im-J-I-fm°n hf¿Øn hmKvZm--tZ-i-tØbv°v t]mb ]q¿∆o-I¿°v Cu IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw ka¿∏n-°p-∂p.
  • 4. iv Xmfp-Iƒ adn-°p-tºmƒ....1 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_ ]cn-]m-e--tbmKw 12 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmK n_-‘-Iƒ 53 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_ ]cn-]m-e DS-ºSn 94 Kizhakkekaras of Palai (Kerala) 145 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw 406 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_w 517 X´m≥]-d-ºn¬ imJ 538 Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn imJ 659 Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ imJ 9110 ]pØ≥]p-c-°¬ Xd-hmSv 15011 ]oSn-I-bn¬ IpSpw_w 18512 ]oSnI ssIXh-b-en¬ 20713 Be-°¬ IpSpw_w 24314 Ingt° Be-°¬ hmI-bm-n-bn¬ imJ 24715 hmIm-n-bn¬ Iqºp-°¬imJ 25116 ]Sn-™msd Be-°¬ hmIm-n-bn¬ imJ 26317 hmIm-n-bn¬ s√n-ae imJ 27118 hmIm-n-bn¬ sIm®p-a-‰-Øn¬ imJ 27519 Be-°¬ imJ 29320 Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ IpSpw_w Cfw-tXm-´-Øn¬ h¿°n 31521 ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ Xmsg sXmΩ≥ sshZy≥ 32722 Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ imJ 34923 Xmg-tØ-ho-´n¬ imJ 35524 A{U€v 398
  • 5. BapJw {io.sI.-‰n.-tXm-akv sk{I-´dn Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbm-Kw, ]me ‘kvacW Ah-ti-jn-∏n-°msX ad-™p-t]m-b-h-cp-≠v, Pohn-°p-Itbm Pn-°p-I-t]m-eptam sNbvXn-s√∂v tXm∂p-amdv Ah¿ a¨a-d-™p, F∂m¬ Ah¿ Imcp-Wy-ap-≈-h-cm-bn-cp-∂p, Ah-cpsS kXv{]-h¿Øn-Iƒ hnkva-cn-°-s∏-´n-√, Ah-cpsS sFizcyw ]n≥Km-an-I-fnepw Ah-cpsS Ah-Imiw a°-fpsS a°-fnepw ne-n¬°pw, Ah-cpsS `mhn-X-e-ap-d-Iƒ Ft∂bv°pw ne-n-ev°pw.’ Ch hnip- ≤ - { K- Ÿ - Ø nse {]`m- j - I s‚ hm°p- I - f mWv .ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Ønepw Cu hm°p-Iƒ°v hf-sc-b-[n-Iw {]m[m-y-ap-≠v. BIm-i-Ønse Xmcm-K-W-ßfpw Bgn-bnse aW¬Ø-cn-I-fpw-t]mse FÆn-bm¬ Xocm-Ø-hn[w Zn-cm-{X-߃ h∂p-t]m-Ip-∂p. EXp°ƒ amdn-h-cp-∂-Xp-t]mse Xe-ap-d-Ifpw amdp∂p. kqcy-N-{µ-∑m¿ hen-°p∂ ka-bcYØnse kl-bm-{Xn-Icmb mw `qan-bnse - - - -G‰-hpw hnin-jvS-amb IpSpw_w F∂ kvtls]mbvI-bn¬ ocm-Sp∂ Ac-b-∂-ß-fm-Wv. 2011 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Øns‚ Ncn-{X-Ønse mgn-I-I-√m-Wv. IpSpw-_-tbmKw AXns‚ iXm_vZn BtLm-jn-°p∂ Cu thf-bn¬ ΩpsS ]q¿∆ ]nXm-al∑msc Hmtcm-cp-Øscbpw G‰hpw BZ- - - -c-]q¿∆w IrX-⁄-X-tbm-sSbpw nd™ kvtl-tØm-sSbpw Ap-kva-cn-°p-∂p.
  • 6. ]≠v Xo≠epw sXmSoepw hfsc Bg-Øn¬ thtcmSn PmXn-hy-hÿ ne-n-∂n-cp∂ ImeØv ]mem tahn-S, ao-®n¬ {]tZ-isØCS-{]-`p-°ƒ tIm´bw aW¿ImSv I√-°-Spº F∂ IpSpw-_-ØnseHcp AwKsØ hym]m-cm-h-iy-߃°mbn tahn-Sbv°v sIm≠p-h-∂-Xmbn hmsam-gn-N-cn-{Xhpw enJn-X-N-cn-{Xhpw ]d-bp-∂p. 10-˛mw q‰m-≠n¬ ]mem-bn-se-Ønb Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Ønse ]q¿∆ ]nXm-a-l-mb Ct±lw Fd-tIm∂n ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®-Xn-m¬ Fd-tIm∂n am∏nf F∂mWv Adn-b-s∏-´-Xv. ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-I¿ Bbn-cw-h¿j-߃°-∏p-dhpw Ipe-a-ln-abpw IpSpw-_alXzhpw ImØp-kq-£n-®hcm-Wv. ]mem-bnse BZy- - - - - -tZ-hm-e-b-amb Ct∏m-gsØ IØo-{U¬]-≈n-bpsS ÿm]-I-cmbmev {][m IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ {]Y-a-ÿmw ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Øn-m-bn-cp∂p F∂Xv CXns‚ sXfnhmWv. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_-Øns‚t]cpw {]i-kvXnbpw {][m--ambpw hym]n-®Xv ]mem Ing-X-Sn-bq¿Xma-kn® sXmΩ-]-Wn-°¿ ]nXm-a-l-n¬ n∂p-am-Wv. Fd-tIm∂nsh´n-°m-´v]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn® C´ns®-dn-b-bpsS Ggv a-°-fn¬Cf-b-]p-{Xpw Ing-X-Sn-bq-cnse {][m hym]m-cnbpw ap-jy-kvt-ln-bp-amb sXmΩ-]Wn-°cpsS Bdv a°-fn¬ c≠m-asØ ]p{X-mb - -sIm®n-´nsF∏ns‚ ]n∑p-d°m-cmWv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ønse mw - -Hmtcm-cpØcpw. sIm®n-´n-sF-∏ns‚ F´v a°-fn¬ ]p{X-∑m-cmbsXmΩ≥, sImt®∏v, C´n-s®dnb F∂n-h-cmWv ΩpsS ]nXm-°-∑m¿. `qan- b nse G‰hpw hnin- j v S hpw kz¿K- k - a m- - h p- a mbIpSpw_-Øns‚ {]m[myw ΩpsS ]nXm-°-∑m¿ a-€n-em-°n-bn-cp-∂p. IpSpw-_mw-K-߃ Hcp-an-®p-n-evt°-≠-Xns‚ Bh-iy-IX Adn-bm-am-bn-cp∂ Ah¿ qdp-h¿j-߃°-∏pdw IpSpw-_cn-]m-etbmKw - - -tN¿∂v DS-ºSn cPn-ÿ sNbvXXv Ah-cpsS sFIy-Øns‚ ZrjvSm-¥-am-Wv. Iq´m-bvabnepw ]¶p-hbv°enepw Ah¿ a‰p-≈h¿°v amXr- - - - -I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. BZy-tbm-K-Øn¬ k∂n-ln-X-cm-bn-cp∂ IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fmb aq∂v sshZn-I-t{i-jvT-scbpw 17 IpSpw-_-ß-fnse ]nXm-°-∑m-scbpw IrX-⁄-Xm-]q¿∆w ChnsS kvacn-°p-∂p. Ing-t°-°cIp-Spw_w iXm-_vZn BtLm-jßfpsS `mK-ambn - - - -IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-{KŸw {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-hm-p≈ Xocp-amw G‰hpwDNn-Xam-bn-. Hcp-h¿jw o≠p-n∂ hnh-cti-JcWØn-p-ti-jamWv - - - - - -Cu {KŸw FgpXn ]q¿Øn-bm-°m≥ km[n®-Xv. ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Øns‚ aqe-{K-ŸI¿Ømhv {io.C´n-sF∏v C´n-sF∏v ]oSnI-bn¬ Fgp- -
  • 7. Xnb {KŸw C√m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ B[n-Im-cn-I-amb Cu {KŸw Fgp-Xp-hm≥ ap°v Ct∏mƒ km[n-°p-I-bn√. hn⁄m--Zm-ln-bpwB¿÷n® Adnhv hcpw-X-e-ap-dbv°v ]I¿∂p--evIm-p≈ k∑--€p-ap≠mbn-cp∂ B [ym-flm-hns µn-]q¿∆w kvacn-°p-∂p.{]kvXpX {KŸ-Øns‚ ssIsø-gp-Øp-{]Xn √ ae-bm-f-Øn-te°vFgpXnam‰nb {io.sI.-sF.-h¿°n ]oSn-I-bn-en-sbpw Ing-t°-°cIpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ Pohm-flm-bn- {]h¿Øn®v nc-h-[n-{]m-hiywIpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ {]kn-U‚m-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw c≠v IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´n-S-߃ n¿Ωn-°p-I-bpw-sNbvX bYm¿∞ IpSpw-_-kvtln{io.sI.-sF.-sXm-Ω≥ ]oSn-I-bnensbpw, IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´nSwn¿Ωn-°p-∂Xn-p≈ ÿew kw`m-h- evInb {io.Cu∏≥ aØmbn - -]pØ≥]p-c-bv°-en-sbpw IrX-⁄-Xm-]q¿∏w kvacn-°p-∂p. Cu IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-{K-Ÿ-Ønv kvtl-]q¿∆w ktµ-iw- -evIn-b- ko-tdmae-_m¿k` taP¿ B¿®p-_n-j∏v am¿ tPm¿÷v Be-t©cn ]nXm-hnpw IpSpw-_mw-K-ßsf hy‡n-]-c-ambn Adn-bp-Ibpwhm’-ey-]q¿∆w Biwk FgpXn evIpIbpw sNbvX ]mem-cq-]Xm_nj∏v am¿ tPmk^v I√-d-ßmSv ]nXm-hnpw ΩpsS {]Ya tZhm-e-b-amb ]mem IØo-{U¬ ]f-fn- hnImcn dh.-^m.-A-eIvkv tImgn-t°m-´nenpw lrZ-b-]q¿∆w µn-]-d-bp-∂p. Hcp-h¿jw o≠p-n∂ Cu {KŸ-Øns‚ cN-m-th-f-bn¬Fs∂ klm-bn-®-h¿ nc-h-[n-bm-Wv. [mcmfw IpSpw-_-ß-fpsS Ncn-{X-߃ Fgp-Xn-bn-´p≈ {io.kntPm Ie-b-¥m-n, IpSpw-_-tbmKwtemtKm hc-®p- -evInb {io.kÆn Nne-ºn-Ip-t∂¬, IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ BZy-`mKw Cw•o-jn¬ Xøm-dm-°nb {io.sI.-kn.-amWnBe-bv°¬ (ssl-{Zm-_m-Zv), k_v FUn-t‰-gvkm-bn- Fs∂ klm-bn® {io.tPmWn tPm¿÷v Cfw-tXm-´w, {io.tUm.-tPmkv {^m≥kokvssItXm- e n¬, {io.sI.- h n.- a m- Ω ≥ Cu¥p- ¶ - ¬ ]- I p- X n- b n¬,{io.tPmWn tXmakv ]oSnI ssItXm-en¬, {io.km_p tPmk^vssItXm-en¬ (t{]m{Kmw IΩ‰n I¨ho-¿), tUm.-sI.-Fw.-F-Ωm-p-h¬ (Hm¿K-ss-knwKv IΩ‰n I¨ho-¿), iXm_vZn BtLm-j-I-Ω‰n AwK-߃, IpSpw-_-tbm-K-I-Ω‰n AwK-߃, Fn°v F√m-hn[ ]n¥p-Wbpw t{]m’m-lhpw ¬Inb _lp. {]kn-U‚ vs{]m^. tPmkv tPmk-^npw Cu {KŸ-Øns‚ UnSn]n, {]n‚nwKvtPmen-Iƒ `wKn-bmbn n¿∆-ln® sXmSp-]pg {]n≥sSIv {]kv Poh--°m¿°pw amt-Pvsa‚npw µn -]-d-bp-∂p.
  • 8. hfsc {ia-Icamb Cu DZy-aØn¬ sX‰p-Iƒ hcm-Xn-cn-°m≥ - - -Ign-hns‚ ]c-am-h[n {ian-®n-´p-≠v. {]n‚nw-Knv t]mIp-∂-Xp-h-scbpw{i≤-bn¬s]´ sX‰pIƒ Xncp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. C-nbpw It≠-°m-hp∂sX‰p-Iƒ ktlm-Z-c-a--€m¬ £an-°-W-sa∂v At]£n-°p-∂p. Cu Ncn-{X-{KŸw ap°v ]c-kv]cw IqSp-X¬ Adn-bp-∂-Xnpw Xe-ap-d-Isf Iq´n-bn-W-°p-∂-Xnpw klm-b-I-amIpw F∂{]Xym-i-tbmsS, Cu kwcw-`-Øn¬ kl-I-cn® Hmtcm IpSpw-_mw-K-Ønpw G‰hpw kvtl-]q¿∆w µn-]-d-bp-∂p. ‘IS-∂p-t]mb Xe-ap-d-I-tfmSv Bcm-bp-I, ]nXm-°-∑m-cpsS Ap-`-h-߃ ]cn-K-Wn-°p-I, C∂-se-∏n-d∂ ap°v H∂pw Adn-™p-Iq-Sm, `qan-bnse ΩpsS PohnXw ng¬t]mse am™p-t]m-Ip-∂p.’ss__nƒ. kvtl-]q¿∆w, sI.-‰n. tXmakv sk{I-´dn
  • 9. ]q¿∆n-I-cpsS ]pWyw s{]m^. tPmkv tPmk^v {]kn-U‚ v thZ-]p-kvXIØn¬ ]g-bn-baØns‚ Bcw`Øn¬ ΩpsS - - - -BZy-]n-Xm-hmb BZw apX¬ tml-h-sc-bp≈ ]nXm-°-∑m-cpsShwim-hen sImSp-Øn-´p-≠v. ]pXn-b-n-b-a-Øn¬ A{_mlw apX¬tbip-hns‚ Pw hsc-bp≈ IpSpw-_-N-cn-{Xhpw sImSp-Øn-cn-°p-∂p. ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-IcpsS IpSpw-_aln-abpw al-Xzhpw Ωƒ Adn- - -bWw Ah-cpsS sNbvXn-I-sf-°p-dn®v hcpw-X-e-apd t_m[-hm-∑m-cm-IWw F∂o Dt±-iy-ßtfmsS ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-I¿ hwimh-enbpwIpSpw-_-N-cn-{Xhpw Fgp-Xn-h-®n-cp-∂p. Hmtcm-Ip-Spw-_-Ønpw AXn-t‚-Xmb {]tXyI ]mc-º-cyhpw IpSpw-_-a-l-Xzhpw ss]Xr-I-hpwAh-Im-i-am-bp-≠v. AXv ImØp-kq-£n-°p-∂-Xnpw jvSs∏-SmsX]n≥X-e-ap-dbv°v ssIam-‰w-sN-ømpw ap°v _≤y-X-bp-≠v. Fd-tIm∂n Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ iXm_vZnBtLm-j-th-f-bm-Wt√m CXv. Cu Ah-k-c-Øn¬ IpSpw-_N-cn-{X-{KŸw {]Im-iw sNøp-∂Xv G‰hpw DNn-X-am-Wv. Ωƒ Ft∏mgpw]nXm-a-l-∑msc Ap-kva-cn-°p-∂-hcpw Ah-cpsS ∑-I-fn¬ A`n-amw sIm≈p-∂-h-cp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. sΩ a‰p-≈-h¿ Adn-bp-∂-Xp-Xs∂ ΩpsS ]nXm-°-∑m-cn-eq-sS-bm-Wv. Aßs tm°p-tºmƒmw IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw Adn-™n-cn-t°-≠-Xns‚ Bh-iy-IX h¿≤n-°p-∂p. ΩpsS IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw ]cn-tim-[n-°p-tºmƒ ΩpsS ]q¿∆n- - -I¿ CS-∏-≈n-bn¬ n∂pw tIm´-b-Ønp Ing°v aW¿ImSv Xma-kn-s®∂pw AXn¬ Hcp IpSpw-_sØ ao-®n¬ CS-{]`p tahn-S-bn¬sIm≠p-h∂v Xs‚ `h-Øn-s‚ ASpØv Fd-tIm∂n ]pc-bnS-Øn¬ -
  • 10. Xma-kn-∏n-s®∂pw ]d-bp-∂p. BbXn-m¬ Ah¿ Fd-tIm∂n am∏n-f-am¿ F∂v Adn-b-s∏-´-Xmbpw ImWp-∂p. ]mem hen-b-]≈n ÿm]nX-ambXv 1002-˛em-Wv. A∂v ]≈n-ÿm-]n-°p-∂-Xnv ap≥ssI FSp-ØXv Fd-tIm-∂n, hb-e-s°m-ºv,Xd-bn¬, Iq´p-¶¬ F∂o mev IpSpw-_-ß-fm-sW∂v Ncn-{X-tcJ-bp-≠v. AXn¬ {]Y-a-ÿmw ΩpsS amXr-Ip-Spw-_-amb Fd-tIm∂nIpSpw-_-Øn-m-Wv. Fd-tIm∂n am∏n-f-am-cn¬ Hcmfmb C´n-s®-dnb tahnS sh´n-°m´v ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ amdn-Øm-a-kn-®p. Cu C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS Ggm-a-sØ-]p-{X≥ sXmΩ-∏-Wn-°¿ Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ h∂v Xma-kn®v I®-hSwsNbvXp. At±-l-Øns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sIm®n´n sF∏ns‚k¥-Xn-]-c-º-c-I-fmWv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-°m¿. Hcp q‰m-≠p-apºv IpSpw-_-Iq-´m-bva-I-sf-∏‰n tI´p-tIƒhn-t]m-ep-an-√m-bn-cp∂ ImeØv ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Iq-´mbva Bcw-`n®]nXm-a-l∑m-cpsS IpSpw-_-kvt-l-sØbpw k∑--kn-sbpw XymK-a- t m- ` m- h - s Øbpw F{X- A- ` nµn®mepw A[n- I - a m- h pI- b n- √ .{InkvXzm_vZw 1911-˛¬ IpSpw-_Iq-´mbva Bcw-`n-®t∏mƒ Ing-XSn-bq¿ - - -tZiØv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Øn¬s]´ ]Xn-tgv IpSpw-_-ßfpwaq∂v sshZn-Icpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. BZy IpSpw-_-tbmK cPn-ÿ{]Imcw, ΩpsS ]Xn-tgv IpSpw-_-ß-fn-sebpw IpSpw-_-m-Y-∑m-cpw aq∂v sshZn-Icpw ]mem ]≈n-ta-Sbn¬h®v GI-tbm-Kambn IpSpw- - -_-]-cn-]m-e--tbmKw F∂ t]cn¬ Bcw-`n® Iq´m-bva-bmWv Ing-t°- ° c IpSpw- _ - t bm- K w. IpSpw- _ - t bmKw Bcw- ` n- ° p- ∂ - X nvap≥ssI FSpØ Be-°¬ aØmbn IØ-m-scbpw Itcm-s´-ho-´n¬ De-l-∂≥ IØ-m-scbpw ]oSn-I-bn¬ butk^v IØ-m-scbpw ]Xn-tgv IpSpw-_-m-Y-∑m-sc-bpw kvtlm-Z-c-]q¿∆w kvacn-°p-∂p. BZn-a-k-`-bn¬ Hmtcm-cpØcpw F√m-h¿°pw-th≠n Pohn-®p. Hcp lrZ-bhpw Hcm-flm-hp-ambn {]h¿Øn® Ah-cmcpw Xß-fpsS kzØv kz¥-sa∂v Icp-Xn-bn√. Cu ssNXyw Dƒs°m-≠p-sIm≠v ]nXm-°-∑m¿ Bcw-`n® Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmKw IpSpw-_mwK-߃ XΩn-ep≈ ]c-kv]-c-[m-c-Wbpw kulm¿±hpw hf-¿Øphm≥ D]-I-cn-®p. IpSpw-_ßfn¬ kmº-ØnI _p≤n-ap-´p-≈- - -hsc klm-bn-°p-Ibm-bn-cp∂p IpSpw-_Iq-´m-babpsS {][m e£yw. - - v -[mcmfw IpSpw-_mw-Kßsf klm-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. -
  • 11. IpSpw-_-tbm-K--S-Øn-∏n¬ ad-°m-m-hmØ ]¶p-h-ln® al-Xvhy-‡n-Isf Cu Ah-k-c-Øn¬ kvacn-°p-∂p.- Ip-Spw-_-N-cn-{X-Ønse ]g-b-Ime {][m Ncn-{X-߃ apJy-ambpw ap°v e`n-®XvIng-t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ {in.C´n-sF∏v C´n-sF∏v Fgp-Xn-h-®n-cp∂IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ ssIsø-gp-Øp-{]-Xn-bn¬n-∂m-Wv. hn⁄m-nbpw Ncn-{X-Ip-Xp-In-bp-amb At±-l-Øns‚ maw F∂pw kvacn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ °¬ FgpXn kq£n-®n-cp∂]oSn-I-bn¬ h¿°n-km-dn-sbpw µn-tbmsS kvacn-°p-∂p. hf-sc-°mew IpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ {]kn-U‚m-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw Bcw-`-Im-eØpw ]n∂oSpw atm-l-c-ßfmb c≠v IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´n-S߃F√m AwK-ß-fp-sSbpw klm-b-k-l-I-c-W-ß-tfmsS n¿Ωn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX {io.sI.-sF.-sXmΩ≥ ]oSn-I-bnensbpw IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´nSw n¿Ωn-®n-cn-°p∂ ÿew kw`m-h--bmbn X∂ {io.-Cu-∏≥ aØmbn ]pØ≥]p-cbv°en-sbpw BZ-c]q¿∆w kvacn-°p- - - - -∂p. IpSpw-_-tbmKw ap≥{]-kn-U‚p-am¿°pw sk{I-´-dn-am¿°pw a‰v`mc-hm-ln-Iƒ°pw µn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. c≠p-h¿j-ambn IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-c-N--bn¬ A£oWw bXvn-®, F√m-Ip-Spw-_-ß-fn-epw-t]mbn hnh-c-߃ tiJ-cn-°p-Ibpw Cu {KŸw Fgp-Xn-X-øm-dm-°p-Ibpw sNbvX IpSpw-_-tbmKw sk{I-´dn {io.-sI.-‰n.-tXm-akv Ing-t°-°-cbv°v {]tXyIw lrZy-amb µn ]d-bp-∂p. Hmtcm imJ-bp-sSbpw {]Xn-n-[n-I-f-S-ßnb Pq_nen IΩ‰n AwK-߃°pw µntcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. henb IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ hy‡n-_-‘-߃ Ipd-bp-hm≥ CS-bm-Ip-∂p CXv ]cn-l-cn®v IpSpw-_-߃ XΩn-ep≈ AI¬® Ipd-bv°p-∂-Xnv ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Iq-´mbva D]-I-cn-°s´. IpSpw_wkvtlw ]cn-I¿Ωw- sN-ø-s∏-Sp∂ _en-th-Zn-bm-W-t√m. ΩpsSIpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ F∂pw kvtlm-¥-co£w nen¬°-s´. Ap-{K-l-߃°mbn PK-Zo-iz-c-tmSv {]m¿∞n-°mw. {]kn-U‚ v Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_tbmKw -
  • 12. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 1 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e-tbmKw Bbpw Aºm-cnbpap≈ BtLm-j-]q¿∆-amb hnhm-l-N-S-ßnemWv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_]cn-]m-e-tbm-K-Øns‚ BZyBtem-N S-∂-Xv. 1910/1086˛¬ Ing-t°-°c h¿°n-bpsS aI≥Ip™p-h¿°n-bpsS hnhm-l-NS-ßn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°m≥ ]pØ≥]pc-bv°¬, ]oSn-Ibn¬, Be-bv°¬ F∂o Xmbvhgn-Ifnse F√m IpSpw- - -_-ß-fn¬ n∂pw Bfp-Iƒ FØn-bn-cp-∂p. A∂v IpSpw-_-tbmKwF∂ Bibw N¿®-sN-øpI-bp-≠m-bn, AXns‚ ^e-ambn 1911/1087Ipw`w 27-˛v Ing-t°-°c Itcms´ho´n¬ BZytbmKw IqSn. BtbmK-Øn¬ h®v ]oSn-Ibn¬ sXmΩ≥ BK-kvXnsb IpSpw_tbmK- -Øns‚ amt-P-cmbpw Itcms´ ho´n¬ h¿°n h¿°nsb s]´nkq£n- ∏ p- I m- c - mbpw Be- b v ° ¬ hmIm- n- b n¬ sNdn- b m≥h¿°nsb ]q´p-kq-£n-∏p-Im-c-mbpw ]pØ≥]pc-bv°¬ Cu∏≥DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns IW-°p-kq-£n-∏p-Im-c-mbpw Xnc-s™-Sp-Øp.1088/1912 Nnßw 1˛mw XobXn Be-bv°¬ aØmbn A®≥ cPn-kv{Smsc ]Sn-sI´n ]mem ]≈n-ta-S-bn¬ hcp-Øn-bmWv Ing-t°-°cIpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e--tbmK DS-ºSn cPn-Ã-dm-°n-b-Xv. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Ønse hnhn[ imJ-I-fn¬ n∂p≈20 AwK IΩn-‰n-bmWv IpSpw-_-tbmK DS-ºSn Xøm-dm-°n-b-Xv. kmº-ØnI Ipd-hp-sImt≠m a‰p-Im-c-W-ß-fmtem IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fn¬B¿s°-¶nepw IjvS-X-Itfm a‰v _p≤n-ap-´p-Itfm D≠m-Ip-tºmƒAhsc klm-bn-°pI F∂ e£y-tØm-sS-bmWv IpSpw_]cn-]m-e-tbmKw XpS-ßn-bXv. 1912 aIcw 28-˛v ASpØ tbmKw IqSpIbpw - -Nn´n-bn¬ tNcp-Ibpw sNbvXp. bqtdm-∏n¬ bq≤w-s]m-´n-∏p-d-s∏´vm´n¬ £ma-Im-e-am-b-Xn-m¬ XpS¿∂v aq∂p {]m-hiyw tbmKwIqSn-bn-√. ΩpsS IpSpw-_]cn-]m-etbmKw tcn´v Hcp sbvØp-ime - - - -Bcw-`n-®n-cp-∂p. hfsc hnP-b-I-c-ambn S-∂p-h∂ sbvØp-im-e-bn¬ [mcmfw XqWn-Ø-c-߬ sbvXv hn¬∏ S-Øn-bn-cp-∂p.an√p-Xp-Wn-Iƒ kpe-`am-bt∏mƒ sbvØp-ime n¿Ø-em-°n. IpSpw- - -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 13. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 2_mw-K-ß-fpsS hcn-kw-Jy-bn-eq-sSbpw DZm-c-a-Xn-I-fmb IpSpw-_-kvtln-Ifp-sSbpw kl-IcWtØmsS ΩpsS nc-h[n IpSpw_mw- - - - -K-߃°v hnhn-[-X-c-Øn-ep≈ klm-b-߃ evIp-hm≥ IpSpw-_-]-cn-cm-e--tbm-K-Ønv km[n-®n-´p-≠v. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ønse 17 imJ-Ifn¬ n∂pw amdn-Øm- - -a-kn® F√m-hcpw tbmKmw-Kßfm-bn. Ah-cpsS hcn-kw-Jy-sIm≠pw - -]W-b-Øn-t∑¬ sNdnb ]en-ibv°v ]Ww ISw-sIm-SpØpw aqe-[w h¿≤n-®p. 1927/1103 CShw 28-˛v IqSnb tbmKw kwL-S-bv°vkz¥-ambn Hcp sI´nSw n¿Ωn-°Ww F∂v Xocp-am-n-®p. F√m- ho-´p- I m¿°pw HØp- t N- c p- h m≥ kuI- c y- a p≈ ÿe- a mb Ipc-ß≥ae]d-ºn¬ ]gbhgn-h-°n¬ 45 tIm¬ Np‰-f-hn¬ sI´n-S-Ønpw ap‰-Ønpw th≠ ÿew Ing-t°-°c ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬Cu∏≥ aØmbn evIn. Ing-t°-°c ]pen-a-e-Ip-t∂¬ sshZy≥tX°p-XSn sh´m-p≈ Ap-hmZw k¿°m-cn¬ -n∂pw hmßn. Ing-t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ sI.-sF.-sXm-Ωs‚ tXr-Xz-Øn¬ bphm-°-sf√mw kwL-Sn®v {ia-Zm--ambn Xd-sI-´v, ap‰w-sI-´v, Dcp-∏Sn NpaSvXpS-ßnb Imcy-߃ hfsc thK-Øn¬ sNbvXp. Bdp-am-k-Øn-p-≈n¬ ]pXnb sI´n-S-Øns‚ DZvLm-Shpw S-Øn,- hmb--im-ebpwssIsø-gpØv amkn-Ibpw XpS-ßn. I¿j-I-cmb IpSpw-_mw-K-߃]pXp-a-Æp-tXSn ]e-ÿ-e-ß-fn-tebv°pw IpSn-tb-dn-b-t∏mƒ IpSpw-_-tbmK {]h¿Ø--ßfpw n¿÷o-h-am-bn. mev]-Øn-aq∂v h¿j-߃°p-tijw 1970 HIvtSm-_¿ 2˛vIqSnb tbmKw IpSpw-_-tbmK sI´nSw IqSp-X¬ kuI-cy-{]-Z-ambÿeØv am‰n-]-Wn-bp-hm≥ Xocp-am-n-®p. BZy IpSpw-_-tbmKa-µn-cw n¿Ωn-°p-∂-Xn-p≈ ÿew evInb ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aqØ-a-I≥ Cu∏≥ ]pXnb sI´nS n¿Ωm-W-Øn-p≈ÿew hbv∏t∏m-Xn-bn¬ evIn. Ing-t°-°c ]oSn-Ibn¬ sXmΩ≥ - - -{]kn-U‚pw Ipºp-°¬ sNdn-bm≥ sk{I-´-dn-bp-ambn sI´nSw ]Wn-°mbn {]tXyIw IΩn-‰nsb Xnc-s™-Sp-Øp. Ch-cpsS A£o-W-amb {]h¿Ø--^e-ambn IpSpw-_mw-K-߃ F√m-h-cp-sSbpw klm-b-k-l-I-c-W-ß-tfmsS A√m-∏m-d-bv°p≈ a¨]mX Xncn-bp∂ Ih-e-bn¬ A©p-apdn sI´nSw IpSpw-_-tbmKw hI-bmbn n¿Ωn-®p.IpSpw- _ - t bm- K - Ø ns‚ Bcw- ` - I mew apX¬ F√m- { ]- h ¿Ø- -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 14. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 3߃°pw tXrXzw evIn-bn-cp∂ sI.-sF.-sXm-Ω≥ {]kn-U‚m-bn-cns° 1983-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn. CtXmsS IpSpw-_-tbmK {]h¿Ø--߃ ma-am-{X-am-bn. 1989 Unkw-_¿ 10-˛v sI.-sF.-h¿°n Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ {]kn-U‚pw BKkvXn C´n sF∏v Ipºp-°¬ sk{I-´-dn-bp-ambn ]pXnb IΩn-‰nsb Xnc-s™-Sp-Øp. ]pØ≥]p-cbv°¬ Cu∏≥ -kw`m-h--bmbn evInb ÿehpw ]pXp-Xmbn n¿Ωn® sI´n-S-hpw1990 G{]n¬ 15-˛v IpSpw-_-tbmKw FgpXn hmßn. 1991 Pq¨ 17-˛v]pXnb {]kn-U‚ v cmPn- ¬InbXn-m¬ 1992˛¬ IqSnb {]tXyIIpSpw-_tbmKw Ing-t°-°c sIm®p-a‰Øn¬ amWn t]mØs {]kn- - - -U‚mbn sXc-s™-Sp-Øp, a‰p `mc-hm-ln-Iƒ°pw IΩ-‰n-°m¿°pwam‰-ap-≠m-bn-√. 1998-˛¬ Ipºp-°¬ BKkvXn C´n-sF∏v {]kn-U‚mbpw Ing- -t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ sI.-‰n.-tPm-k^v sk{I-´-dn-bmbpw ]pXnb `mc-hm-ln-Iƒ sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. C°m-eØv IpSpw-_-tbmKw a‰vÿe- ß - f n- t e°v hym]n- ∏ n- ° p- h m≥ Xocp- a m- n- ® p. 1998- ˛ ap- X ¬ssItXm-en¬ imJ-°m¿ 10, 12 ¢m€p-I-fn¬ F√m-h¿jhpw G‰hpwIqSp-X¬ am¿°v hm-ßp∂ Ip´n-Iƒ°v sImSp-°p-hm≥ “ssItXm-en¬ aØmbn A®≥ kvam-cI kvtImf¿jn∏v” G¿s∏-Sp-Øn. 2000-˛¬ tUm.-sI.-Fw.-C-Ωm-p-h¬ Ing-t°-°c Be-°¬{]kn-U‚mbpw {io.-sI.-‰n.-tXm-akv Ing-t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ sk{I-´-dn-bmbpw sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. ChcpsS ImeØv tIc-f-ØnseF√m-`m-K-ß-fnepw (mev {_m©p-Iƒ) D≠m-°p-Ibpw IpSpw-_-tbmKw Ct∏m-gsØ ne-bn-te°v hf-cp-Ibpw sNbvXp. 2001-˛¬ Ch¿F√m-`-h--ßfpw kµ¿in-®v ^≠p-kz-cq-]n®v IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´nSw]pXp-°n-]WnXv Np‰p-aXn¬ n¿Ωn-®p. F√m Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_mw- - -K-ß-fp-sSbpw A{Ukv Dƒs∏-SpØn A{U-kv_p°v {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®Xpw Ch-cpsS `cWIme-Øm-Wv. Ct∏mƒ Hmtcm {_m©p-IfpwHmtcm-h¿jhpw amdn-amdn IpSpw-_-tbmKw S-Øn-t∏m-cp-∂p. 2002apX¬ X´mw-]-d-ºn¬ imJmw-K-߃ G¿s∏-Sp-Ønb klm-b-n-[n-bn¬ n∂pw A¿ln-°p-∂-h¿°v klmbhpw evInhcp∂p-≠v. 2007- ˛ ¬ IpSpw- _ - t bmKw {]kn- U ‚mbn s{]m^.- t Pm- k vtPmk^ns Xnc-s™-Sp-°p-Ibpw sk{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp∂ {in.-sI.-‰n.-tXm-a-kns X¬ÿm-Øv ne-n¿Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 15. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 4 2011-˛¬ IpSpw-_-tbmKw Bcw-`n-®n´v qdv h¿jw XnI-bp-I-bm-Wv. Cu kph¿Æm-h-kcw G‰hpw `wKn-bmbn BtLm-jn-°p-∂-Xn-mbn c≠p-h¿jw aptº Xocp-am--sa-Sp-°p-Ibpw tUm.-sI.-Fw.-C-Ωm-p-h¬ sNb¿am-mbpw {io.kPn sI.-am-Xyqkv sk{I-´dn-bmbpw -IpSpw-_tbmKw sk{I-´dn {io.-sI-‰n.-tXm-akv P-d¬ I¨ho-dmbpw - -hn]p-e-amb BtLmjIΩ‰n cq]o-I-cn-°p-Ibpw {]h¿Ø--߃Bcw-`n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. iXm_vZn BtLm-j-ß-fpsS kvac-W-bv°mbn IpSpw-_-N-cn{X {KŸhpw A{U€v _p°pw ]pXp°n A®-Sn-°p-hmpw Xocp-am-n-®p. Cu Bhiy-Øn-mbn sk{I-´dn {io.-sI.-‰n.-tXm-a-€ns‚ tXr-Xz-Øn¬ F√m `h--ßfpw kµ¿in®v tcJ-Iƒ tiJ-cn°pIbp-≠m-bn. F√m amkhpw BtLm-jIΩ‰n Hmtcm- - -ho-Sp-Ifn¬ amdn-amdn IqSp-Ibpw {]h¿Ø-߃ hne-bn-cp-Øp-Ibpw - -sNbvXp. 2011 HIvtSm-_¿ 8˛v ]mem IØo-{U¬]≈n ]mco-jvlm-fn¬ h®v hn]p-e-amb BtLmj-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ S-Øp-hmpw ]memcq]X _nj∏v am¿ tPmk^v I√-d-ßm-´v, tIcf [-Im-cy-a{¥n {io.sI.-Fw.-am-Wn, Pe-tk-N a{¥n {io.-]n-sP.-tPm-k-^v, CSp°n Fw.-]n. -{io.-]n.-Sn.-tXm-a-kv, tIm´bw Fw.-]n. {io.-tPm-kv.-sI.-am-Wn, Xfn-∏-dºv Fw.-F¬.-F.bpw Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_mw-Khp-amb {io.-Pbnwkv - -amXyp, ]mem apn-kn-∏¬ sNb¿am≥ {io.-Ip-cym-t°mkv ]S-h≥XpS-ßnb hnin-jvSm-Yn-Xn-Isf tbmK-Øn-te°v £Wn-°p-hmpwXocp-am-n-®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 16. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 5 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmK n_-‘--Iƒ1. t]cv: Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmKw2. ta¬hn-emkw: Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_tbm-Kw, Ing-XSn-bq¿, ]mem, - - tIcfm3. Dt±iw: AwK-ß-fpsS IpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e-bv°v Bh-iy-ambn kmº-Øn-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-am-bp≈ F√m Imcy-ßfpw N¿® sNbvXv Xocp-am--sa-SpØv AwK-ßsf klm-bn-°p-∂-Xnv Iq´mbpw {]tXy-I-ambpw {]h¿Øn-°p-I. apJy-ambn AXym-ln- X-Ønepw n¿≤-m-hÿbnepw AwK-ßsf klm-bn-°p-I. ao- - - ®n¬ k_v cPn-kv{Sm¿ B^o-kn¬ sIm√-h¿jw 1088 Nnß- amkw 1˛mw XobXn 1˛mw º¿ Bbn cPn-ÿ sNbvXn-´p≈ DS- º-Sn-bn¬ D≈Xpw Cu nb-am-h-en-bn¬ t`Z-KXn sNøm-Ø-Xp- amb F√m hIp-∏p-Ifpw {]m_-ey-Øn¬ XpS-cp-∂-Xm-Wv.4. AwK-߃: Fd-tIm∂n ]pØ≥]p-c-bn¬ sXmΩ-]-Wn-°-cpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{Xpw Ing-t°-°c XmgØp Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ Bfp- amb C´n-b-bn-∏ns‚ k¥m ]c-º-c-I-fn¬s∏-´-hcpw 18 hb€v XnI-™n-´p-≈hcp-amb F√m kv{Xo˛-]p-cp-j∑m¿°pw {]kvXpX - - - k¥m ]c-º-c-bn¬s∏´ ]pcp-j-∑m¿ hnhmlw Ign®v Ah- cpsS IpSpw-_Øn¬ h∂n-´p≈ F√m kv{XoIƒ°pw Cu tbmK- - Øn¬ AwK-ßfmbn tNcp-hm≥ Ah-Im-iap-≈Xm-Ip-∂p. Sn C´n- - - - b-bn-∏ns‚ k¥m--ß-fn¬s∏´ kv{XoIƒ hnhmlw Ign®v Ay IpSpw-_ßfn¬ t]mbm¬ Ah-cpsS AwKm-hImiw C√m- - - - Xm-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv. Ay IpSpw-_-Ønse ]pcp-j-∑m¿ Cu IpSpw- _-Ønse kv{XoIsf hnhmlw sNbvXv ZØ-h-Im-in-bmbn Cu IpSpw-_-Øn¬ hcn-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Ah¿°p Cu tbmK-Øn¬ AwK-ambn tNcp-∂-Xnv Ah-Im-i-ap-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p. ]pcp-j-∑m¿ hnhm- l w - I - g n®v Ay IpSpw- _ - Ø n¬ ZØ- h - I m- i n- b mbn t]mbmepw Ah-cpsS Ah-Imiw jvS-s∏-Sp-∂-X-√.5. aqe-[w: 4˛mw hIp-∏n¬ _‘-s∏´ bmsXm-cmƒ°pw 1 cq]m {]th-i--^okpw 50 (A≥]-Xv) ss]k-hoXw {]Xn-amk Xh- W-I-fn-ep-ambn AS-®m¬ tbmK-Øn¬ AwK-am-Im-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 17. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 6 F∂m¬ bmsXmcp AwKhpw {]Xn-amk Xh-W-I-fn¬ IpSn-»nJ hcp-Øn-bm¬ IpSn-»nJ Xo¿°p-∂-Xp-hsc tbmK-Øn¬ B Bfnv bmsXmcp Ah-Im-ihpw Bp-Iq-eyhpw Bh-iy-s∏-Sm- hp-∂-X-√. ta¬ hnh-cn®hn[ap≠m-Ip∂ ]Whpw 1088 Nnß- amkw 1˛mw XobXn ao-®n¬ k_v cPn-kv{Sm¿ B^o-kn¬ 1˛mw º¿ Bbn cPn-ÿ sNbvXn-´p≈ DS-ºSn {]Imcw S-Øn-h- ∂n-´p≈ tbmK-Øns‚ kI-e-hn[ ÿmh-c-Pw-K-a-ßfpw o°n- bn-cn-∏p-X-pIbpw, _m¶v nt£-]-hpw, Cu tbmK-Øns‚ aqe-[- -am-Ip-∂p. GsXm-cm-fn¬ n∂pw kw`m-h--Iƒ kzoI-cn®pw tbmK-Øns‚ aqe-[w h¿≤n-∏n-°m-hp-∂Xm-Wv. AwK-߃ hcn- - kwJy Btbm kw`m-h Btbm AS-®n-´p≈ bmsXmcp XpIbpw tbmK-Øn¬n∂v XncnsI In´p-hm≥ Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm- hp-∂-X-√. F∂m¬ hnhmlw sNbvXv a‰p IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ t]mIp-∂-Xntm [¿Ωÿm]--ß-fn¬ t]mIp-∂tXm Bb kv{XoIƒ°v hcn-kw-Jytbm nt£-]-ßtfm Xnscy In´p-hm≥ Bh-iys∏Smhp-∂Xpw AXn-t∑¬ D≠m-Ip∂ IΩ-‰n-bpsS Xocp- amw Ap-k-cn-t°-≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p.6. IΩ-‰n-tbmKw: tbmKmw-KßfpsS s]mXp-tbmKw 7 AwK-ßfp≈ - - - Hcp IΩ-‰nsb sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. Cu IΩ-‰n-bpsS Imem-h[n aq∂p sIm√tam As√-¶n¬ ASpØ Hcp IΩ-‰nsb Xnc-s™-Sp-°p-∂Xp-hsctbm Bbn-cn-°p-∂Xm-Wv. IΩ‰n AwK- - - - ߃ tbmKw tN¿∂v Hcp {]kn-U‚n-tbpw Hcp sk{I-´-dn- tbbpw Hcp JPm≥Pn-tbbpw sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. tbmK-Øns‚ F√m Imcy-ßfpw {]kn-U‚ns‚ ta¬tm-´- Ønepw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-Ønepw S-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv. ]Ww hmßn ckoXp sImSp-t°-≠Xpw sd°m¿Up-Iƒ ]q¿Øn-bm-t°-≠Xpw kq£n-t°-≠Xpw sk{I-´dn BIp-∂p. IΩ-‰n-tbm-Khpw s]mXp- tbm-Khpw {]kn-U‚ns‚ n¿t±-iap-kcn®v hnfn-®p-Iq-t´-≠Xpw - - - sk{I-´dn BIp-∂p. IΩ‰n amk-Øn-sem-cn-°-se-¶nepw IqSn- bn-cn-°-Ww. Bh-iy-ap-≈-t∏m-sgm-s°bpw IΩ‰n hnfn-®p-Iq-´m- hp-∂-Xm-Wv. IΩ-‰n-bpsS tImdw A©m-bn-cn-°pw. IΩ-‰n-bnepw s]mXp-tbm-K-Ønepw ÿncw {]kn-U‚ v lmP-cp-≈-t∏mƒ At±lw Xs∂ A≤y-£-m-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. {]kn-U‚ v lmP- cn-√m-Ø-t∏mƒ B tbmKw Hcp A≤y-£s `qcn-]-£-a-p-k-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 18. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 7 cn®v sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠Xpw At±lw B tbmK-Øn¬ am{Xw A≤y-£-mbncn°p-∂-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. tbmK-n-_-‘-a-Iƒ°pw s]mXp-tbmK n›-b-߃°pw hnt[-b-ambn F√m Imcy-ßfpw Cu IΩ‰n S-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv. IΩ‰n tbmK-Øn¬ A`n-{]mb hyXym-k-ap-≈-t∏mƒ {]ivw thm´n-n-tS-≠Xpw thm´p-Iƒ Xpey-am-bn-cp-∂m¬ lmP-cn-√mØ AwK-߃ lmP-cm-Ip-∂-Xp- hsc tbmKw o´n-h-bvt°-≠Xpw B tbmK-Ønepw Xocp-am-- ap-≠m-Im-Xn-cp-∂m¬ s]mXp-tbmK Xocp-am--Ønv ka¿∏n-t°- ≠-Xp-am-Wv.7. IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fpsS GsXm-cm-h-iyhpw {]kn-U‚ns Adn-bn- ®m¬ {]kn-U‚ v AXn¬ {i≤m-ep-hmbn IΩ‰n hnfn-®p-Iq´n Btem-Nnt®m Xnt®m {]iv߃, Xo¿t°-≠Xm-Wv. AXns‚ - - apgp-h≥ Npa-X-ebpw At±-l-Øn¬ n£n-]vX-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xm- Wv.8. tbmK-Øns‚ ]W-an-S-]m-Sp-Iƒ, IcWw Xo¿°¬ apX-emb kwK-Xn-Iƒ IΩ-‰n-bpsS Xocp-am-ap-kcn®v {]kn-U‚ v, sk{I- - ´-dn, JPm≥Pn Ch¿ aq∂p-t]cpw IqSn sNtø-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. Ch¿ aq∂p-t]-cpw-IqSn sNømØ bmsXmcp Ic-Whpw km[p-hm-bn-cn- °p-∂-X-√.9. s]mXp-tbmKw: s]mXp-tbmKw Bh-iy-ap-≈-t∏m-sgm-s°bpw km[m-c-W-K-Xn-bn¬ Hcp h¿j-Øn¬ Hcn-°¬ F¶nepw IqtS- ≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. ÿew, Xob-Xn apX-em-bh IΩ‰n tbmK-Øn¬ n›-bn®v sk{I-´dn AwK-ßsf Adn-bn®v IqtS-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. BsI-bp≈ AwK-ß-fn¬ A©n-semt∂m As√-¶n¬ 25 AwK- ßtfm tcJm-aqew Bh-iy-s∏-´m¬ IΩ‰n s]mXp-tbmKw hnfn- ®p-Iq-t´-≠-Xm-Wv. AwK-߃°v Ggv Znhkw apsº-¶nepw s]mXp-tbm-K-tm-´okv In´n-bn-cn-°-Ww. s]mXp-tbm-K-Øn¬ IΩ‰n AwK-ßsf sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠Xpw ap≥ sIm√sØ {]h¿Ø dnt∏m¿´pw hchp sNehp IW-°p-Ifpw hmbn®p ]m€m-t°-≠-Xp-am-Wv. AwK-߃°v {]ta-b-߃ lmP-cm-°m- hp-∂-Xpw, {]iv-߃ tNmZn-°m-hp-∂-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. `n∂-`n-{]m-b- ap-≠m-bm¬ thms´-Sp∏v S-tØ-≠Xpw `qcn-]-£m-`n-{]m-b-a-p- k-cn®v Imcy-߃ Xocp-am-n-t°-≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. thm´p-Iƒ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 19. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 8 Xpeyambncp-∂m¬ {]kn-U‚ns‚ ImÃnwKv thmt´m-Sp-IqSn Imcy- ߃ Xocp-am-n-t°-≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. memw hIp-∏n¬s∏´ Hcmƒ AwK-ambn tN¿∂v aq∂p amkw ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-Ibpw {]Xn-amk hcn-kw-Jy-bn¬ apS-°n-√m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ Abmƒ°v s]mXp-tbm-K-Øn¬ thm´v D≠mbncn°p-∂-Xp-am-Wv. thm´p≈ Bfnv am{Xta IΩ-‰n-bn¬ AwK-am-Ip-hmpw ]mSp-≈q.10. {]kn-U‚n-tm, sk{I-´-dnt°m 50 (A≥]-Xv) cq]-bn¬ IqSp- X¬ XpI o°n-bn-cp∏v ssIhiw hbv°m≥ ]mSp-≈-X-√. IqSp- X¬ hcp∂ XpI AXmXp ka-b-ß-fn¬ _m¶n¬ nt£-]n- t°-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p.11. memw n_-‘--b-p-k-cn-®p≈ Bfp-Iƒ Iq´-ambn Xma-kn- °p∂ ÿe-ß-fn¬ A©n¬ Ipd-bmsX AwK-ß-fp-≈-]£w imJ-Iƒ ÿm-]n-°m-hp-∂Xpw imJ-Iƒ tI{µ-tbm-K-tØmSv LSn-∏n-°m-hp-∂Xpw Aßs LSn-∏n-°-s∏-Sp∂ imJ-Iƒ°v tI{µ-tbm-K-Øn¬ {]Xn-n-[n-Isf Ab-°m-hp-∂Xpw IΩ‰n AwKo-I-cn-®m¬ a‰w-K-߃°v Xpey-ambn thm´p-Iƒ D≠m-bn- cn-°p-∂-Xp-am-Wv. Cu hn[w LSn-∏n-®n-´p≈ F√m imJ-Iƒ°pw n_-‘ _m[-I-am-Wv. imJ-Iƒ tI{µ-tØmSv LSn-∏n-°p-∂- Xn-p≈ hyhÿ-Iƒ IΩ‰n AXmXp kµ¿`-ß-fn¬ n›- bn®v imJ-Isf Adn-bn-t°-≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p.12. Cu n_-‘--I-fn¬ GsX-¶nepw hIp∏v t`Z-KXn sNøp-Itbm Iq´n-t®¿°p-Itbm d±v sNøp-Itbm thW-sa-¶n¬ B hnhcw AwK-ßsf c≠m-gvN-sb-¶nepw apºv tcJm-aqew Adn-bn®v s]mXp-tbmKw hnfn-®p-Iq´n s]mXp-tbm-KØn¬ lmP-cp≈ AwK- - ß-fn¬ aq∂n¬ c≠v `mKw Ap-Iq-en®v sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv.13. Bsc-¶nepw s]mXp-tbm-KsØ h©n-bv°p-Isbm ]Ww jvSw hcp-Øp-Itbm sNbvXm¬ IΩ‰n ]cn-lmcw n›-bn-t°-≠Xpw Bh-iy-ap-≠m-Ip∂ ]£w Bb-Xn-te°v hyh-lmcw S-tØ- ≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. tbmK-Øn¬ Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂ hyh-lm-c߃ S- - tØ-≠Xv IΩ-‰n-bpsS n¿t±-i-a-p-k-cn®v sk{I-´-dn-bm-Ip-∂p. Hmtcm IΩ-‰n-bp-tSbpw S-Øn-∏p-Im-e-ß-fn¬ D≠m-Ip-∂Xpw s]mXp-tbmKw Ap-h-Zn-°m-Ø-Xp-amb kIe jvS-߃°pw IΩ‰n AwK-߃ s]mXp-hmbpw {]tXy-I-ambpw DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 20. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 9 hln-t°-≠Xpw Ah Ahcn¬n∂v s]mXp-hmtbm {]tXy-I- amtbm CuSm-°m-hp-∂-Xp-am-Ip-∂p.14. Cu n_-‘--Iƒ 1975 Pp-hcn 1 apX¬ {]m_-ey-Øn¬ hcp- ∂-Xm-Wv. sIm√-h¿jw 1088 Nnß-amkw 1 v ao-®n¬ k_v cPn-kv{Sm¿ B^o-kn¬ 1˛mw º¿ Bbn cPn-ÿ sNbvXn-´p≈ tbmK DS- ºSn CtXm-S-p-_v[-ambn tN¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p.Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ H∏vtbmK-am-^okv amt-P¿ Ap-_‘w Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e DS-ºSn Bbn-cØn F¨]Øn Ggm-am≠v Nnß-amkw H∂mw XobXnfmew {]hr-Øn-bn¬ Ing-b-Sn-bqcp apdn-bn¬ ]pØ≥]p-c-bm-Ip∂Ing-t°-°c n∂pw ao-®n¬ {]h¿Øn-bn¬ ]mem apdn-bn¬ ]mem-∏-≈n-ta-S-bn¬ Ccn°pw {kmWn C´n-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aI≥ I¿Ω-{]-hrØn mev]-sØ´p hb-€p≈ aØmbn IØ-mcpw h¿°n-bpsSaI≥ I¿Ω {]hrØn mev]-tØgp hb-€p≈ 2 De-l-∂≥ IØ-mcpw Sn. Ing-t°-°c n∂pw Af-mSp apdn-bn¬ Ff-t¥m-´Øp]≈n-bn¬ Ccn°pw C´n-sF-∏ns‚ aI≥ I¿Ω {]hrØn mev]-sØ´p hb-€p≈ 3 Ahp-tk∏p IØ-mcpw Sn Ing-t°-°c ]m¿°pwh¿°n-bpsS aI≥ Irjn mev]-Øn-aq∂p hb-€p≈ 4 h¿°nbpwSn Ing-t°-°c n∂pw ]pen-ae°p-t∂¬ ]m¿°pw sXmΩs‚ a°ƒ - -Irjn-°m¿ ap∏-sØm∂p hb-€p≈ 5 h¿°nbpw Ccp-]-sØ´p hb-€p≈ 6 sXmΩpw Ing-t°-°c n∂pw Be-bv°¬ ]m¿°pw C´n-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aI≥ Irjn Ccp-]-sØm≥]Xp hb-€p≈ 7 C´nAbn∏pw Sn Ing-t°-°c n∂pw hmIm-n-bn¬ ]m¿°pw sNdn-bms‚a°ƒ Irjn-°m¿ mev]-Ø©p hb-€p≈ 8 h¿°nbpw mev]Xphb-€p≈ 9 C´n sF∏pw ap∏-Ømdp hb-€p≈ 10 sNdn-bmpw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 21. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 10sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Ccp-]-sØm∂p hb-€p-≈ 11 sNmdn-bmpw Sn Ing-t°-°c n∂w ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ ]m¿°pw C´n-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aI≥Irjn Ccp-]-Øn-mep hb-€p≈ 12 BK-kvXnbpw Sn Ing-t°-°cn∂pw sISp-ºw-]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ ]m¿°pw Cu∏s‚ a°ƒ Irjn-°m¿ mev ] - Ø n- a q∂p hb- € p≈ 13 DWn- s ®- d n- b Xpw ap∏-sØm≥]Xp hb-€p≈ 14 C´n-A-bn∏pw ap∏-Ømdp hb-€p≈ 15aØm-bnbpw sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Irjn Ccp-]-Øn-c≠p hb-€p≈ 16Cu∏pw Ing-t°-°sc n∂pw ]oSn-I-bn¬ ]m¿°pw C´n-b-bn-∏ns‚aI≥ Irjn ap∏-sØm≥]Xp hb-€p≈ 17 C´n-b-bn∏pw Sn Ig-t°-°sc n∂pw ssItXm-en¬ ]m¿°pw sXmΩs‚ a°ƒ Irjn-°m¿ap∏-Xp-h-b-€p≈ 18 BK-kvXnbpw Ccp-]-sØ´p hb-€p≈ 19 C´n-b-bn∏pw Ccp-]Ønc≠p hb-€p≈ 20 DWn-s®-dn-bXpw IqSn Fgp-Xnb DS-º-Sn. Ωƒ F√m-hcpw ]pØ≥]p-c-bm-Ip∂ Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-°mcpw Ω-fn¬ 1Dw 2 Dw I£n-I-fp-tSbpw 3˛mw I£n-bp-tSbpwhey-∏pw tijw I£n-I-fpsS A∏q-∏pw Bbn-cp∂ acn®sXmΩ≥ C´nb-bn∏v F∂ Bfn¬n∂pw D¤-hn®v ]e imJ-I-fmbn ]ncn™p 1 Dw 7 Dw 8 Dw 9Dw 10Dw 11 Dw 12 Dw I£n-Iƒ HcpimJ-°mcpw Ah-cn¬ H∂mw I£n I¿Ωm-Zn-Iƒ Ap-jvTn®p ]mem-∏-≈n-bnepw 7˛mw I£n Be-bv°¬ F∂ ho´nepw 8˛mw I£nhmIm-n-bn¬ ho´nepw 9˛mw I£n Xmtm-en¬ ho´nepw 10-˛mw I£nsIm®p-a-‰-Øn¬ ho´nepw 11-˛mw I£n Sp-hnse hmImn ho´nepw12-˛mw I£n ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ ho´nepw 2Dw 4Dw 5Dw 6Dw I£n-IƒHcp imJ-°mcpw 2˛mw I£n I¿Ωm-Xn-Iƒ Ap-jvSn®v ]mem-∏-≈n-ta-S-bnepw 4˛mw I£n Ing-t°-°c ho´nepw 5˛mw I£n Ff-t¥m-´-Øn¬ ho´nepw 6˛mw I£n ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ ho´nepw 3Dw17Dw 18 Dw 19Dw 20Dw I£n-Iƒ Hcp imJbpw Ah-cn¬ 3˛mw I£nI¿Ωm-Zn-Iƒ Ap-jvTn®p Ff-t¥m-´Øp ]≈n-bnepw 17-˛mw I£n]oSn-I-bn¬ ho´nepw 18-˛mw I£n Cu¥p-¶¬t∏mXn ho´nepw 19-˛mwI£n ssItXm-en¬ Ing-t°-ho-´nepw 20˛mw I£n ssItXmenho´nepw 13 apX¬ 16 hsc I£n-Iƒ Hcp imJbpw Ah-cn¬ 13-˛mwI£n Cu¥p-¶¬∏mXn ho´nepw 14-˛mw I£n ssItXmen ho´nepw15-˛mw I£n ]pØ-≥]p-c-bv°¬ ho´nepw 16-˛mw I£n X´mw-]-dºpho´nepw Ccn∏pw Xma-k-°mcpw BIp-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 22. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 11 ΩpsS IpSpw- _ - ß - f n¬ {Zhy- ° p- d - h n- mepw a‰pw HcpimJbvt°m imJ-°m¿t°m IjvSX D≠m-Ip∂ Ah-k-c-ß-fn¬klm-bn®v Ahsc √ ÿnXn-bn¬ sIm≠p-h∂m¬ sIm≈m-sa∂p -Ωƒ°p B{K-l-ap-≈Xpw AXn-te°p Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cm¬ Xn-®p-’m-ln-°p-∂Xnp nhr-Øn-bn-√m-sX-bn-cn-°p-∂Xpw Aßs klm- -bn-°p-∂-Xn-te-°mbn Hcp aqe-[w D≠m-°p-∂-Xn-te°p am¿§wn›-bn®v Hcp apX¬ kzcq-]n®p h¿≤n-∏n-°-W-sa∂p Ωƒ n›-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xpw AXns‚ S-Øn∏npw Dd-∏npw th≠n Ct∏mƒCu DS-ºSn sNøp-∂Xpw Ω-fn¬ {]tXyIw {]tXyIw Xma-kn-°p∂ Bfp-Iƒ CXn¬ Dƒs∏-´n-cn-°p-∂Xpw BIp-∂p. Cu DS-ºSn Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_ ]cn-]m-e DS-º-Sn-sb∂phnfn-°s∏-Sp-∂Xpw 1087-˛mam≠v Ipw`-amkw 27-˛p HSp-hn-esØ Rmb- -dmgvN apX¬ S-∏n¬ hcp-Øn-bXpw BIp-∂p. Ωƒ {]tXyIw{]tXyIw Xma-kn-°p∂ Hmtcm ho´p-Imcpw AXmXp amk-Øn¬HSp-hn¬ hcp-∂-Xmb Rmb-dmgvN Znhkw BZysØ B≠mb 1087Ipw`w 27-˛mw XobXn apX¬ 1088 Ipw`w Ah-kmw hsc Ing-t°-°c ho´nepw ASpØ B≠n¬ Be-bv°¬ ho´nepw AXn--SpØB≠n¬ sISp-º≥]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ ho´nepw AXn--Sp-Ø-bm-≠n¬]oSn-I-bn¬ ho´nepw Ω-sf-√m-hcpw IqSp-Ibpw Ωƒ Ct∏mƒ]ncn™p Xma-kn-°p∂ 17 ho´p-Imcpw hosSm-∂p°p 7 N{Iw h®pIW-s°-gp-Xp-Ibpw ΩpsS t£am-Zn-I-sf-∏‰n Btem-Nn®p th≠G¿∏m-Sp-Iƒ sNøpIbpw AXn-te°p Hcp amt-Pcpw Hcp ]Wwkq£n-∏p-Im-cpw Hcp IW°p kq£v-a-°m-cpw Hcp Xmt°m¬kq£n-∏p-Im-cpw D≠m-bn-cn-°bpw Ah-cpsS t]cp-hn-hcw apX-em-bXpw tbmK--S∏p kw_-‘n® S-]-Sn-Ifpw S-]Sn ]pkvX-I-Ønepw mƒhgn IW-°nepw hnh-cn-®n-cn-°bpw sNøp-∂-Xm-Ip-∂p. ΩpsS hoSp-Ifn¬ n∂pw, th¿]n-cn™p Xma-kn-°p∂ Bfp- -Iƒ Aßs ]ncn™p Xma-kn-°p∂ ImeØp Cu DS-ºSn Ap-k-cn®pw A{]-Imcw ]Ww h®pw S-t°-≠Xpw Aßs S-°p∂hnhcw S-]Sn ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ FgpXn Ah-sc-s°m≠p H∏n-Sp-hn-t°-≠Xpw Ah¿ H∏n-tS-≠Xpw Aßs tNcp∂ ka-b-ß-fn¬Ahcv Cu DS-º-Sn-bn¬ tN¿∂me-sØ-t∏m-se-bp≈ ^ew D≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xpw BIp-∂p. Ωƒ tbmKw IqtS-≠Xp Ime-ap-dbv°vta¬hn-h-cn® mep hoSp-I-fn-embn th≠Xpw thsd hoSpI-fn¬ IqS-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 23. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 12W-sa∂p hnNm-cn-°p-hmtm IqSp-hmtm Bh-iy-an-√m-ØXpw ]W-s∏´n kq£vaw ta¬ hnh-cn® hoSp-I-fn¬ Hmtcm B≠n¬ kq£n-®p--sImt≈-≠Xpw Hcp-ho-´n¬ n∂pw as‰mcp ho´n-te°v s]´n amdn-s°m-Sp-°p-tºmgpw Xmt°m-ep-Iƒ apX-em-bh G¬∏n®v sImSp-°p-tºmgpw AXp- I ƒ G¬°p- ∂ - b mƒ ckoXv sImSp- t °- ≠ Xpwkq£va-t°-Sn-mtem at‰-sX-¶nepw kwK-Xn-h-imtem ]W-Øntms]´nt°m dn°m¿UpIƒt°m Xmt°m-entm h√ jvS-ØntmtNX-Øntm CS-h-cp-Øn-bm¬ AXn¬ h®p-≠m-Ip∂ F√m jvS-߃°pw jvSw hcp-Ønb Btfm Bfp-Itfm DØ-c-hm-ZnXzwsNtø-≠Xpw Ah-cpsS ÿmhc PwK-a-kz-Øp-°-fn¬ n∂p jvS-k-lnXw CuSm-°p-hm≥ a‰p I£nIƒ°p Iq´mbpw {]tXyIw{]tXy-I-am-bn´pw Ah-Im-i-ap-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p. F√m amkhpw HSp-hn-esØ Rmb-dmgvN Znhkw Ωfpw taem¬ CXn¬ tNcp∂ Bfp-Ifpw IqS-W-sa∂p n›-bn-®n-´p≈ hoSp-I-fn¬ ]I¬ Hcp-aWn ka-bØp IqSn ]Ww-h®p IW-s°-gp-Xn-°bpw ΩpsS IpSpw_ kw_-‘-ambn th≠n-hcp∂ F√m Imcy-ßtfbpw apX¬ h¿≤-hn-tbpw - - -]‰n ]cym-tem-Nn®p th≠ A`n-{]mb߃ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°bpw Bhnhcw S-]Sn ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ FgpXn amt-Pcpw ]W-s∏-´n,Xmt°m¬, IW-°v CXpIƒ kq£va-°mcpw AXp-Iq-SmsX c≠p-t]-cn¬ Ipd-bm-sX-bp≈ Bfp-Ifpw H∏n´p kq£n-°bpw tbmKwIqSp∂ Znh-k-ß-fn¬ F√m-hcpw lmP-cm-ImsX Ccp-∂m¬ KpW-tZmj Nn¥-sb-∏‰n `qcn-]£m-`n-{]m-bØn¬ a‰m-fp-Iƒ tNcp-Ibpw - - -sNbvXp-sIm-≈p-hm-p-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p. tbmKw IqSp∂ Znh-k-ß-fn¬ ]Ww ssh°msX Bsc-¶nepwhogvN hcp-Øp-Itbm AXp apX¬ mep amk-Øn-p-≈n¬ AtX-h-sc-bp≈ kwJy apgp-hpw h®p IW-s°-gp-Xn-°bpw AXn-p-ta¬]Ww sh°msX hogvN hcp-Øp-∂-Xm-bm¬ hogvN hcp-Øp∂ mƒapX¬ ]Ww sh°p-∂-Xmb mƒhsc sht°-≠-Xmb apgp-h≥kwJybpw AXnp XhW H∂p°p Hcp N{Iw hoX-ap≈ ]ng-tbm-Sp-IqSn hbv°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠Xpw Aß-sbpw sNøm-Xn-cp-∂m¬Aßs hogvN hcp-Øp∂ Bfp-Iƒ°p CXp kw_-‘-ambn HcpAh-Im-ihpw D≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂-X-√m-ØXpw BIp-∂p. C{]-ImcwapX¬ hcp∂ ]Ww icn- b mb kz¿Æw ]Wbw hmßnbpwsImt≠m Dd-∏mb {]amWw hmßn-bnt´m ]Ww ]en-i-bv°p-sIm-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 24. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 13Sp-°bpw Aßs hmßp∂ {]am-W-߃ Cu tbmK-Øn-te°pth≠nbpw S-Ø-°m-cpsS t]cp h®p th≠Xpw Aßs sImSp-°p∂ ]Ww CuSmImsX hcnItbm AXn¬ h®p h√ jvShpwbtbmK apX-en-te-°p-≠m-Itbm sNbvXm¬ B hI jvSw S-Ø-Im-cp-h-ln-t°-≠Xpw ]Ww sImSp-°¬ hmß-ep-Iƒ°p≈ Npa-X-Iƒ ta¬ hnh-cn® S-Ø-°m-cn¬ am{Xw Ccn-°p-∂Xpw BIp-∂p. Ω-fn¬ GsX-¶nepw ho´p-Im¿°p GsX-¶nepw B]-Øp-IƒD≠m-Ibpw Icw hI tbmK-ap-X¬ sIm≠-√msX AXns nhr-Øn-°m≥ ]mSn-√msX hcn-Ibpw sNøp∂ Ah-k-c-ß-fn¬ ΩƒtbmKw IqSn n›-bn-°bpw tbmK apX¬ sIm≠p klm-bn-°bpwAXns Xnscy G¬∏n-°p-Ibpw Aßs G¬∏n-°m-Xn-cn-°bpwapX¬ Ds≠∂p ImWp-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ B hI apX¬ ]eniIqSmsX hkq¬ sNøp-∂Xnpw tImS-Xn-®n-ehp apX-em-bXp th≠n- -h-∂m¬ AXp-Iƒ Ic-Sm-°p-∂-Xnpw S-Ø-°m¿°p A[n-Im-c-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xm-Ip-∂p. ΩpsS Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-°m-c-√msX thsd IpSpw-_-°m¿°p Icw tbmK-Øn¬ tNcp-∂-Xnp B{K-ln-°p-hmtm Ahsc tN¿°p-hmtm ]mSn-√m-Ø-Xm-bn-cn-°p-∂p. apX-ens‚ h¿≤--hnpw IpSpw-_-Øns‚ c£bv°pwth≠n Icw hI apX-en¬ n∂pw B≠-h-km--ß-fn¬ HmtcmIp¿_m hoXw sNm√n-°bpw A∏-g-t∏mƒ D≠m-Ip∂ Nne-hp-Iƒ°p hni-Z-ambn IW-s°-gpXn S-Ø-°mcp H∏n´p kq£n-°bpwHmtcm B≠nepw D≠m-Ip∂ hchp Nne-hp-Iƒ B≠-h-km--ß-fn¬ S-Ø-°mcp t_m≤ys∏Sp-Ønbpw Ign-bp-∂Xpw a‰p tbmK-°msc t_m≤y-s∏-Sp-Ønbpw Ccp-∏np Hcp Xnc´p FgpXn BbXpwH∏n´ tijw dn°m¿Up-I-tfm-Sp-IqSn kp£n-°bpw sNtø-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. C{]-Imcw Icw DS-ºSn Fgp-Xnb Sn 1 aØmbn IØ-m¿ 2De-l-∂≥ IØ-mcv 3 Ahp-tk∏p IØ-mcv tijw t]cpw (H-∏v). 1088 Nnßw 1˛v ]mem henb ]≈n taS-bn¬ h®p 1˛mw{ºmbn cPn-ÿ sNbvXp. hmk-ÿ-e-tØ-°p≈ ]Sn 1˛mw I£n Nnehp sNbvX cq]m11.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 25. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 14CHAPTER - 1 KIZAKKEKARAS OF PALAI (KERALA) Origin & GrowthINTRODUCTORY REMARKS -THE PEOPLE The Kizhakkekara families form a very small fraction of theMalayalee population. Their history may be said to span a period of lessthan 400 years. Even so a genuine interest has been evinced by the elders of thissmall group to record the history of the clan, so that children and grandchildren of the Kizhakkekara families living in India and overseas mayget to know the roots of their origin, while family members of the rest ofthe Malayalee community may become aware of the presence of theKizhakkekara clan and story of their emergence in Kerala. The name Kizhakkekaras emanated during 1690 - 1700 when thehero of the story, the 2nd son of a family of 3 sons chose to settle downwith his family on the eastern part of the family estate. Since then, thisfamily and their generation came to be called Kizhakkekaras, meaningthe "easterners".ABOUT THIS BOOK As a result of the continued interest shown by the leaders of theclan to record their presence in Kerala an account of the families of theKizhakkekaras was being written from time to time from the beginningby members of the clan and most of the writings were done on palmleaves according to the prevailing practise of writing down importantevents and happenings taking place. During the period 1847 - 1961, the Palmyra documents were com-piled and in Malayalam Language made into a hand written manuscript,which later on was got printed. The person responsible for this transitionfrom palm leaf documents to hand written manuscript - during the aboveperiod was Kizhakkekara Peedikayil ITTYIPE ITTYIPE of the genera-tion. The handwritten manuscript - compiling all the earlier Palmyra leafdocuments is still available in the house of Pedikyil in Palai.Rev.Fr.Dr.C.T.Kottaram who was overseeing this work selected Sri○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 26. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 15K.I.Varkey B.Sc.,B.Ed,. on 15-12-1972 for the above task. Another important development contributing to the emergence ofthe book during the period was the setting up of an organisation calledthe "Kizhakkekara Paripalana Yogam by elders of the clan consisting of20 members, 3 among them being priests,who were been on maintain-ing a historical account of the Kizhakkekara families. The first meeting of the Kizhakkekara Kudumba Yogam was heldin 1911 A.D. (Kollavarsham i. E. Malayalam Era. 1087) at Karotte VeettiHouse in which 3 priests and 17 heads of various branches attended themeeting. The following are the names,in these founder members:1. Mathai Kathanar, S/o Itty Cheriathu - Alakkal Branch2. Ulahannan Kathanar, S/o Varkey - Karotte Veettil3. Ouseph Kathanar, S/o Itty Ipe - Peedikayil4. Varkey, S/o Varkey - Karotte Veettil / Pulimalakunnel5. Varkey, S/o Thomman - do6. Thomman, S/o Thomman - do7. Itty Iype, S/o Itty Cheriathu - Alakkal (Cashier)8. Varkey, S/o Cherian - do- Vakaniyil9. Itty Iype, S/o Cherian - do - do10. Cherian, S/o Cherian - do - do11. Cherian, S/o Thomman - do - do12. Agusthy, S/o Ittycheria - Karotte Veettil /Pulimalakunnel13. Unnicheria, S/o Eapen - Puthanpurackal Eenthunkal Pakuthiyil14. Itty Iype, S/o Eapen - do - Kaitholil15. Mathai S/o Eapen - do- Puthenpurackal16. Eapen, S/o Thomman - do- Thattamparambil17. Itty Iype, S/o Itty Iype - Peedikayil○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 27. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 1618. Agusthy, S/o Thomman - Peedikayil / Kaitholil19. Itty Iype, S/o Thomman - do20. Unnicheria, S/o Thomman - do During the 60s of the 20th century, the manuscript of theKizhakkekara history was printed, with updated information about thefamilies living up to that time. Since then, and during 2011, a fresh attempt was made to updatethe details of Kizhakkekara families. This year, 2011, was also the 100thanniversary of the yogam. It was also at this time that an English versionof the Kizhakkekaras history was prepared by Mr. K. C. Mani of the 8thgeneration of the clan (see the family tree of the clan ) to create aware-ness about their origin among the countless number of Kizhakkekarafamilies living abroad without the knowing to read and write the Malayalamlanguage. It was the curiosity and the zeal of a new beginner to dig upfacts of historical development that made him look for the early begin-nings of the clan families which took his research up to the Biblical ori-gins of the group. This will surprise many readers now and in the future. A red alert : The writer Mr.K.C.Mani (Kizakkekara Alakkal Branch)feels it necessary to alert all Kizakkekara family members particularlythe women about the prevalence of inbreeding genetic disorders noticedin large number of children as well as adults. It will be necessary to checkthis information in all their alliances for marriage in the coming years.A good Counsel :- It is recommended that a serious study be given to the issueof Jewish presence in India, and its impact on Malayalee commu-nity by reading the book of Abraham Benhur a Keralite author. Thebook is titiled "The Jewish background of Indian people."○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 28. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 17CHAPTER - 2THE HISTORY OF THE KIZHAKKEKARAS OF PALAI The history begins with Errakonni Puthan Purakkal ThommaPanikar who had established a trading centre at Palai in 1696 A.D.whowas the youngest of 7 sons of Erakonni Itty Cheria. Puthan Purakkal Thomman was himself a renowned and well -established clan called Errakonnies who had settled themselves inMevada near Kottayam. The question naturally arises about the background of theErrakonnies.THE ERRAKONNIES :-Who are the Errakonnies and where did they come from?Historians have recorded evidence of the presence of a group of peopleat Palayoor who went by the family names - Sankarapuri, Pakalomattom,Kalli and Kaliankal, they were Afghan Pathans of Jewish origin, who hadsettled in Palayoor near Guruvayur, and who had been converted to Chris-tianity by St. Thomas, the disciple of Jesus, sometime during 52 - 55A.D. These Afghan Pathans were engaged in buying spices and condi-ments, sandalwood and other perfumery ingredients and precious stonesto be shipped back to Alexandria and Rome. To safeguard their activitiesa legion of Roman soldiers were stationed in Cranganore and Palayur,the port cities where ships came from Africa and Europe.It is useful to remember at this juncture, that Christianity was not well -received in Rome and the Roman soldiers stationed in the port area didnot take kindly to the Jewish Pathans and Jewish Pathan converts in thearea. they were harrased by the Roman soldiers, and prevented fromcarrying on with their trade. This was the situation up to 325A.D.Henceafter the converted Afghan Pathan family moved out to other places. For reasons stated above there was compelling reasons for themigrations of the members of these families from Palayur to Angamali,Edappally, Kuravilalgad,Kottayam,Niranam,Etc,. In their Moments of des-peration, the migrated families cursed the place which they were forcedto leave and place is now called Chavakkad (Shapakkad).○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 29. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 18 Out of a fraction of the group which moved to Edapalli, some movedto Manarkad near Kottayam and prospered in their trade some othermoved further to Mevada near Palai and set up trading in spices. Thegroup which moved from Edapalli to Manarkad belonged to Pakolomattomclan. Near Mevada, was located Errakonni, and the ruler of Errakonnitook a liking to the immigrant community on account of their experiencein trading, and invited them to come over to Errakonni to set up a tradecentre. In those days, Errakonni was fast becoming a popular centre fortrade and commerce. The migrant families accepted the offer of the rulerof Errakonni and started their trading activities in Errakonni. Since then,they were called "Errakonni-Mappillas". It will be useful to remember the Jewish link(Afghan Pathan) in theclan name of Pakolomattom and the Errakonni - Mappillas, to know theorigin of the Errakonnies and the splinter group, Kizhakkekaras. Some time during 1341, continous rains caused great floods inKerala which resulted in heavy siliting of the Periyar river, disabling tradeactivities to the Pathan Families at Angamali. The Periyar river whichwas flowing to Crangannore port also changed its course and startedflowing to Cochin and Wipin Island also formed during this time.ThePathan families staying at Angamally were compelled to move out toEddapally near Alwaye and to Kurvilangad,and other places in search oftrading activities.THE KIZHAKKEKARAS :- We made a mention about Errakonnin Puthan Purakkal ThommaPannikar and his 3 sons of whom, the 2nd son was the founder of theKizhakkekara clan. Before we take up the life accounts of the 3 sons, there is aninteresting account of Thomma Panikkar himself. The account is abouthis inherent generous nature and Compasion to help people in distress. In 836(kollavarsham) Thomma Panikkar was on his way to Kochito buy the merchandise for his business centre at Palai, he spotted ayoung Brahmin lad sitting on the road - side at Piravom. On enquiry, hefound that the lad was held in bondage over the non - repayment of aloan taken by his father who had left on a pilgrimage to Benaras and wasdelayed on his return journey. The lad had been kept as a hostage andhe was left most of thedays starving and unattended to, by the creditor.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 30. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 19The lad was from Vadakkum Manakkal Illam. Thomma Panikkar tookpity on him, repaid the debt and released him from his bondage. This isjust one incident of the many generous deeds said to have been done byhim, during his lifetime. Now we return to the 3 sons and how they faredin their lives. The 1st son, named Ottaplakkal Ittycheria became a minister inthe service of Meenachil Kartha, the ruler of Palai. This enabled thefamily, to become respected. Marriage alliances with well - to - do fami-lies, having landed propery, were arranged for his sisters of whom therewere 3. His position as a Minister, brought honorary title of "Panikkar" tothe father, Puthan Purakkal Thomman. The 3rd son, named Padinjarekara Mathai took over the familybusiness of trading and rose to bcome very rich and earnd the title"Tharakan" . As for the 2nd son Itty Iype (THE HERO OF OUR STORY) hebecame well - known as a martial art professional, which enabled him tobe recognized as a chieftain in the area. He was well remembered forsettling local disputes, and bringing peace among the warring factions inthe area. He concentrated on developing agriculture. He played an im-portant role to save his father when he was attacked by one of the dis-missed labour heads, while taking a nap in the courtyard of the house IttyIype caught him and informed his brother minister Ottaplackal Itty Cheriawho in turn ordered to shoot him at Kanattupara. He married from thehouse of Pallipurath family (Pakalomottam clan),He raised a family of 3sons and 5 daughters. Even his marriage was not with out adventure.Thebride who was said to be the only sister of Thomas Methran (Bishop)was interested to get married to a respectable family. There was a diffi-culty which he had to face.The ruler Ancha kulathu panickker who wantedher to be married to a young man from Kunnumpurathu family.This pro-posal was not agreeble to Thomas Methran, Because the Kunnumpurathufamily was of inferior rank among the Catholics of that time, ThereforeThomas Methran selected our hero Itty Iype as the Prospectivegroom.When the marriage was concluded, and the bridal pair was beingattented to with other ceremonies in Pallypuarathu house a soldier of theruler Anchakulathupanickker showed up and started creating trouble bycutting down the lamb hanging in front of their house to which IttyIypebecame furious got up, and kicked out the soldier to the delight of allwho had assembled there.Thus began his married life,and the genera-tion of Kizakkekara .He lived a shortlife of 11 years,and raised a family of○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 31. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 208,3sons and 5 daughters.At the time of writing this historical account in July of 2011,AD, there are10 to 12 generations of the Kizakkekaras.Chapter 111 CONNECTING THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT In the Previous chapters we mentioned about the presence of fami-lies of Jewish ancestry in diffrent locations of Kerala State,and how fromout of these families, a connectivity has been estsablished to somemalayalee families. Our connecting thread is the Erakonnies, and the splinter groupthe Kizakkekara clan, whose history we are narrating in this book. It willbe useful to remember that descendants of Jewish origin have beensettled in Kerala for almost 2000 Years,Historical evidence backed byarchaeological findings show that these Jewish descendants are alsoseen to have established their presence in other parts of India-Punjab-Kashmir,Central India,Eastern India,Maharashtra,Karnataka,South India,(Tamil Nadu) and Kerala A further understanding of their movement leadsto even earlier periods, earlier to Abraham to know how long back in intime these peoples originated ,and when and how they came to be spreadout so far? If the Reader is acquainted with Bilble,you will recall that the worldwas destroyed by a great flood from out of which only 8 people wereable to escape in a big size boat and the family which surviced the floodwas the family of Noah his wife, his 3 sons and 3 daughters in law, The Quaranic account of the flood is very similar to the narrationin the Bible, It mentions the survival of Noah and his family and a pair ofall animals and birds as stated in the Bible. All the ancient population hadrecords and beliefs about a flood. For instance the Indian mythyologyrecords the "Matsya" avatar (Fish incarnation of vishnu) in which avenearble saint was warned of a forth coming flood in 7 days, and hewas advised to escape in a boat with a chosen group of 7 sages.TheGreek philosopher Plato narrates in his book Timaeus. "The Gods puri-fied the world with a flood allowing only a small number of shepherds toescape". The Chinese also have a story about the flood in their book "Li-Ki" which states as follows:-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 32. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 21 "The pillars of the sky were destroyed, The Earth shook to itsfoundations,The Sun and Stars changed their Tracks, The Earth crackedopen.The great order of the Universe was destabilized . All these badevents took place because man disobeyed the supreme Lord of the Uni-verse. The Chinese tradition acknowledges the escape of a family headedby Nuah (Noah) the righteous man, his wife, and 3 sons,Lottan (Ham)losheen (sheen) and jah-hu (japath) by building a very broad ship andtaking on it pairs of animals and birds. Just as it was among the people in the middle east, Greece , EgyptIndia and china, the anceient occupants of the American continent had alegend about a cataclysmic flood which had ravaged the world known tothem, and from out of which 3 to 8 person saved themselves in boat,which settled down on a hill. The survivors came down to the plain andpopulated the world. Dear Reader, all the above details are furnished to establish thepoint about the commonality of belief and similarities of the stories re-garding " great flood", which destroyed the world leaving behind a hand-ful of survivors. This historic event had taken place somewhere between 4000 and3000 BC.Noah and his family:- The first family on Earth The boat in which one family of 8 members survived, was said tohave settled on top of a mountain. This mountain has since been identi-fied as the Ararat peak mountain in the Armenian ranges, east of modernTurkey. This is the same area refered to in the Bible the Quran, and theSumerian epic of Gulgamesh, Noah the first parent of the world after the flood is said to havesettled down with his family in a location called "urattin" which is situatedin Turkey-Armania. With their preflood experiences the family started a pastoral life.The Bible records that Noah was the first man to plant a vineyard(gen9:20). The descendants of Noahs sons Shem, Ham and Japheth devel-oped settlements along rivers and spread out through the length andbreath of the world.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 33. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 22NOAHS DESCENDANTS The Bible records that during plege"s time the people of the worldwere divided,(gen.10.25), Now ,Reader this is a pointer to the spread out situation of Noahsdecendants, going their separate ways during the time of Pledges- whowas one of the great grandsons of Noah. They formed separate tribes, and drew the limits of their domainssettlements. Anthrapological studies speak about 6000 odd clans of people onearth, Tracing their ancestry to the Semitic, Hameric and Japhethik stocks. Bible records that 26 of these great races descended from shem,30 from Ham, 14 from Japheth. It is these 70 tribes who created thecivilisation of the bygone days, These races lived on the sea coasts, along the great rivers ofAsia,Africa and Europe. As at the time of writing in 2011, there are 6400 millions people onearth belonging to 6000 groups,speaking about 3000 languages, Basedon the structural and grammatical similarities, philologists have groupedthem into 10 main categories as follows.(1) The Indo-european (2) the semitic (3) the Sino-tibetian (4) theDravidian (5) the ural-altaic (6) the Malayo-polyuresian (7) The African -Negroid (8) The American-Indian,(9) The caucasian and (10) Micellaneous(viz the Astree and Mundra). From the Semitic stock(after Noah"s son shem) the prominentpeople who emanated into tribes were - the Herbrews (later Israelites)the Ishmaelitis etc. The 13 Arab tribes were also from the Semitic stock.They mostly lived in Tigris basin, the Medi teranien coast and Arabia.Their main language of the Middle Eastern, and North African countriesis Arabic. The Hametic stock (after Ham the 2nd second son of Noah) arebelieved to have lived in Babylon, Egypt,Somalia, Ethopia and Libye . The youngest son of Ham was canaan. He is credited as beingthe founder of 11 tribes who were found settled in an area extendingfrom Bogoskoy in Asia minor to Gaza on the Mediterranien coast until○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 34. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 232000 BC. All tribal dialects spoken in African Continent are the languages ofthe descendants of Ham. (Hametic stock) They are popularly known asthe Negroid races. The canannites who had reached Indus valley and later on movedto the southern Indian peninesula spoke Dravidian language- The lan-guage of the people who developed the Indus valley civilisation as foundin the excavation of Mohenja-Dara and Harappa. Dear Reader, haveyou heard about these remarkable cities which were known to have highstandard of civilisation as we know it now?. The cananites migrated further south, establishing homesheadsin the Godavari, Krishna and Cavery basins. The Dravidian languageswere mostly spoken by the tribals and the socially backward communi-ties of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,Tamil Nadu, and Kerala and thesewere the legacies of the cananaties. The Japhethites :- The descendants of Japeth the 3rd son ofNoah were known as the Aryan race, they had settled in the areas northof the Tropic of Cancer in Europe, central Asia, and northern Iran. Fromout of them, the Anthrapologists trace the emergence of wild tribes ofcentral Asia, including the Scythians, Turks Tartas, parthieans and Huns. They gave rise to the languages identified as Indo-European, whichare the dominant language-group in the present day world. There arefive branches of the Indo-European language. They are (1) The Indo - Aryan (2) The Indo-Iranien (3) The germanic(german, English, Swedish) (4) The Roman (italian, spanish, french,romanien) and 5th the Baltic slavic. Hindi ,Urdu,Punjabi, Sindhi,Gujarathi,Marathy,Bengali,Orya andAssamees are the offshoots of the Indo-Aryan language of Sanskrit. Modern scientific findings, and religious texts enable any seriousthinking mind to accept that the history of the human race began at onepoint and with one family. The vast multitude of generations that havepopulated the globe during the years since 3000 BC, have necessarily alink among themselves whether -they be dressed up in white, black, brownand yellow skins. The fact and the understanding behind the fact is a compelling○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 35. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 24realisation that we are all from the same family- and we are cousins toeach other - never mind if the rank of the cousinship is first,Second,Thirdor the thousandthBeginning from the time of Noah (3000 BC) when mankind got a newlease of life on earth we reach upto the time of Abraham(2166-1991BC)-his son Issac(2066-1896 BC) and his grandson Jocob (2006-1859 BC).Jews move to Egypt and undergo life as slaves :- Jacob and his 12 sons moved to Egypt when their land was rav-aged by a severe famine. When they migrated to Egypt in 1876 BC.Thejoseph family members were only 70. During the next 430 years thisnumber swelled up to 2000,000. When Joseph the son of Jacob occu-pied a prominent position under Paroah the Egyptiean ruler the jewishpeople lived happily. But the later rulers of Egypt began to make lifedifficult for the Jews, imposing hard conditions of labour, and severepunishments for mistakes made. The Jewish women were forced to killtheir newborn male children.During their stay of 430 years in Egypt the descendants of the 12 sons ofJacob had divided themselves into 12 tribes, with the following names. 1) Reuben 2) Saimon 3) Joseph 4) Judah 5) Zebulum 6) Issachar7) Dan 8) Gad 9) Asher). 10) Napthali 11) Ephraim and 12) Benjamin. The Jewish people were liberated from the Egyptian captivity bythe strong hand of their God, under the leadership of Moses. Although their God helped them to leave Egypt, cross the RedSea and Took them towards Canan the promised land, he became angrywith their constant acts of desobediance, and revolt against himself somuch so the jews were made to wander in the area for 40 years, until theolder generation who had shown rebellion and distrust perished , and theremaining people were young and obedient. They reached Canaan in 406 BC conquering many rulers, andtaking possession of large areas of land around Jericho.The Jewish people form a Nation for themselves -Israel ;- When the Jewish exile from Egypt finally moved into the countryof Moab under the leadership of Joshua, they were by engaged in battleswith many rulers of near by kingdoms, big and small conquering them alland seizing large areas,The Bible records in Joshna 11.16-17 the defeat○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 36. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 25of 31 kings and annexing their kingdom. The conquered land was divided among the 12 tribes, and theland thus occupied by the 12 tribes was called Israel and its locationextendedd from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean sea to the Jor-dan Valley- the Valley of Lebanon, and to the South of Mount Harmon. Israel was made up of a collection of village republics (panchayatin the Indian administrative practice) These village units were governedby leaders, and tribal chiefs, some of the tribal chiefs who were knownfor their wise counsel and good judgements in settling disputes, and quar-rels among the people were known as Judjesfind pre- eminent place inthe Bible.under the chapter judges. between (1406 and 1025) BC theJewish people now known as Israelies were adoministered by Judjes,thereafter the Israelies found it necessary to have a king to rule all the tribes,so as to have a fighting force drawn up from among them to meet thefrequent battles arising from the neighbouring kingdom.. The first king was saul,who was succeeded by David,who madeJerusalem the capital of Israel. After David Solomon (well known for hiswisdom, which attracted many kings from far and near to attend his courtruled Israel till his death in 937 BC to this time the land of Israel wasunder one ruler king.Thereafter the 12 Tribes carved the nation in to twoparts,the north and south Israel- the northen part was taken over by 10tribes and the southern part by the 2 tribes Judah and Banjamin. Thenorthern part was called Israel with its capital setup in Samaria. Theanother part became known as Judaea, with its capital in Jerusalem.The Israelies disobedience ;- With life well settled and prosperity in their land and home, thepeople of Israel begen to forget the instructions given by moses, regard-ing worshipping false gods" They started worshipping gods of the peopleswhom they had conquered in battles Due to the persuasion of their womenwhom they had taken up as wives or concubines. As these wives werewomen of different religious.beliefs, and not guided by strict code of con-duct, the Israelies soon found themselves livings a life far moved fromthe law of Moses and worse, in total negation of the covenant which God(Jehooah) had made with them through Moses, The Israelies were warned of their erring ways, and betrayal ofthe covenant with God by prophets like Elijah, Jonah, Amos, Hosea, Micah,and others.The Israelities, turned a deaf ear and even began to pros-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 37. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 26ecute the prophets who warned them of their evil ways,The Punishment :- The punishments to samaria the northern kingdoms of Israel andJeruslem the southern part of Israel came one after another true to thewarnings given by the prophets. The neighbouring kingdoms,who wereonce afraid of Israels power because they believed that the Israel werepeople, in whom their God was ever present and always protected themfrom enemies now began to see the difference in their life styles, changeof worship, and the ebbing away of their moral fibre. They rose up indi-vidually and collectively against Israel Syria, Assyria,Babylon, Egypt,persia, rose against Israel with devastating consequences. The Assyrean emperor Sargon 2 conquered samaria and took27290 Israelities prisoners in 725 BC The southern Judah kingdom wasoverran by the Egyptian king Neko in 608 BC who took a good number ofIsraelist as prisoners, The babylonion king Nebuchadnezzar attackedJudah and took of Israelists prisoners in 607 BC. The babylonion kingsattacked Israel again and again successively in 597 BC,587 BC and 582Bc, taking away nearly 80,000 prisoners and settled them in Babylon. The last of the kingdoms which dominated Israel were Greeceand Rome. Greece under Alexander took over Israel by defeating Per-sians in 333BC. Although Israelities were treated with leniency byAlexander his successers illtreated and persecuted them installing Greekgod zeus in the temple at Jerusalem. The Jewish tribe of Maccabeesprevailed against the mighty Greeks and seized control of Judah, andpurified the temple in 165Bc. They even fought the other Isreali tribes inthe Northern part of the Kingdom captured the town of Samaria, anddestroyed the temples built for the cannite goddesses. However their freedom from foreign domination was shortlived,since a Roman General named Pompeii stationed in the city of Dam-ascus, attacked Judah in 63 BC capturing Jerusalem. This was the lastforeign domination. After the Roman occupation. Israel was literally blownoff the map due to continous rebellion of the Jews against Roman occu-pation, leading to severe and cruel repression of the Jews in Israel. Notwithstanding the fact that a Jewish king named Herod was appointedruler of Israel under Romes approval, the Jewish rebellion continuedwell into the years when Jesus was born and far later until Rome camedown with a heavy hand, crushing the Jewish resistance, destroying the○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 38. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 27temple of Jerusalem, and putting an end to the very presence of theJews in Israel. It was a sad end to the heroic resistance put up by theJews, when the last remnants of them numbering about 800 comittedsuicide on the top of a hilly terrain called "Mazade".The year 70 AD isremembered as the time when the great diaspora (the great uprooting ordisplacement) of the Jews took place scattering them all over the world. Speaking of the Jewish Diaspora, two periods are rememberedfirst when they were exiled to Babylon in 607 BC and the 2nd in 70ADwhen they were pushed out of Judah by the Romans. This is one part of the sad story of the Jews who began their liveson earth, as a nation full of promise and achievements, giving rise togreat civilizations, and finally ending up as losers, with no homeland oftheir own and marking each passing year from 72 AD till 1947 AD withthe prayer "that the next year will see them in Jerusalem".This was theprayer of every true blooded Jew for well over 1075 years since 726BCtill.1947 AD, when the United Nation organization announced the birth ofthe nation of Israel- For the time being this was a happy ending for thescattered Jews.As we write in 2011 AD, Israel was found to be hostlileand inimical to many of these Arab neighbouring kingdoms - particularlyIran which has openly stated "Israel must be wiped out from the worldmap" The other part of their sad story concerns the lost tribes, and ournarration of all the above history has a certain relevance in knowing aboutthe lost tribes-we discuss the issue in the next chapter.Chapter : IV THE CONCLUDING PART OF THE STORY :- The Reader is invited to the passage in the Bible (Math.10.6) whereJesus Christ advises his disciples to go in search of the lost sheep (tribes)!He was referring to the enslavement and deportation of nearly 27300families from the northern part of the Kingdom of Israel by Sargon II ofthe Assyria. In the year following their deportation there was no further newsabout what happened to them.The deportation took place in 627 BC.andtheir where abouts remained un known. So when Jesus come on the scene almost 6 countries had rolledout.On the basis of the hypocthesis that a new generation in every 25○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 39. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 28years, about 24/or 12 generation would have emerged.During the 6 cen-turies since the capture and Departation of the Jews from the northernpart of Israel no information about them was available so they began tothink that some trouble or calamity he has overtaken their kinsmen takenas slaves. Thus the notion of ten lost tribes in which began to to takeshape . It was these lost tribes Jesus referred to as the lost sheep. Nodoubt later on Jesus spoke about the lost sheep in a broader context toindicate the inclusion of each and every soul that strays away from thepath of righteousness labeling them as sheep that had lost its way. It was the exhortation of Jesus addressed to the disciples thatimpelled St.Thomas to go to India 2 times when he came to know of thepresence of Jewish settlements in the north, and north western part ofIndia, at the first instance and later on about their presence in the south-ern part of India.Were these people the descendants of the lost tribes.,if so how did they reach out so far from the places of their incar-ceration? The Jewish families of the 10 tribes of the northern Israel whowere taken to Assyria were informed that their kinsmen in the southernIsrael kingdom were also conquered by the kings of to their homelandIsrael and made slaves and taken to other kingdoms. Emperor, Sargon, attacked Samaria and took 30,000 Israelites asprisoners (2 Kings 18:12) .The Assirians also started marrying women ofIsrael and a new generation called Samaritans was born. The captive Israelites multiplied in their places where they weredeported to as slaves began to spread out to different parts of the Earth.Research evidences show their presence in Sindh and North - westernprovinces, Baluchistan(Baluchistan ranges are called Solomom ranges)in Hindu Kush region, Thakshila (Rawal Pindi), an important place oflearning and trade centre on the silk route to China- and also to Afghani-stan, Kashmir, Pakistan,india, Africa, Europe, America, China, Korea &Japan, etc. Researchers were able to establish their presence in those areas,on account of their foot - prints which they left behind. The foot - printswere mainly the similarities in the technique they used to bury their dead.The jews and their descendants graves and the grave sites were called"Dolmens" wherever they went.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 40. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 29An explanation about Afghan pathans :- It is claimed that the grandson of King Saul of Benjamin tribe wascalled Afghana and that he rose to become the head of the army. WhenNebuchadnezzar, the emperor of Babylon overran the kingdom of Israelin 607 B.C. and took 80,000 Israelites to his kingdom. Afghana was saidto have escaped with his followers and made good his way to a placecalled Gore near the HinduKush ranges. he was astonished to meetmany families of the lost tribes already settled there keeping Jewish cus-toms infact and speaking fluent Aramic language. He is said to havegathered them under his leadership- they were called Afghanas, whichlater became the name of the country now called "Afghanistan". Theterm "pathan" came from word "path" meaning ten in the Dravadian lan-guage which was widely spoken among the section of jews in themedterranien region. Pathans therefore came to be associated with thepeople settled in the region. It may be remembered that the Israelites found in this region wereindeed the 10 tribes who were called the "Pathans" the details of theirarrival and the setting up of their kingdom of Afghanistan are furnished in"Mahasan-I-Afhghani", a document compiled by the Iranian writer,"Nemathulla Harvi", who was a historian in the court of the EmperorJahangir, in 1612A.D. It may be mentioned here that the Afghanistan Pathans who wereof the lost tribes and many of them had embraced Islam,"Sunni"werethey also called Afridis (in Persian Afridi means new arrivals). The firstking of Afghanistan was from the Afghana clan, called Ahmed Shah, andthe kingdom lasted from 1747 to 1973A.D. Even though many of the lost tribes converted to Islam, they con-tinued to observe many rituals and socio-cultural practices of the losttribes. They were known to circumcise their male infants on the 8th dayafter birth, They Kept separate mats for prayers (Talith),wore marriage rings(Hupa), observed menstrual cleanliness abstained from forbidden food(camels and horses),avoided boiling flesh in milk observed distinction ofclean and unclean bird meat, observed sabath, lighting of candles onsabath days, and praying towards Jerusalem, smearing of blood on thedoorsteps during epidemic, rearing of goats for special festivals, keepingthe book of psalms below the pillow during an illness and the display of○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 41. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 30the star of David in their houses. The presence of many Hebrew words inAfghan language, naming of hills and hill ranges after famous Jewishleaders( Ranges in Baluchistan called Solomon ranges), all bear witnessto their jewish heritage . Over the centuries, some of the Jewish Pathans now called Af-ghan pathans belonging to the lost tribes were following the silk routefor their trading activities and found themselves travelling to the westand east coast regions of India, passing through the present day MadhyaPradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states to reachKerala in pursuit of trading in spices, condiments, sandalwood and pre-cious stones, In kerala they settled mainly in sea-ports, like Cranganore,Palayur, Thondy(Calicut), Paravoor, Quilon and riverside towns likeCocomangalam(Malayattor ) of Periyar, Niranem and Nilakkal of PampaRiver most of which were spice producing centres. They were also foundliving in Marayur, Wayanad, Pathanamthitta. This is the brief history of the movement of the Jews of the losttribe to Palayur, the starting part of the Kizhakkekara clan.An explanation regarding the confusion about who St.Thomasconverted? In the light of research and studies, making use of the epigraphicand literary sources, modern historiographers like Prof. Elamkulam KunjanPillai came to the conclusion that the ancestors of the present dayNambudiris established their temple centred gramas, in the span of the8th and the 9th centuries in Kerala. Only by the 9th and the 10th centu-ries of the Christian era, many of the temples in kerala were constructed. Dr. Keshavan Veluthatt states that the 32 Nambudiri gramas re-ferred to in "Keralolppathi" suggested that their migration to Kerala wasduring the 8th century. The reason for this confusion was because some of the Pathanfamilies embraced Hinduism during their long stay in India and becameknown as Bhatts and Bhattathiris in the Konkan Coast. Iyers, Iyengarsand Shastris in the Western Coast and those settled in Kanchipuramcalled themselves as Tamil Brahmins and they spread to Mylapore. Thosesettled in kerala were the early converts and not nambudri brahmins.Following this, Jewish Pathans delect (reomove) the portion also mi-grated to the above places in search of trade. This prompted St. Thomasto visit Mylapore and other areas.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 42. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 31St. Thomas came to india on two occations. People remember the epic journey of St. Thomas in A.D 52 toCranganore in South India. This journey was done on ship along thepopular sea route by taking advantage of the "HIPPALUS" wind which isthe south west monsoon winds as we know it now. What is not so well -known and recalled is the fact of St. Thomass 1st visit to North India. Hewent to Taxila to help design the architecture of the palace of the ParthianKing, Gondophorus (BC 95 to AD 45). He is said to have followed the silk- route to reach Taxila along with a leader in trading, Mr. Hebban whotold him about the presence of large Jewish settlements in and aroundthe place. St. Thomas converted many Jewish Pathans to Christianity inthe area of Takhshila. There he was made to understand that there weremany Jewish settlements in South India also and to reach them, the sea- route was the best option. There is a mistaken notion that the very first converts were Brah-min numbudris And this took place in AD52(i.e first century after christ). This is awrong belief. India was thus, twice blessed to have the presence of this pre-cious saint of the Lord and the early beginning of the conversion to Chris-tianity of the lost tribes besides the Indian people, who had not knownChrist. He spent 20 years in India. He was martyred in Mylapore on the3rd of July A.D and Christians in South India observe this day as"DUKHRANA". It may be recalled that when Jesus exhorted his disciples to go outto the 4 corners of the Earth and bring to the people his teachings, hemade a special mention to seek the lost sheep - meaning the families ofthe lost tribes which was one of the main reasons of St. Thomas to cometo far away India, where he was given to understand the members of thelost tribes had migrated and settled (Mathew 10.6). We noted earlier that St. Thomas had heard about the presenceof Jewish families in South India when he went to Taxila. When he reachedCranganore Port in Kerala Coast, he was surprised to find that the Jew-ish Pathans spoke Aramaic language and many of the socio - culturalpractices were similar to that of the Jewish people of Israel. The first conversion took place in Palayur where 4 families namely,Pakalmattom, Shankarapuri, Kalli and Kaliyankal.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 43. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 32 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 44. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 33 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 45. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 34 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 46. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 35 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 47. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 36 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 48. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 2000 B.C. The Silk route through India 37 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 49. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 38 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 50. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 39 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 51. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 40 Ingt°°c IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw 10-˛mw q‰m≠p apX¬ ]membpsS Ncn-{X-Øn-sm∏w S-°pIbpw X-Xm-sbmcp Ncn{Xw cNn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXv tIc-fØns‚-hnhn[ `mKßfn-te°v IrjnImcy߃°mbpw temI-Øns‚hnhn[ `mKß-fn-te°v tPmen-bpsS -`m-Kambpw -IpSn-tb-dnbhcm-WvIng-t°°c IpSpw_mwK߃. ]≠v hym]mcw Pnhn-X-am¿§-am-bn-cp∂ Hcp {InkvXobIpSpw_w Beph CS-∏-≈n-bn¬ n∂pw hym]m-cm-h-iy-߃°mbntIm´bw ASpØv aW¿ImSv h∂v Xma-kn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. A∂v]mem {]tZiw ao- ® n¬ F∂m- W v Adn- b s∏´ncp- ∂ - X v . A∂vChnSsØ nbaßfpw ymbm-ym-b-ßfpw tm°n S-Øn-bn-cp-∂Xpw cmPy-]p-tcm-K-Xn-°m-h-iy-amb Imcy-߃ sNbvXn-cp-∂XpwcmPm-hn-smØ A[nImcmh-Im-i-߃ D≠m-bn-cp∂ ao-®n¬I¿Ømhv F∂ CS-{]-`p-hm-bn-cp-∂p. ao®n¬ I¿Øm°∑mcpsS ]q¿∆nI¿ a[pcbn¬ n∂pwh∂hcmWv. a[pc ao-m£n t£{Xw ]pcm-X {]kn-≤-am-Wv.aom£n t£{X-Ønv ASp-Øp-n∂pw h∂-h¿ F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ao-®n¬ F∂v Chsc hnfn-®p-h∂p. ao-®n¬°m¿ Xma-kn® {]tZ-iw {ItaW ao-®n¬ Icbmbpw, ao-®n-en-eqsS Hgp-Ip∂ ]pg ao-®n¬ Bdmbpw Adn-b-s∏-´p. sslµh CXn-lm-k-Øn¬ ]memgn IS-™t∏mƒ AarXv e`n-®-Xmbn ]d-bp-∂p. ao-®n-en-eqsS Hgp-Ip∂]pgsb ]mem-gn-bmbn `‡¿ hnti-jn-∏n-®p. ]memgn hmsam-gn-bneqsS{ItaW tem]n®v ]membv (Palai) Bbn. ]membv˛¬ A®Sn ajn]Xn-™-t∏mƒ B[p-n-I -Im-esØ ]mem F∂-t]cv cq]-s∏-´p. PmXnhyh-ÿbpw Xo≠epw sXmSoepw ne-n-∂n-cp∂]Ømw q‰m-≠n¬ tahn-S, ao-®n¬ {]tZisØ CS-{]-`p-°ƒ ºn-ImSv Nmh-°m´v I¿Øm-°∑mcm-bn-cp-∂p. ‘Cu®, ]q®, mbv,{kmWn’ F∂n-hbv°v Aip≤n Iev]n-®n-cp-∂n-√. {km-b-mb○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 52. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 41tbip-hn¬ hniz-kn-°p∂ {kmWn sXm´m¬ Aip-≤am-bXpw ip≤- -amIpw F∂ hnizmkw mb-∑m-cnepw {_m-“-W-cnepw A∂v cqV-aq-e-am-bn-cp-∂p. FÆ, D∏v, ]©-km-c XpS-ßnb ntXym-]tbmK hkvXp- -°ƒ Aip-≤-am-bm¬ AXv IgpIn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xnpw km[y-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. Cu kml-Ncy-Øn¬ tah-S, ao-®n¬ {]tZ-isØ I¿Øm- -°-∑m¿ Btem-Nn®v tahS Hcp hym]m-c-tI-{µ-am-°-W-sa∂ Dt±-iy-tØmsS aW¿ImSv n∂pw I√-°-Spº F∂ {InkvXob IpSpw-_Ønse Hcmsf tah-Sbv°v sIm≠p-h-∂p. At±-l-sØ IpSpw-_-ktaXw kz¥w `h-Øn-SpØp≈ Fd-tIm∂n ]pc-bn-SØn¬ hoSp- - - -n¿Ωn®v Xma-kn-∏n-®p. Fd-tIm∂n ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xmakn®-Xn-m¬Fd-tIm∂n am∏n-f-am¿ (alm-]n-≈) F∂mWv Ct±-lhpw ]n≥ap-d-°mcpw Adn-b-s∏-´Xv. ]mem {]tZiØv BZy-Im-eØv Npcp°w Nne ItØm-en-°m -Ip-Spw-_-߃ am{Xta D≠m-bn-cp-∂p-≈q. 10-˛mw q‰m-≠p-hscCh¿ Acp-hn-Øpd ]≈n-bn-emWv B≤ymXvanImhiy߃°mbnt]mbn-cp-∂-Xv. Fd-tIm∂n, hb-e-s°m-ºv, Xd-bn¬, Iq´p-¶¬ F∂omev {]apJ IpSpw-_ßfpsS tXr-Xz-Øn¬ 1002 Pqsse 3˛v ]mem- - -bn¬ ]pXnb ]≈n°v I√n´v n¿Ωm-W-{]-h¿Ø--߃ Bcw-`n-®p,CXn¬ {]Y-aÿmw Fd-tIm-∂n- Ip-Spw-_Øn-m-Wv. Cu ]≈n-bmWv - -]n∂oSv IØo-{U¬ ]≈n-bmbn Db¿Øn-b-Xv. Ing-t°°c IpSpw_mwK-ß-fpsS hy‡-amb Ncn{Xw 16˛mwq‰m-≠n¬ XpS-ßp-∂p. 16, 17 q‰m-≠p-I-fnse ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-I-cpsSNcn{Xw apJy-ambpw hmsam-gn-bmbn e`n-®hbm-Wv. 1650-˛¬ Fd-tIm∂n - -am∏n-f-am-cn¬ C´n-s®-dnb F∂- IpSpw_mY≥ sh´n-°m´v IpSpw-_-Øn-te°v amdn-Øm-a-kn-®p. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Ønse ]q¿∆n-I-cn¬ t]cv e`y-amb BZy ]nXm-a-l≥ Cu C´n-s®-dn-b-bmWv. sh´n-°m´v ]pc-bnS-Øn¬ Xma-kn® C´n-s®-dn-bbv°v Ggv ]p{X-∑m-cmWvD≠mb-Xv. CXn¬ aqØ-bmƒ Ab¿Ip-∂Øv IpS-I-t»-cnepw c≠m-a≥ ao-®n¬ ]cn-¥n-cn-°epw aq∂m-a≥ tahnS ]pfn-°epw mem-a≥ søq¿ mK-tm-en-°epw A©m-a≥ sh´n-°mSv Xd-hm-´nepwBdm-a≥ sXmSp-Ibnepw Ggm-apw Cf-b]p-{X-p-amb sXmΩ≥ F∂ - -‘sXmΩ≥]-Wn-°¿’ Ing-X-Sn-bqcpw Xma-kn-®p. Chsc√mw ktlm-Z-c-im-JIfmsW¶nepw Im¿jn-Ita-JebpsS {]tXy-IXbpw hoSp-Iƒ - - - - - -XΩn-ep≈ Zqc-°q-Sp-Xepw bm{Xm kuI-cy-ß-fpsS A`mhhpw Cu○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 53. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 42_‘-߃ XpS¿∂v ne-n¿Øp-∂-Xnv XS-€-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]ucm-Wn-I-Xzhpw Ipeo--Xzhpw D≈ Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Øns‚ t]cpw {]i-kvXnbpw hym]n-®Xv {][m--ambpw C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS Cf-b]p-{Xpw Ing-XSn-bq¿ Xma-kn®bmfp-amb sXmΩ≥ ]nXm- - -aln¬ n-∂m-Wv. ]q¿∆n-IcpsS sXmgnepw Pohn-Xam¿§-hp-amb hym- - -]mcw hn]p-eo-I-cn-°p-∂Xns‚ `mK-ambn 1696 ˛¬ tIm´-bv°-IØv]oSn-tb-°¬ sXmΩ≥ Xc-I-p-ambn ]¶p-tN¿∂v Ing-X-Sn-bq-cn¬ΩpsS ]nXm-al≥ hym]mcw Bcw-`n-®p. aq∂p-h¿jw √-co-Xn-bn¬ -I®-hSw S-Øn-b-tijw Ah¿ ]¶p-]n-cn™v I®-hSw n¿ØnsXmΩ≥ tahnS Fd-tIm-∂n-bn-te°v Xncn-®p-t]m-bn. IngX-Sn-bqcpw]cn-kcßfnepw Aßm-Sntbm a‰p-ISItfm C√m-Xn-cp-∂Xn-m¬ CXv - - - - - -B {]tZ-i-Øp-≈-h¿°v hfsc Aku-I-cyhpw _p≤n-ap´pw D≠m-°n. Cu {]ivw ]cn-l-cn-°p-∂-Xn-mbn Ahn-SpsØ {][m-nI-fmbht≈m≠ mb¿, tNm‰p-Ie mb¿, ]S-hn¬ mb¿ XpS-ßn-b-h¿tahnS h∂v sXmΩ≥ ]nXm-a-ltmSv Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ ho≠pw hym]mcwXpS-ß-W-sa∂v A`y¿Yn-®p. “Ing-X-Sn-bq-cn¬ Cnbpw IS XpS-ßn-bm¬ IpSpw-_-k-taXwXma-khpw Ahn-sS-bm-°-Ww. AXn-pw-IqsS Bh-iy-ap≈ sI´nSw]Wn-bm-p≈ ÿ-ehpw km[-km-a{Kn-Ifpw X∂m¬ hcmw.” ]nXm- - -a-l≥ Ah-tcmSv ]d-™p. “mSp-hm-gn-bp-ambn Btem-Nn®v ]d-bmw.” F∂p ]d™v m´p-{]-am-Wn-Iƒ aS-ßn. ºn-°m´p I¿Øm-hp-ambn Ah¿ Cu hnjbwN¿®-sNbvXp. mSp-hm-gn-bpsS n¿t±-i-{]-Imcw Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ A∂yw-n-∂p-t]mb ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ mb¿Ip-Spw-_-Øns‚ ]pc-bnSw]nXm-alv ]oSn-Ibpw hoSpw ]Wn-bp-hm≥ evIn. Cu ÿew A°m- -eØv ]mem-bn¬ n∂pw sXmSp-]p-gbv°v t]m-Ip-∂- GI m´p-h-gn-tbmSp tN¿∂m-bn-cp-∂p. ]nXm-al≥ A∂v ASpØ Ab¬]-°amb - -s]mcp-t∂m-en¬ ho´n¬ Xma-kn-®mWv ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ -ho-Sns‚n¿Ωm-W- {]-h¿Ø--߃ S-Øn-b-Xv. -]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ -hoSv A°m-esØ A]q¿∆hpw atm-l-chp-amb hoSm-bn-cp-∂p. Iodn-s°m-Ønb I√p-Iƒ sIm≠v sI´nb -S-Iƒ, hnim-e-amb ap‰w, hoSn-p-Np‰pw sIm®p-Xn-Æ, sIm®p-Xn-Æbv°v apI-fn¬ ap≥h-iØv henb XnÆ, hen-b-Xn-Æbv°v aq∂p-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 54. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 43h-ihpw Ac-`n-Øn, Ac-`n-Øn-bn¬ tX®p-an-p-°nb XSn-∏e-I-Iƒ,Ipdnb hi-ß-fnse ]Sn-I-fnse ]e-I-I-fn¬ Hcmƒ°v InS∂v hn{i-an-°m≥ ]mI-Øn¬ hoXn, D≈n¬ c≠v Ad-Iƒ, km[m-c-W-ho-SnvHcp Adtb ImWq, Cu hoSv ]oSn-Ibpw IqsS tN¿∂-Xn-m-emWvc≠v Ad-Iƒ n¿Ωn-®-Xv. Ad-bpsS ap≥h-isØ nc-bn¬ sImØp-]-Wn-I-tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb CS-Øp-sh-´n, AXn¬ IrXy-amb AI-e-Øn¬Xnf- ß p∂ Hm´p- I p- a n- f - I ƒ, Ad- b psS c≠v hi- ß - f nepw nc-IƒsIm≠v cq]-s∏-Sp-Ønb Hmtcm apdn-Iƒ, hen-bXn-Æbn¬n∂pw - -Ad-I-fn-tebv°pw apdn-I-fn-tebv°pw IS-°p-hm-mbn c≠p-hm-Xn-ep-Iƒ, Ad-Iƒ°pw apdn-Iƒ°pw apI-fn¬ X´v, NmW-Iw-sIm≠v anp-°n-sa-gp-Inb Xd, Hme-ta™ ta¬°q-Sv Ch-sbm-s°-bm-bn-cp∂pB ho-Sns‚ {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ. 1700-˛¬ tahn-S-bn¬ n∂pw sXmΩ≥ ]nXm-a-l≥ `mcy Nqc-tm-en-°¬ Genbpw a°-tfm-Sp-samØv Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ ho´n-tebv°v Xma-kw-am-dn √-co-Xn-bn¬ hym]mcw S-Øn-h-∂p. ]nXm-a-ls‚ IpSpw-_-t]cv Fd-tIm-∂n-bn¬ F∂m-b-Xn-m¬‘Fd-tIm-∂n-bn¬’ F∂pw, ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ mb-∑m-cpsS ]pc-bn-S-am-b-Xn-m¬ ‘]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬’ F∂pw _‘p-°fpw kplr-Øp-°fpw ]nXm-a-l-tbpw IpSpw-_-tØbpw hnfn-®p-h∂p. ]pXnb -ho-´nse hym]mcw hfsc hnZ-Kv[-ambpw hnP-b-I-c-ambpw S-Øn-b-Xn¬ n∂pw e`n® em`wsIm≠v hym]mcw IqSp-X¬ hn]p-eo-I-cn-°p-Ibpw ]d-ºp-Ifpw ]mS-ßfpw tNcn-°-ep-Ifpwhmßp-Ibpw ]pXnb ASn-a-I-sfbpw Imen-I-sfbpw sIm≠p-h-cn-Ibpw sNbvXp. imkv{Xo-b-ambn mWy-hn-f-Ifpw `£y-hn-f-IfpwIrjn sNbvX-Xn-m¬ kmº-Øn-I-ambn IqSp-X¬ ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-≠m-bn. ]nXm-a-l≥ s]mXp-{]-h¿Ø--ß-fnepw ]s¶-Sp-Øp-Xp-S-ßn. Ing-X-Sn-bq-cnse {][m--hym-]m-cnbpw P-k-Ω-X-mb m´p-{]-am-WnbpwanI® I¿j-I-p-ambn {ItaW At±lw Adn-b-s∏-´p-Xp-Sßn. Hcn-°¬ sXm-Ω∏Wn-°¿ hym]mc Bh-iy߃°mbn sIm- - -®n°p t]m-b-t∏mƒ {]mb-]q¿Øn-bm-ImØ Hcp _mes GXmpwBfp-Iƒ ]nd-h-Øn--SpØv hgn-bn¬ XS™p h®n-cn-°p-∂Xv IWm-n-S-bm-bn. “F¥n-mWv n߃ Cu _mes XS™p h®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.” sXm-Ω-∏-Wn-°¿ tNm-Zn-®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 55. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 44 “hS-°pw-abv°¬ ISw sIm-SpØ ]Ww XncnsI hmßm≥ - -C√Øp sN∂-t∏mƒ Xºp-cm-tm {]mb-]q¿Øn-bmb a‰p ]pcp-j≥amtcm C√mØXnm¬ Cu Ip´nsb ]nSn®p sIm≠p h∂-p.”Ah-cn¬ apJy≥ ]d-™p. “Cu _mes hnt´-bv°q. apXn¿∂-h¿ sNøp∂ sX‰nvIp´n-Isf in£n-°-tWm.?” sXm-Ω-∏-Wn-°¿ Ah-tcmSv tNmZn®p. “hS°pw a-bv°¬ n∂pw ]W-hp-ambn Bƒ hcs´.”apJy≥ ]d-™p. “Cu _mes hnt´-bv°q. ]Icw Rm≥ Ccp-t∂m-fmw. ISwRm≥ G‰p.” `b-∂n-cn-°p∂ _me-tmSv kl-Xm]w tXm-∂nb ]nXm-a-l≥ ]d-™p. _mes kzX-{¥-m-°n Ah¿ ]Icw ]nXm-a-ls XS™ph®p. B _me≥ AhnsS n∂pw HmSn hS-°pw-a--bv°¬ C√ØpsN∂v kw`-hn-®-sX√mw henb Xºp-cm-´n-tbmSv ]d-™p. hnh-c-߃a-€n-em-°nb henb Xºp-cm´n ISw G‰-bmsf C√-sØ°p Iq´n-s°m≠p hcp-hm-≥ _mes Xncn®v ]d-™-b-®p. _me≥ XncnsIsN√p-tºmƒ ]nXm-a-l≥ Du∂p-h-Sn-bpsS A{Kw Xpd∂v ]Ww HcpCe-bn¬ IpS-™n´v FÆp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ISw In´m-p-≠m-bn-cp∂150 cminbpw In´n-°-gn-™-t∏mƒ ISw ¬In-b-h¿ t]m-bn. ]nXm-a-l≥ bm{X XpS-cm≥ Hcp-ßn-bt∏mƒ _me≥ n¿_-‘]q¿∆w ]nXm- - -a-ls hS-°pw-abv°te°v hnfn®p sIm≠p t]m-bn. ]nXm-als‚ - - - -t]cpw ho´p-t]cpw tNm-Zn®p a-€n-em-°nb A¥¿÷w {]Xyp-]-Im-c-ambn Fs¥-¶nepw klmbw kzoI-cn-°-W-sa∂v n¿_-‘n-®p. “Rm≥ Fs‚ [¿Ωw nd-th-‰n-b-tXbp≈q.” F∂p ]d™v{]Xn-^-e-sam∂pw kzoI-cn-°msX kt¥m-j-]q¿∆w AhnsS n∂pwaS-ßn. hS-°pw-abv°¬ Xºp-cm≥ C√Øp sN∂-t∏mƒ Xºp-cm´n - -S-∂sX√mw hnh-cn®p ]d-™p. Cu hnh-c߃ a-€n-em-°nb Xºp- - -cm≥ Hcn-°¬ fmew Aº-eØn¬ hgn-]mSp Ign-°m-mbn h∂-t∏mƒ -]nXm-a-ls Bf-b®p hcpØn ]cn-N-b-s∏-´p. “ISw ho´n _mesc£n-®Xnv Gs¥-¶nepw {]Xyp-]Imcw kzoI-cnt® aXn-bmIq” F∂v - -Xºp-cm≥ Xo¿Øp ]d-™p. “n¿_-‘-am-sW-¶n¬ Fs‚ hoSnpkao]w Im´p-t]mØv hogp∂ Hcp Ipgnbpw Ipsd hbepw InS-°p-∂Xv Fn°p Xt∂-bv°q.” ]nXm-a-l≥ ]d-™p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 56. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 45 ]mºq-cm≥ ]mdbv°v ta¬hiw, ao-®n-em-dnv hS-°v, fmewtXm-Snv Ing-°v, h-Ønp sX°v AXn-cp-IƒXo¿∂ hS-°pw-aÿew apgp-h≥ Xºp-cm≥ B[m-csa-gpXn ]nXm-alv ¬In. Icbpw - -hbepw tN¿∂ B hkvXp-hIƒ Xe-ap-dIƒ ssIa-dn™v Ct∏mgpw - -ΩpsS IpSpw-_-°m-cpsS ssII-fn¬ Ccn-°p-∂p. sXmΩ≥ ]nXm-a-ls‚ aqØ-]p{X≥ √ b-X-{¥-⁄pw_p≤n-ampw ÿntcm-’m-ln-bp-amb C´n-s®-dnbbn¬ aXn∏v tXm∂nbao-®n¬ I¿Øm-hv At±-lsØ Xs‚ a{¥n-bm-°n-. a{¥n-bpsS ]nXm-hmb sXmΩv ‘]Wn-°¿’ ÿmw evIn CS-{]`p BZ-cn-°pI-bp-≠m-bn, Aß-s-bmWv sXmΩ≥ ]nXm-a-l≥ ‘sXmΩ≥ ]Wn-°-¿’B-b-Xv. ao-®n¬ I¿Øm-hns‚ a{¥n-bmb C´n-s®-dn-bbv°pw ]nXm-hnpw e`n® AwKo-Im-c-Øn-p-tijw Ah¿ Ing-t°-°c Xd-hm-Sp-ho-Snv ]Sn-™m-td-°-c-bn¬ {]uV-amb ]pXn-sbmcp hoSv n¿Ωn®vXmakw Ahn-tSbv°v amdn. Cu hoSp-Iƒ ‘Ing-t°-°-c, ]Sn-™m-td-°c’ F∂n-ßsbmWv _‘p-an-{Xm-Zn-I-fpsS CS-bn¬ Adn-b-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xv. ]nXm-a-ls‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ H‰-πm-°¬ C´n-s®-dn-bXv a{¥n-bm-bn-cns° IS-∏m-´q¿ AßmSn ÿm]n-°m≥ ao-®n¬ I¿ØmhvXocp-am-n-®p. Cu hnjbw ]nXmhv sXmΩ≥ ]Wn°-cp-ambn a{¥nBtem-Nn-®p. ]nXm-a-ls‚ n¿t±-i-{]-Imcw sXmΩ-m-a-‰-Øn¬AßmSn ÿm]n-°m≥ a{¥n I¿Øm-hn-tmSv in]m¿i sNbvXp.sXmΩ-]Wn-°cpsS t]cn¬ n∂mWv sXm-Ωm-a‰w F∂ t]cv D≠m- - - -b- X v . Aßs Ing- t °- ° c IpSpw- _ - Ø nse ]nXm- a - l s‚X¬∏cy{]Im-camWv ao-®n¬ I¿Ømhv ao-®n-em-dns‚ Xoc-Ømbn -ao-®n¬ Aßm-Sn-bpsS hnØp ]mIn-b-Xv. B hnØv Infn¿Øphf¿∂v C∂v ]mem K-c-ambn ]S¿∂p ]¥-en®p n¬°p-∂p. ao-®n¬ Aßm-Snsb ImØp c£n-°-p∂-Xn-mbn Aa-tem¬`h amXm-hns‚ Hcp Ipcnip ]≈nbpw ]nXm-a-l≥ AhnsS ]Wn Ign-∏n-®p.]q¿∆n-I-cpsS Cuiz-c-hn-izm-k-Øns‚ nZ¿i--ambn AXv C∂pwne-n¬°p-∂p. sXmΩ≥ ]nXm-a-lv t]cpw ]pI-gv®-bpw D≠m-b-Xn-sm∏wNne i{Xp-°fpw D≠m-bn-. ]nXm-a-ls‚ ÿncw ]Wn-°m-cn-sem-cm-fmb D‚m-tmSv CjvS-t°Sv tXm∂n-b-Xp-aqew ]Wn-bn¬ n∂pw ]d-™p-hn-Sm≥ n›-bn-®p. Cu hnhcw Adn™ D‚m≥ ]nXm-a-ls○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 57. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 46sIm√p-hm≥ sh´p-IØnbpw ]Wn-bn®v ImØn-cp-∂p. ho´n¬ Bcp-an-√m-Xn-cp∂ Hcp-Zn-hkw ]nXm-a-l≥ D®-bq-Wp-I-gn™v Xf-Øns‚XnÆ-bnse ]e-I-I-´n-en¬ InS∂v Ddßp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Cu X°w-tm°n D‚m≥ ]Xp-ßn-h∂v NmSn-hoWv ]nXm-als B™p-sh-´n. sh´p-IØn hoSns‚ Db-cw-Ip-d™ Igp-t°m-en¬ X´n. Cui_vZw-tI´v NmSn-sb-gp-t∂‰ ]nXm-al≥ ASp-Øsh-´n¬ n∂pw c£- - -s]-Sm≥ D‚ms h´w-]n-Sn-®p. _lfw tI´v ]d-ºn¬ n∂pw HmSn-h∂ ]pebkv{Xo Ae-dn-°-c-™v H®-sh-®p. Ae-dn-°-c-®n¬ tI´vIng-t°-°-c-ho-´n¬ n∂pw AXn-thKw h∂ c≠m-a-sØ-]p-{X≥sIm®n´n sF∏v D‚ms ]nSn®p-sI´n mSp-hm-gn-bpsS ASp-°-se-Øn-®p. ]nXm-a-ls‚ aqØ-]p-{X-mb a{¥n-bpsS n¿t±-i-{]-ImcwmSp-hmgn D‚ms h[-in-£bv°v hn[n-®p. Imm-´p-]md sIm≠p-t]mbn shSn-sh-®p-sIm-∂mWv D‚ms‚ h[-in£ S-∏m-°n-b-Xv.“sIm-®n´n sF∏mWv Fs‚ Poh≥ c£n-®Xv. Ah≥ B≠qcm-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ Rmn-t∏mƒ Pohn-®n-cn-°n-√, F√mw ssZh-ln-Xw.Ahpw Ahs‚ hoXw `qan Rm≥ ¬Ipw.” sXmΩ≥ ]Wn-°cpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X-mb sIm®n´n sF∏v -A∂sØ ]Xn-hp-t]mse 13-˛14 hb-€n-em-bn-cp-∂n√ hnhm-ln-X-m-b-Xv. √ Imbn-Im-`ym-kn-bm-bn-cp∂ At±lw ASnbpw XSbpw KpkvXn-bp-ambn 24 hb-€p-hsc Ahn-hm-ln-X-mbn Ign-™p. Aß-s-bn-cns° B≠q¿ ]≈n-∏p-d-Øp-ho-´nse am¿tØma sa{Xms‚ ktlm-Zcn-bp-ambn ZØv hnhm-lm-tem-N h∂p. hnhm-l-{]mbw Ign-™p-n¬°p∂ B bph-Xn-bp-am-bp≈ hnhm-lm-tem-N c≠v IpSpw-_-°mcpw CjvS-s∏-´p. ]mc-º-cyhpw Ipeo--Xz-hp-ap≈ IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ n∂mWvA°m-eØv sa{Xm-∑msc sXc-s™-Sp-Øn-cp-∂-Xv. BZn-a -{In-kvXym-n-I-fmb ]I-tem-a‰w IpSpw-_-Ønse ]≈n-∏p-dØv imJ-bn¬n∂mWv kpdn-bmn sa{Xm-∑msc hmgn-®n-cp-∂Xv. C´n-sF-∏ns‚ h[p- -hns‚ hoSmb B≠q¿ ]≈n-∏p-d-Øp-ho-´n¬ ktlm-Z-co-˛-k-tlm-Z-c-cmbn c≠p-t]¿ am{X-amWv D≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv. ktlm-Z-c≥ sa{Xm≥]T--Øn-v t]m-b-Xn-m¬ ktlm-Z-cnsb hnhmlw sNøp-∂-bmƒZØp-n¬t°-≠-Xmbn h∂p. B≠p-cnse CS-{]-`p-hm-bn-cp∂ A©-Ip-fØv ]Wn-°¿ At±-lØns‚ B{in-Xpw {InkvXp-aXØnte°v -tN¿∂ Bfp-amb Ip∂pw-]pdw IpSpw-_-Ønse Hcp bphm-hp-ambn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 58. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 47Cu bph-Xn-bpsS hnhmlw S-Øp-hm≥ Xev]-cy-s∏-´ncp∂p. bph-Xn-bpsS ktlm-Z-c-mb sa{Xmpw IpSpw-_mw-K-ßfpw B hnhm-lm-tem-N kzoI-cn-®n-√. CXn¬ AXr-]vXmb ]Wn-°¿ Cu bph- -Xn°v hcp∂ F√m hnhm-lm-tem-N--Ifpw apS-°n-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p.C´n sF∏p-am-bp≈ Cu bph-Xn-bpsS hnhmlw Ipd-hn-e-ßmSv ]≈n-bn¬ h®v S-∂p. hnhm-l-tijw Ccp-ho-´p-Imcpw BtLm-j-ambn]≈n-∏p-dØv ho´p-ap-‰sØ ]¥-en¬ Ib-dn. ]ptcm-ln-X¿ saØ-∏m-bnepw h-ZºXn-Iƒ ]mhm-Sn-Ifnepw (sIm-c≠n-]eI) hncp-∂p-Im¿ - - - - - -neØv tc-∏m-I-fnepw Ccp-∂p. A∂v h-Z-º-Xn-Iƒ°v a[pcwevIp-∂Xv ]ptcm-ln-X-cm-Wv. {]mbw IqSnb ]ptcm-ln-X≥ a[pcwhbv ° m≥ Fgp- t ∂- ‰ - t ∏mƒ A©p- I p- f - Ø p- ] - W n- ° - c psS HcpA`ymkn Ib-dn-h∂v IØn-sb-cn-™p-n∂ Xq°p-hn-f°v sh´n-ho-gvØn. CXp-I≠v hcs‚ IqsS h∂ ‘]mem-]≈n a√≥’ FtSS≥B A`ym-knsb IS-∂p-]n-Sn-®p. Ccp-hcpw ]nSn-hn-SmsX sI´n-adn-™p- -ho-Wp. F√m-hcpw ]cn-{`m-¥-cm-bn, FtS-S≥ ]nSn-hn-´m¬ A`ymknFtS-Ss sh´pw F∂p a-€n-em-°nb h-hc≥ C´n-sF∏v Fgpt∂- -‰p-sN∂v A©Ip-fØp ]Wn-°cpsS A`ym-knsb ]mZ-Øn¬ tImcn -ap‰-Øn-p-]pdsØ ]mStØbv°v Fdn-™p. mWw-sI´ A`ymknAhn-sS-n∂pw HmSn-t∏m-bn. hnhm-l-hn-cp∂v awK-f-ambn S-∂p. ]≈n-∏p-dsØ bph-Xnsb hnhmlw sNbvX C´n-sF∏vXnI™ A`ym-kn-bm-sW∂v a-€n-em-°nb A©-pIpfw ]Wn-°¿]ns∂ iey-Øn-p-sN-∂n-√. Hcn-°¬ C´n-sF∏v A©p-Ipfw FS-Øns‚ apºn-eqsS t]mb-t∏mƒ Ahn-SpsØ kvXoIƒ ]nXm-a-ls]cn-l-kn-®p. C´n-sF∏v ‘shfp-tØ-SØn’ F∂p-]-d™v AhscXncn®v ]cn-l-kn®v B´n-b-ti-j-amWv ho´ntebv°v t]mb-Xv. BkvXoI-fpsS `¿Øm-°-∑m-sc√mw Hcp-an-®p-IqSn C´n sF∏ns tcn-Sm≥ Hcp-ßn-bn-dßn. CXv ap≥Iq-´n-I≠ C´n-sF∏v A∂p-cm-{Xn-Xs∂ -F√m-h-kvXp-h-I-Ifpw s]dp°n IpSpw-_-k-taXw B≠q¿ n∂pwIng-XSn-bq¿ Ingt°-°c Xd-hm-´n¬ h∂p. sXmΩ≥ ]Wn-°¿ aIs -kzoI-cn-°m≥ Xøm-dm-bn-√. ‘S-∏p-tZm-jw-sIm≠v kw`-hn-®-Xt√,XncnsI B≠q¿°v Xs∂ t]mIWw’ CXm-bn-cp∂p sXmΩ ]Wn-°-cpsS Xocp-am-w. AXnv Xøm-dm-hmsX C´n sF∏v Ing-t°-°cXd-hm-Snp kao]w Bƒ Xma-k-an-√msX InS∂ ]gb Xd-hm-Sp-hoSv_ew-{]-tbm-Kn-®p-Xp-d∂v AXn¬ Xma-kn-®p. sXmΩ≥ ]Wn-°¿ i‡-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 59. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 48ambn CXns FXn¿Øp. FXn¿∏v hI-h-bv°msX Xma-kn® C´nsF∏n-tmSv ]nXmhv ]d-™p, ‘tXm∂ymkw S-°p-∂Xn-m¬ n°v -hoXw Xcn√’ F∂v. D‚m-n¬ n∂pw C´n-sF∏v ]nXm-hns‚ Poh≥c£n® tij-amWv sXm-Ω≥ ]nXm-a-l≥ Cu Xocp-am--Ønv am‰w-h-cp-Øn-b-Xv. 24-˛mw hb-€n¬ hnhm-ln-X-mb C´n sF∏nv aqØ A©v]p{Xn-amcpw Cfb aq∂v ]p{X-∑mcp-ambn F´v a°ƒ D≠v. ITn-m-≤zm-n-bmb C´n-sF∏v sIm‰-t¶mSv new nc-Øp-tºmƒ S-h-cºvsI´m≥ henb I√p-Iƒ ]nSn®v ]n-bp-≠m-bn, ]n aq¿—n®v 35-˛mwhb-€n¬ C´n sF∏v AIm-e-Øn¬ ncym-X-m-bn. A[nIw Xma-kn-bmsX `mcybpw acn-®p. ssiihhpw _meyhpw hnSmØ F´p-a-°fpw Am-Ycm-bn. Ch-cpsS kwc-£Ww tPyjvTm-p-P∑m¿ Bcpw - -Gs‰-Sp-Øn-√. Hcp the--°m-cn-bmWv amXm-hmbpw ]nXm-hmbpw n∂vCu Ip´n-Isf hf¿Øn-bXpw kzØv kwc-£n-®-Xpw. tPyjvTm-p-P-∑m-cmb H‰-πm-°¬°mcpw ]Sn-™m-sd-°-c-°mcpw Ing-t°-°-c-°m¿°p-IqSn Ah-Im-i-s∏´ s]mXp-ap-X-emb sSp-then `qan ]q´n]¶n-s´-Sp-°m≥ Xocp-am-n-®p. Cu hnhcw Adn™ Ing-t°-°cbnse - -the-°mcn B¨a-°-fmb C´n-s®-dn-bsb Ffn-bn¬ FSp-ØpwsImt®-∏ns ssIøn¬ ]nSn®pw sXmΩs ap∂n¬ S-Øn-bpw- Im-en-Ifpw ]pe-b-cp-ambn sSp-th-en¬ sN∂v Ing-t°-°-c-°m-cpsShoXw tNmZn-®p-hmßn `qan Imf-I-sf-sIm≠v ]q´n-sb-Sp-Øp. sXmΩ≥ ]nXm-a-lv aq∂v ]p{X-∑mcpw aq∂v ]p{Xn-am-cp-ambnBdv a°-fmWv D≠m-b-Xv. ao-®n¬ I¿Øm-hns‚ a{¥n-bmbncn-°p-Ibpw sh≈m-∏m-Sv I-øm-e-bv°-I-Øp-n∂pw hnhm-lw- sNbvXv H‰-πm-°-te°v amdn-Øm-a-kn°pIbpw sNbvX C´n-s®-dn-b, B≠q¿]≈n-∏p-d-tØbv°v ZØp-t]m-Ip-Ibpw ]n∂oSv Ing-t°-°c Xd-hm-Spho-´n-tebv°v Xncn-®p-h-cn-Ibpw sNbvX sIm®n´n sF∏v, Im™n-c-∏≈n I√-d-bv°¬ n∂pw hnhmlw sNbvXv ]Sn-™m-td-°-c-ho-´n¬Xma-kn-® sIm®p-a-Ømbn F∂n-h-cmWv ]p{X-∑m¿. ]nXm-a-ls‚aqØ-]p-{Xn-sb, Ing-t°-°-c-hoSv ]Wn-bn-°p-∂-Im-eØv Ab¬]-°-am-bn-cp∂ ]mem s]mcp-t∂m-en¬ IpSpw-_-Øn-te°v hnhmlwsNbvXb®p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb fmew ssaem-Sq¿ IpSpw-_Ønepw - -aq∂m-a-sØ-]p-{Xnsb IS-mSv sh´n-°m-∏n-≈n¬ IpSpw-_Ønepwhnhmlw sNbvXb®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 60. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 49 sXmΩ≥]n- X m- a - l ≥ hm¿≤- I y- a m- b - t ∏mƒ aq∂p ]p{X-∑m¿°pambn `qkzØv `mKn-®p. Hmtcm-]p-{Xpw 96 apdn ]pc-bnSwhoXhpw aqØ-]p-{X≥ C´n-sN-dn-bbv°v t]mWm-Spw, c≠m-a-sØ-]p-{X≥ sIm®n´n sF∏nv Nq≠-t®-cn-bpw, Cf-b-]p-{X≥ sIm®p-a-Øm-bn°v Hen-∏m-Shpw evIn. sSp-then `qan s]mXp-hmbn InS-∂p.‘Imcy-Ønv C´n-sN-dn-b, Imbn-Im-`ym-k-n sIm®n´n sF∏v, IminvsIm®p-a-Ømbn.’ F∂n-ßs ]p{X-∑sc°pdn®v ]nXm-a-l≥ ]d-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. Ing-t°-°c Xd-hm-Sp-hoSns‚ Ah-Imiw ]eXe-ap-d-IƒssIadn™v ]pXnb Xe-ap-dbn-se-Øn, Ah-kmw Ah-Imiw D≠m- -bn-cp-∂-bmƒ Zqsc ]pXnb Irjn`qan hmßn ]Wn-IƒsN-øn-°m≥IpSpw-_ktaXw Xma-kw Ahn-tSbv°vam‰n. Ing-t°-°cho-Sv h¿jw- - - - -tXmdpw sI´n-ta-bm≥ ]Wn-Øn-c°paqew km[n-®n-√. Hme-ta™hoSns‚ ta¬°q-c ]g-In-s∏m-Sn™v I-Øagbn¬ sh≈-an-dßnbpw - - - - -sh¥p-t]m-Ip∂ shbn-te‰pw ]e h¿j-߃sIm≠v BZy Xd-hmSvhoSv mtim-∑p-J-am-bn. ΩpsS ]nXm-a-lpw Ing-t°-°c Xd-hm-Sp-ho-Sns‚ ÿm]-Ipw G‰hpw Bcm-[ypw Ing-t°-°-c- Ip-Spw-_-Øns‚ t]cnpw{]kn≤n°pw Imc-W-`q-X-p-amb Fd-tIm∂n sXmΩ≥ F∂ Ing-t°-°c sXmΩ≥ ]Wn-°¿ 1755-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn.Z¿i--Xn-cp-mƒ F√m {InkvXob ]≈n-I-fnepw A°m-eØv s]mXp-tbmKXocp-am-{]-Imcw Z¿i-Xn-cp-mƒ S-Øn-bn-cp-∂p. Xncp-m-fns‚ Xte- - -∂mƒ cm{Xnbn¬ ]≈n-bn-ep≈ F√m I¿Ω-ßfpw ]q¿Øn-bm°nbhnIm-cnb®s kq¿tπipw Dudm-ebpw aq∂p-aq-e≥ sXm∏nbpw [cn®vHcp sagp-Ip-Xncn IØn®v kI-e-hn[ hmZy-ta-f-ß-tfmSpw IqSnBtLm-j]q¿∆w CS-hIw-K߃ A®s‚ Xma-kap-dn-bn¬ sIm≠p- - - - -t]m-bn-bm-°pI ]Xn-hp-≠v. apdn-hm-Xp-°¬ n∂v hnIm-cn-b®≥ Ah- -kmw F√m-h¿°pw Hcp hmgvhv (D-dp-in-a) sImSp-Øn-cp-∂p. Hcn-°¬ Ing-t°-°c C´n-sF-∏ns‚ Ap-hm-Z-an-√msX ]mem hen-b-]-≈n-bnepw Cu ]Xnhv S-Øn. CX-dn™ C´n-sF∏v tIm]m-{I-¥-m-hp-Ibpw F√m-hscbpw `b-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibp-ap-≠m-bn. ]mem ]≈n-bn¬ - -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 61. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 50Z¿i--Xn-cp-m-fn-tm-S-p-_-‘n-®p S-Ønbncp∂ hnIm-cn-b-®s‚sIm´n-tLmjw ]n∂oSv Hcn-°epw D≠m-bn-´n-√.]mt®m¿ t¿® Ing-t°-°c Itcm-s´-ho-´n-te°v amdn-∏m¿Ø sXmΩ-s‚bpwadn-b-Øn-s‚bpw ]p{X-mb C´n-sF-∏npw `mcy adn-b-Ønpw hnhm-l-tijw hfsc mfp-Iƒ Ign-™n´pw k¥m--ku-`mKyw e`n®n-√.]mem hen-b-]-≈n-bnse ]mt®m¿t¿® S-Øn-b-ti-j-amWv ISn-™q¬ ]p{Xmb sXmΩs K¿`w-[-cn-®-Xv. mev ]d ]®-cnbpwmev ] Xv tXßbpw mev Xpemw i¿°- c bpw sIm≠mWv]mt®m¿t¿® Ign-°p-∂-Xv. BZyw cm°pfn (Z--l) Xncp-m-fn-s‚-b∂v S-Øn-bn-cp∂ t¿® Xncp-m-fns‚ A∂sØ Xnc-°p-Ip-d-bv°m≥ ]n∂oSv Xncp-m-fns‚ Xte-Zn-h-k-am°n. C´n-sF-∏ns‚]n≥Xp-S¿®-°m-cmb Ing-t°-°c ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬, ]oSn-I-bn¬,Be-bv°¬, Itcm-s´-ho-´n¬ IpSpw-_-°m¿ km[--ßtfm ]Wtam]ncn-s®-Sp-ØmWv ]t®m¿t¿® S-Øn-bn-cp-∂-Xv. ]mem ]cn-k-c-ß-fn¬ n∂pw IpSn-tb-‰w-aqew IpSpw-_-°m-sc√mw ]e Zn°p-I-fn-tebv°v t]mb-t∏mƒ ]mt®m¿t¿® Ing-t°-°c°m-cpsS ÿeØv - -ÿm]n® Cfw-tXm-´w-]-≈n-bn¬h®v S-Øm≥ Xocp-am-n-®p. ZpJvdm-- Zn-hkamWv- Chn-sSbpw ]mt®m¿t¿® S-Øn-bn-cp-∂Xv. Ct∏mƒ - -ZpIvdm Znhkw Cfw-t¥m´w ]≈n-bn¬ h®v CS-h-I-°m¿ F√m-h-cp-sSbpw Iq´mb kl-I-c-W-tØmsS BZysØ Ip¿∫m Ign™vsh©n-cn®v `IvXn]q¿∆w ]mt®m¿ t¿® S-Øn-t∏m-cp-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 62. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 51 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_wIng-t°-°c sIm®n-´n-sF∏v (H∂mw Xe-apd) sXmΩ-∏-Wn-°-cpsS ZznXob ]p{X≥ H∂mw Xe-apd sIm®n-´n-b-∏nv sXmΩ≥, sF∏v, C´n-s®-dnb F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A©p]p{Xn-amcpw D≠mbn. Hcp ]p{Xnsb ]d-ºd DXp∏v hnhmlw sNbvXp.c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb I≠-m´p XpSn-bs‚ ho´nepw, aq∂m-a-sØ-hsf Nß-m-ticn Xmeq-°n¬ I√-d-bv°¬ Xcs‚ ho´nepw, mem-a-Ø-hsf IS-m-Sp-I-c-bn¬ sh´n-°m-∏-≈n¬ ho´nepw A©m-asØ]p{Xnsb ]mem-bn¬ s®n-°m´p IpSpw-_-Ønepw hnhmlw sNbvX-b®p. ]p{X-∑m-cn¬ sXmΩ≥ Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-Sns‚ Xe-hpwC´n-s®-dnb Xmg-Øp-ho-Sns‚ Xe-h-p-ambn. sF∏v tImX-aw-K-eØvCe- ™ n- ° ¬n∂p hhmlw Ign- s ®- ¶ nepw k¥m- - a n- √ msX{]kvXpX imJ Ah-km-n®p. Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ imJItcm-t´-ho-´n¬ sXmΩ≥ (c≠mw Xe-apd) sIm®n-´n-b-∏ns‚ aqØ-a-I≥ sXmΩ≥ Bc-°pg FS-Ø-t´¬n∂p hnhmlw sNbvXv hSt° I√n-∏p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-k-am°n. sXmΩv C´n-b∏v F∂ ]p{Xpw aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠m-bn-cp∂p. Hcp ]p{Xnsb ]ndhw ]pg-b°p kao]w ]mgq-°c ho´nepwc≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb sshbv°Øv G‰p-am-q-°m-cns‚ ho´nepw,aq∂m-a-Ø-hsf `c-W-ßm-Øv πmtØm-´-Ønepw hnhmlw sNbvX-b®p.Ing-t°-°c C´n-b∏v (aq∂mw Xe-apd) sXmΩs‚ ]p{X-mb C´n-b∏v ]mem-bn¬ Xd-bn¬ am∏n-f-bmb Xøn¬ho-´n¬n∂v hnhmlw sNbvXp. At±-lØnp sXmΩ≥, -C´n-bbv]v, C´n-s®-dnb, aØmbn, h¿°n F∂n-ßs A©p ]p{X-∑mcpw c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠m-bn-cp∂p. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-b-Øns ]mem Aßm-Sn-bn¬ sIm´p-Im-∏-≈n¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-b®p. c≠m-a-Ø-h-fmb Gen Ahn-hm-ln-X-bmbn kz]n-Xm-hn-tm-sSmØv Ign-®p-Iq´n. ]p{X-∑m-cn¬ aqØ-a-I≥ sXmΩ≥ ]pØ≥]p-c-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 63. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 52bv°¬ imJ-bp-tSbpw C´n-bbv]v ]oSn-I-bn¬ imJ-bp-tSbpw, C´n-s®-dnb Be-bv°¬ imJ-bp-tSbpw h¿°n Itcm-t´-hoSv (Xd-hmSv)imJ-bp-tSbpw Xe-h-∑m-cmbn. aØmbn ap´p-Nnd G‰p-am-q-°m-cs‚ho´n¬ ZØ-h-Im-in-bmbn Xma-kn®p. Hcp Ip´n Pn-s®-¶nepw BIp´n acn-®p-t]m-b-Xn-mepw ]n∂oSv Ip´n-I-fp-≠m-Im-Xn-cp-∂-Xn-mepwB imJ Ah-km-n®p.]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ IpSpw_wA). sXmΩ≥ aq∂mw-X-e-apd C´n-b-bv]ns‚ {]Ya ]p{X-mb sXmΩ≥ AXn-c-ºp-g-bn¬ sIm®p-]p-c-bv°¬ ho´n¬ Cu∏s‚ aIsf hnhmlwsNbvXv ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ F∂p ]d-bp∂ Sp-hnse sImSp-º≥]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn®p. memw Xe-apd sXmΩv C´n-bbv]v,Cu∏≥, aØmbn F∂n-ßs aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw Hcp ]p{XnbpwD≠mbn. ]p{Xnsb fmew-I-c-bn¬ abn-em-Sq¿ Rmh-≈n¬ DXp∏pXc-Is‚ aI≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. sXmΩs‚ {]Ya ]p{X≥ C´nbv]vIm™n-c∏dºn¬ Ing-t°-Øebv°¬n∂p hnhmlw Ign®v ssIX- - - - - -h-b-en¬ Xma-kn®p. Ah¿°v k¥m--ap-≠m-bn√. ZznXob ]p{X≥Cu∏≥ ]mem-bn¬ Im∏n¬ DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aIƒ Gensbhnhmlw sNbvXv sISp-ºn≥ ]pc-bn-S-amb ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ Xma-k-am°n. XrXo-b]p-{X≥ aØmbn Nß-m-ti-cn-bn¬n∂p hnhmlw -Ign-s®-¶nepw k¥m--ap-≠m-ImsX sNdp-∏-Øn¬Xs∂ acn®p.Cu∏≥ ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ (A©mw Xe-apd) memw Xe-ap-d-°m-c-mb sXmΩs‚ ZznXob ]p{X-mbCu∏≥ ]mem-bn¬ Im∏n¬ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°vsXmΩ≥, DWn-sN-dn-bXv, C´n Abv]v, aØmbn F∂n-ßs mep]p{X-∑mcpw Hcp ]p{Xnbpw D≠mbn. ]p{Xn-bmb amΩnsb CS-a-‰Øvap≠m-´p-Np-≠-bn¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°v Hcp ]p{Xn-bp-≠m-b-t∏mƒ hn[-h-bm-bn-Xo¿∂-Xn-m¬ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ h∂p ac-Ww-hsc Xma-kn®p. Cu∏s‚ {]Y-a-]p-{X≥ sXmΩ≥ X´m≥]-d-ºn¬imJ-bp-tSbpw DWn-sN-dn-bXv Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn imJ-bp-tSbpwC´n-bbv]v ssIX-h-b-en¬ imJ-bp-tSbpw aØmbn ]pØ≥]p-c-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 64. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 59bv°¬ imJ-bp-tSbpw Xe-h-∑m-cmbn.A). X´m≥]-d-ºn¬ imJ (Bdmw Xe-apd) ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ Cu∏s‚ aI≥ sXmΩ≥ {]hn-Ømw Ic-bn¬ ""Xd-bn¬ am∏nf""bpsS hoSmb Iq´p-¶¬n∂v A∂sbhnhmlw sNbvXv ]b-∏m¿I-c-bn¬ X´m≥]-d-ºn¬ Xma-k-am°n.At±-l-Ønp Cu∏≥, Hutk∏v F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw mep]p{Xn-amcpw D≠mbn. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gensb `c-W-ßmwπmtØm- ´ - Ø n¬ IpSpw- _ - Ø n¬s∏- ´ Xpw {]hn- Ø mw CS- h - I -bn¬s∏-´-Xp-amb hmg-Nm-cn-°-en¬ sXßpw-]-≈n¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥amWn hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂sb ]mem-∏≈nCS-hI ""Ing-t°-SØv am∏nf""bmb C√n-aq-´n¬n∂pw oeq¿ Xma-k-am-°nb aØmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn knÿP¬{XqZpw mem-asØ ]p{Xn knÿ A-kvXm-kn-bmbpw I¿Ω-eo-Øm-a-T-Øn¬ Ign-bp∂p. Ch¿ Ccp-hcpw I¿Øm-hn¬ n{Z-{]m-hn-®p.a) X´m≥]-d-ºn¬ Cu∏≥ (Ggmw Xe-apd) X´m≥]-d-ºn¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Cu∏≥ aq∂p hnhmlwIgn®p. BZysØ hnhmlw IS-m-Sp-I-c-bn¬ C√n-°¬n-∂p-am-bn-cp∂p. a°-fn-√msX `mcy acn-®-Xn-m¬ Ipd-hn-e-ßm-´p-]≈n CS-hIIø-m-Sp-I-c-bn¬ a‰-Øn¬n∂pw c≠m-aXv hnhmlw Ign®p. Sn.`mcybpw k¥m--an-√msX acn®p. AXn-m¬ aWn-ae abn-em-Sq¿Io°n-cn-°m´pn∂pw aq∂m-aXv hnhmlw Ign®v a-bv°-°-≠-Øn¬Im™n-c-Ømw-]-d-ºn¬ Xma-k-am°n. At±-l-Ønp sXmΩ≥,Nmt°m, tPmkv F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw amΩn, A®mΩ, GeΩ,enkΩ F∂o mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-≠mbn. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn amΩnsbCe-™n-°cbn¬ ]≈n-°m-∏dºn¬ Ip™q™p hnhmlw sNbvXp. - - - -c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A®mΩ I¿Ω-eo-Øm-a-T-Øn¬ tN¿∂p. ]memA¬t^m≥km tImf-Pn¬ 1968 apX¬ ae-bmfw eIvN-d-dmbn tPmentm°p∂ knÿ sImfw-_n-b¿ Fw.F. _n.FUv BWv. Ct∏mƒdn´-b¿ sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn GeΩ (kn. eqkn-) ]mems√ym-n-a-T-Øn¬ tN¿∂p. knÿ eqkom Fw.FUv BWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 65. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 60Ct∏mƒ IqØm´pIp-fØv tPmen sNøp-∂p. mem-asØ ]p{XnenkΩ _n.Fkvknsb Fd-tIm∂n ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´N°≥Ip-fØp If-∏p-cbn¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aI≥ sNdn-bm≥ hnhmlw -sNbvXp. aqe-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p.Sn. C. tXmakv (F´mw Xe-apd) Cu∏s‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXma€v (Ip™v) ]qh-cWnCS- h I samtfm- ∏ - d - º n¬ Ipcy≥ A∂ aIƒ tdmk- ° p- ´ nsbhnhmlw sNbvXv aqe-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-€np c≠m¨a-°fpw A©p s]¨a-°-fp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn eqknsb ]me-°mSv Pn√-bn¬ hS-°-t©cn samS-∏-√q-cn¬ Np¶-∏pc ho´n¬ t__n-®≥ ({^m≥kn€v) hnhmlwsNbvXp. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmkv tXma€v (t__n-®≥), ]bkv au≠vsXßpw-]-≈n¬ Ip™p-Ip´n, A∂-°p´n aIƒ kmensb hnhmlwsNbvXv aqe-a‰Øv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. t__n-®v aq∂p - -B¨a-°-fmWv. aqØ-]p-{X≥ kp_n≥ tPmkv _n.sSIv. a¿®‚ vthn-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. tamn-∏-≈n¬ kqcy-I-º-n-bpsS aIƒkqcysb _n.sSIv hnhmlw sNbvXv Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. t__n-®s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X-≥ tdm_n≥ tPmkv ssI-Icnaºew tPmk^v ˛ {_nPoØ aIƒ Fen-k-_-Øns hnhmlwsNbvXv aqe-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ Cu∏≥tPmkv hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. tXma-kns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Bn-bΩ Ahn-hm-ln-X-bmbnamXm-]n-Xm-°-tfm-sSm∏w Xma-kn®p. 2003¬ acn®p. aq∂m-asØ aIƒ en€nsb ]qh-cWn ap≠m-´p-Np-≠-bn¬]o‰¿ ˛ A∂-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPm¨k¨ hnhmlwsNbvXv Xriq¿ Pn√-bn¬ hS-°m-t©-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-kns‚ c≠m-asØ aI≥ kndn-bIv tXmakv IpS-b-Øq¿CS-hI B-°bw ]md≥Ip-f-ßc sPbnwkv amXyp, Ip´n-bΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ sP€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]me-°mSv Pn√-bn¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 66. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 61samS-∏-√q-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kndn-b-°np tSmw kndn-b°v F∂]p{Xpw tdmkv tacn, kqk≥ F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fp-amWv. Ch¿hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. tXma-€ns‚ mem-asØ ]p{Xn sPΩsb ]mem-bn¬ a-bm-n-°¬ tPm¿÷v, CuØΩ aI≥ AeIvkv hnhmlw sNbvXv ]memaq∂m-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. AeIvkv _nkn-€v sNøp∂p. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-b-Ωsb ssh°w Sn.hn.]pcw amb-º-d-ºn¬ amXyp ˛ A∂-°p´n aI≥ tPmWn hnhmlw sNbvXv ]me-°mSv Pn√-bn¬ Nn‰n-ew-tN-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Sn.C. Pbnwkv (Nmt°m-®≥) Cu∏s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m-®≥ Nß-m-t»-cn-bn¬Idp-I-®m¬I-c-bn¬ ]mem-°p-t∂¬ tPm_ns‚ aIƒ kc-k-Ωsbhnhmlw sNbvXv ]mem Acp-Wm-]p-cØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Nmt°m-®≥ (Sn.C. sPbnwkv _n.Fkvkn A{Kn-Iƒ®¿) tÉv _m¶v Hm^vC¥y-bn¬ amt-P-cmbn hnc-an®p. Nmt°m-®v tUm. Bjm sPbnwkv, tUm. AnX sPbnwkvF∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw tUm. tPmk^v sPbnwkv F∂ ]p{X-p-ap-≠v. ]p{Xn Bjsb Ccn-ßm-e-°pS sXmgp-Øpw-]-d-º≥ ho´n¬sIm®p-h-doXv˛X¶w Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ hdoXv (Pn-Ωn) hnhmlwsNbvXp. PnΩn yqtbm¿°v smapd Iº-n-bn¬ {]kn-U‚mbntPmen sNøp-∂p. Bj Fw.-_n.-_n.-F-kv. v tijw sF.-F.-F-kv.¬ tN¿∂v U¬ln-bnepw Acp-Wm-N¬ {]tZ-i-Øpw, e£-Zzo-]nepw tPmen sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ eohn¬ sImf-ºnb bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n-bn¬ ]Tn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Nmt°m-®s‚ Cfb aIƒ AnX sPbnw-kns Xncp-h--¥-]p-cØv ]pØ≥ho-´n¬ ]n.-bp. tXma-kv, sIm®p-a-dn-bmΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tUm. _nPp tXmakv hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Cw•-≠n¬ F®v.-B¿.-kn.-]n.-bn¬ F^v.-B¿.-C.-F-kv. Ign™v tPmensNøp-∂p. ]p{X≥ tUm. tPmk^v sPbnwkv CS-∏≈n Bim-cn-]-d-ºn¬tUm. DΩ≥ tPmk^v ˛ cmPΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ An-Xsb○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 67. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 62hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Ct∏mƒ bp.Fkv.F.bn¬ Unt{Sm-bn‰vF∂ ÿeØv Xma-kn®v kz¥w ¢nn°v S-Øp∂p. Ch¿°vCu∏≥ Pbnwkv, tXma€v sPbnwkv F∂o c≠m¨a-°fpw PqenbmPbnwkv F∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv.tPmkv Cu∏≥ (F´mw Xe-apd) Ggmw Xe-apd Cu∏s‚ Cfb ]p{X-mb tPmkv Im™n-c-∏≈n IS-a-∏pg Cu∏≥ ˛ Gen-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ Beo-€ns hnhmlw sNbvXv Ipdp-aÆv a-°-°-≠Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p.tPmknp Cu∏®≥, Nmt°m-®≥, sXmΩ®≥ F∂o aq∂p B¨a-°fpw A∂p, s]m∂p F∂o c≠v s]¨a-°-fp-amWv. tPmkns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ Cu∏≥ tPmkv _n.sSIv Im™n-c-∏≈n sNcn-]pdw ho´n¬ kn.sP.hn≥k‚ v ˛ Bn hn≥k‚ v aIƒtcWp-hns hnhmlw sNbvXv a-°-°-≠-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Cu∏-®v tPm Cu∏≥, hn≥k‚ v Cu∏≥ F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fmWv.Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. Cu∏-®≥ ]mem am¿°-‰nwKv skmssk-‰n-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m-®≥ (tP-°_v tPmkv) hgn-Øes]m∂m-´p-ho-´n¬ tPmWn, tacn-°p´n aIƒ Pntmsb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv _mwKvfq-cn¬ Jekob Designery F∂ ÿm]w S-Øp∂p.Ch¿°v tPmk^v Nmt°m, tPm¨ Nmt°m F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw enb Nmt°m F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sXmΩ-®≥ (tUm. t‰mw tPmkv) Fw.Fkv.Hm¿tØm Ign™v ap´p-Nnd tlmfn tKmÃv tlmkv]n-‰-en¬ tPmensNøp∂p. tSmw tPmkv tImX-aw-K-eØv ]mn-Ipfw ho´n¬ tUm.tP°_v ]mn-Ip-fw-˛-enkn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ Pnp-hns hnhmlwsNbvXp. aqØ ]p{Xn A∂p-hns Acp-hn-Øpd sIm≠q¿ sh≈q-°p-t∂¬ tPm¿÷v ˛ tdmkΩ aI≥ tPmk≥ tPm¿÷v hnhmlwsNbvXp. Cfb ]p{Xn tUm. s]m∂p-hns Xriq¿ Nm≠n ebn-n¬tUm. tm_n s¬k¨ Nm≠n aI≥ tP°_v tm_n s¬k¨hnhmlw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 68. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 63B. X´m≥]-d-ºn¬ Hutk∏v X´m≥]-d-ºn¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Hutk∏v ]mem CS-hI ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ IpØn-h-f-t®¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒtdmk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. At±-l-ØnpsXmΩ≥, tPmkv tPmk^v F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂Ω,tdmkΩ, eoemΩ F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠mbn. aqØ-aIƒ A∂- -Ωsb πm°q-´-Øn¬ tZhkym ˛ tacn aI≥ sI.kn.tPmk^vhnhmlw sNbvXv Nq≠-t®-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{XntdmkΩ I¿Ω-eo-Øm-a-T-Øn¬ tN¿∂p. knÿ sPdm¿Uv F∂t]cn¬ Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ct∏mƒ Im¿Ω-eo‰v tIm¨sh‚ v tN¿∏p-¶-en¬ hn{i-a-Po-hnXw bn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn eoemΩknÿ enUnb Fkv.Un. F∂ t]cn¬ kntÃgvkv Hm^v UnÃn-‰yqUv aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ct∏mƒ B{‘-bn¬anj≥cw-KØv tPmen sNøp∂p. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tXma€v Ahn-hm-ln-X-mbn ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬Xma-kn®p. 2010 BKÃv 10˛mw XobXn ac-W-a-S™p.{]^. tPmkv tPmk^v Hutk-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ {]^. tPmkv tPmk^vFw.Fkvkn Ad-°pfw ssaem-Sq¿ aØmbn ˛ A∂Ω aIƒ tacnsbhnhmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. 1985¬ tacn ac-W-a-S™p. c≠m-a-Xmbn πmtØm-´-Øn¬ sNdn-bm≥ adnbw aIƒ adn-bm-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. tPmknp sdkn≥, tacn tPmkv,tPmkvtam≥ Sn. tPmkv, t_m_n Sn. tPmkv, F_n-tam≥ Sn.tPmkvF∂n-ßs mep k¥m--ß-fmWv. {]^. tPmk^v ]mem sk‚ vtXmakv tImf-Pnse sIankv{Sn hn`mKw s{]m^-k-dmbn dn´-b¿sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmKw {]kn-U‚mWv. tPmkns‚ ]p{Xn sdkn≥ tacn tPmkns tacn-em‚ v sNmt∆-en-°p-Sn-bn¬ ssa°nƒ ˛ A∂ aI≥ kn.Fw.tPmk^v kn.Fhnhmlw sNbvXv Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmkvtam≥ Sn.tPmkv sXmSp-]pg ]d-ap-≠-bn¬sk_m-Ãy≥ ˛ sken≥ aIƒ sken≥ (tkmWm)sb hnhmlw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 69. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 64sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmkvtamp tPmk^v tPmkn,sk_n≥ tPmkn F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fmWv. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. ]p{X- ∑ m- c n¬ c≠m- a ≥ t_m_n Sn.tPmkv (amXyp- ® ≥)Fw.kn.F Ign™v _mwKvfq-cn¬ tkm^v‰v shb¿ F≥Pn-o-b¿Bbn tPmen sNøp∂p. t_m_n ap≠-°bw IS-a-∏pg tPmb-∏≥ ˛sS€n-bΩ aIƒ {So€m Fen-k_Øns (o-Xp _n.-sS-Iv.) hnhmlw - -sNbvXp. t_m_n°v tPm t_m_n, tP°_v t_m_n F∂oc≠m¨a-°-fp≠v. Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. tPmkns‚ aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ F_n- t am≥ Sn. tPmkv_n.sSIv Ign™v sNss∂- b n¬ tkm^v ‰ v shb- d n¬ tPmensNøp∂p. F_n-tam≥ hS-°m-t©cn Nn‰n-e∏≈n amXyp ˛ tacn aIƒ -So _n.sS°ns hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw sNss∂-bn¬tPmen sNøp∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 70. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 65 Ing-t°-°c ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ sXmΩ≥ w - AXn-c-ºpg sIm®p-]p-c-bv°¬n∂v > > > > >C´n sF∏v Cu∏≥ aØmbn ]p{Xn Rmh-≈n¬w Im™n-c-∏≈n w ]mem a°-fn√ sI´n®pIng-t°-Ø-e-bv°-¬ Im∏n¬ Gena°-fn√ > Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn DWn-s®-dnb w ]S-hn¬ t{Xkym > > > > >sI.kn.tXmakv sI.kn.h¿°n sI.bp.tPmk^v sNdn-bm≥(sIm®v sXmΩ≥, w -I´-°bw (C´n sF∏v) (hmm-®≥)sIm®v XmSn) ap{]-bn¬ w -shfp-tØ-SØv 17˛mw hb-€n¬w -t{Xkym Nm®n ]d-ºn¬ Gen acn®pam°n]pfn-°¬ (knknen) (Ipt™-en-bΩ) > > adn-bmΩ Gen (adn-b-∏≈n) (C°n) H- Xncp-h√ H-- ]mem NmØ-¶cn ]pt©-°p-t∂¬ hmbv∏p-m-cn¬ Cu∏≥ Cu∏≥○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 71. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 66B). Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn imJDWn-s®-dn-bXv ˛ (XmSn-°m-c≥) (Bdmw Xe-apd) A©mw Xe-apd ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ Cu∏s‚ c≠m-asØ]p{X≥ DWn-s®-dn-bXv ]mem CS-hI s]mcp-tm-en-emb ]S-hn¬h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ t{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ ]m¿Øp. Imem-¥-c-Øn¬ At±lw am¿tØmΩmk`m hnizm-kn-bm-bn-Øp-S-cp-Ibpw Ico-°p-t∂¬ am¿tØm-Ωm-]≈n]Wn°p klm-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 83˛masØ hb-€n¬ acn®At±-lsØ Ico-°p-t∂¬ am¿tØmΩm ]≈n-bpsS ih-t°m-´bn¬ -kwkvI-cn®p. DWn-s®-dn-b-Xnp sXmΩ≥, h¿°n, sNdn-bm≥ C´n-bbv]vF∂o mep ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen, adnbw F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpwD≠mbn. aqØ-]p{Xn Gensb ]mem ]≈n CS-hI ]pt©-°p-t∂¬Cu∏≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-b-Øns Xncp-h-√m-bn-°Sp-Øp≈ NmØ-¶cn-bn¬, am¿tØmΩm kap-Zm-bØn¬s∏´ - - -hmbv]-m-cn¬ ho´n¬ Cu∏≥ ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp. DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ sXmΩ≥ (Ggmw Xe-apd) {]hn-Ømw ]≈nCS-hI Af-m-Sp-I-c-bn¬ am°-∏p-fn-°¬ anJm-tb-ens‚ aIƒt{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXv XpS-ß-m-´n¬ CS-a--ØSw ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn®p. ]n∂oSv Xd-hm-Smb ]mem-bn¬ Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬Øs∂ Xma-k-am°n. 1970 Pq¨ amk-Øn¬ acn®p.Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n-bpsS ih-t°m-´-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p. At±-l-Ønp sNdn-bm≥, ssa°nƒ, Cu∏≥, tXmakv, aØmbn F∂n-ßsA©p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠mbn. Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-im-J-bnse Bdmw Xe-apd DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ c≠m-asØ aI≥ h¿°n (Xe-apd Ggv) ]mem-∏≈n CS-hII´-°-b-Øn¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ ap∏-d-bn¬ Abv]ns‚ aIƒ Nm®n-b-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv XpS-ß-m-´n¬ Xo∏p-gn-°p-∂n¬ Xma-k-am°n. h¿°n°v kvIdnbm, tPmk^v, amΩ≥ F∂n-ßs aq∂p]p{X- ∑ m- c p≠v . aqØ- ] p- { X≥ kv I dnbm Xncp- h √m Xmeq- ° n¬NmØ≥I-cn-bn¬ am¿tØmΩm kap-Zm-b-Øn¬s∏´ hmbv]-m-cn¬Ip™q- ™ - Ω sb hnhmlw sNbv X p. At±- l - Ø np tPm¨Fs∂mcp B¨Ip-´nbpw F¬kn-sb-s∂mcp s]¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v.Ah¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. h¿°n-bpsS ZznXo-b-]p-{X≥, tPmk^vFw.Fkvkn Be-∏pg ]pØ≥]p-c-bn¬ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 72. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 75At±lw ssakq¿ sk‚ v ^ntem-an tImf-Pn¬ s{]m^-k-dmWv.At±-l-Ønp Hcp ]p{Xpw aq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. Ah¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ amΩ≥ _n.Fkvkn Xncp-h√m Xmeq-°n¬ nc-WØv am¿tØmΩm kap-Zm-b-Øn¬s∏´ ]qXn-tbm´v sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ kzmnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv C¥ym Kh¨sa‚ v k¿ho-kn¬ Un^≥kv hIp-∏n¬ sSIvn-°¬ kq∏¿ssh-k-dmbn tPmen tm°p∂p. At±-l-Ønp Hcp]p{Xpw Hcp ]p{Xnbpw D≠v. Ch¿ inip-°-fmWv. Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-im-J-bnse DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥17˛masØ hb-€n¬ acn®p. DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥C´n-b∏v (sI.bp.tPmk^v _n.F) ]mem ]≈n CS-hI Ihn-bn¬IpSpw- _ - Ø n¬s∏´ shfp- t Ø- S - Ø p- ] - d - º n¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒGensb hnhmlw sNbvXp ]nXm-hns‚ IqsS Xma-kn®p. 38˛masØhb-€n¬ C´n-b∏v AIm-e-N-caw {]m]n®p. C´n-b-∏nv sNdn-bm≥,tPmk^v Fvo c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. aqØ-a-I≥ sNdn-bm≥_n.Fkvkn _n.C. F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv ]co£ ]mkmbn, c≠m-a≥tPmk^v _n.Fkvkn, _n.C sSIvn-°¬ ]co£ ]mkmbn. c≠p-t]cpw amXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-bn¬ imJ ˛ CS-a--ØSw D]-imJ_lp. am¿°-®≥ ˛ F´mw Xe-apd Ggmw Xe-apd sIm®v sXmΩs‚ (sI.kn.tXmakv) aqØ-]p-{X≥ t__n-sb∂v Hma--t∏-cp-≠m-bn-cp∂ sNdn-bm≥ 1918¬ Pn®p.]mem, sXmSp-]pg F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw sNbvXvFkv.Fkv.F¬.kn ]mkm-b-tijw 1942¬ sIm√-Øp≈ I∏q-®n≥B{i-a-Øn¬ sshZo-I-]-T--Ønp tN¿∂v dh. ^m. am¿°v F∂t]cn¬ Adn-b-s∏´p. 1942˛45 hsc eØo≥, XXz-imkv{Xw F∂nh]Tn-®-tijw Xr»n-m-∏-≈n-bn-ep≈ Aa-em-{iaw F∂ I∏q-®n≥ÿm]--Øn¬h®v thZ-im-kv{X-]-T-hpw ]q¿Øn-bm°n 1948¬ ]´-ta‰p. 38 h¿j-߃ o≠p-n∂ sshZoI Pohn-XØnse 28 h¿jhpw -Xr»n- m- ∏ ≈n {iocw- K - Ø p≈ Aa- e m- { i- a - Ø n¬ Xs∂- b mWvAt±lw Pohn-®Xv. Ubm-s_-‰n°v tcmK-_m-[n-X-m-bn-cp∂ am¿°-®≥ Aa-em-{i-a-tØm-Sp≈ Xs‚ ASp∏w ^en-X-cq-t]W {]I-Sn-∏n-®Xv Cß-s-bmWv:○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 73. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 76 ""F√m tZi-ß-fnepw th∏p ac-ß-fn√; Nne tZi-ß-fn-ep≈th∏v ac-Øns‚ Ce-Iƒ°v Ibv]p-ckw C√; F∂m¬ Aa-em-{i-a-Ønse th∏p-a-c-Øns‚ Ce-Iƒ°v √ Ibv]p-c-k-ap≠v. th∏neCSn-®p-]n-gn™v Nmdv Ign-°p-∂Xv Ubm-s_-‰n°v tcmK-Ønp √acp-∂mWv. Xs‚ Akp-JsØ At±lw ]®-a-e-bm-f-Øn¬ ""N°chym[n F∂pw hnfn-®n-cp∂p! am¿°-®≥ Xan-gvm-Sns AXy-[nIw kvtln®p. anjy≥{]h¿Ø-ßfp-ambn Xan-gvm-´nse H´p-an° ÿe-ßfnepw At±lw - - -k©-cn-®n-´p≠v. kmaq-ly-tk-h-hpw kvIqƒ {]h¿Ø--ß-fp-ambn_‘-s∏´v At±lw Xr»n-m-∏≈n IqSmsX XqØp-IpSn, ]´vtImss´F∂o {]tZ-i-ß-fnepw Xma-kn®p. Xo¿∞m-S tI{µ-ß-fmb thfm-¶Æn, sk‚ v tXmakv au≠v F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ [ym-Kp-cp-hmbn{]h¿Øn®p. sk‚ v tXmakv au≠n¬h®v Im¬ I√n¬X´n apdn-hp-≠mbn sk]v‰n-°m-bXv aq¿—n®v ac-W-Im-c-W-ambn. 1986 sabvamk-Øn¬ Xs‚ 69˛masØ P∑-Zn--Øn¬ {iocw-K-Øp-h®v am¿°-®≥ Cl-tem-I-hmkw shSn™p.sI.‰n. ssa°nƒ (F´mw Xe-apd) sI.kn.tXmakv ˛ t{Xkym Zº-Xn-I-fpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ssa°nƒ XpS-ß-mSv F¬.]n.kvIqƒ, sXmSp-]pg Kh. sslkvIqƒ,ap´w kwkvIrX kvIqƒ, Bephm B{iaw kvIqƒ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ ]Tn®v imkv{Xn ]co£ ]m€mbn. sIm®n-bn¬ mhn-I-tk--bn¬ tN¿∂p. Fkv.Fkv.F¬.kn.bv°v Xpey-amb ]co£ Pbn®vtcmK-]-cn-N-cW hn`m-K-Øn¬ s]‰n Hm^o-k-dmbn DtZym-K-°-b‰wIn´n. hne-Iq-Snb A]q¿∆ Huj-[-ß-fpsS kq£n-∏n¬ {Ia-t°SvI≠v ]nSn-°-s∏´v tIkn¬ s]´p. ssa°nƒ tIkv Pbn-s®-¶nepwthn k¿∆o-kn¬n∂pw ]pd-Ømbn. ]mem-bn¬ Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXnXd-hm-´nse hoSpw ]dºpw tm°n--SØn c≠p-h¿jw Ign-®-tijwssa°nƒ tPmen tXSn I¬°- ´ - b n- s eØn. jmen- a m¿ Sm¿t{]mUIvSvkv Iº-n-bn¬ tPmen°p tN¿∂p ssa°nƒ kq∏¿ssh-k¿ XkvXn-I-bn-seØn. 1958¬ ssa°nƒ Xriq¿ anjy≥ Izm¿t´-gvkn¬ Ccn-ßm-e-°p-S-°m-c≥ emk-dns‚ aIƒ eoesb hnhmlw Ign®p. Ah¿°vHma (t{Xkym) Fs∂mcp aI-fp-≠mbn. Hma ssa°nƒ _n.F.]Tn-®p. A¶-amen ap≠m-S≥ amXyp aI≥ tPmk^v 1985¬ hnhmlwsNbvXp. jmen-am¿ Iº-n-bn¬n∂v ]ncn™ tijhpw ssa°nƒI¬°-´m-bn¬ Xs∂ Xma-kn®p. 2000amt≠m-S-SpØv Ahn-sS-h®vac-W-s∏´p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 74. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 77 Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ˛ CS-a--ØSw D]-imJ sI.kn.tXmakv (sIm®v sXmΩ≥) W am°o-]p-fn-°¬ t{Xkym > > > >_lp. am¿°-®≥ sI.‰n. ssa°nƒ sI.‰n. Cu∏≥(t__n sNdn-bm≥) W Ccn-ßm-e-°p-S-°m-c≥ W IS-mSvNmØ≥Ip-t∂¬Aa-em-{iaw, {iocmKw emk¿ aIƒ eoe tXmakv ˛ adnbw aIƒXr»n-m-∏≈n knknen > > Hma (t{Xkym) sFhm≥ PnΩn > H A¶-amen ap≠m-S≥ amXyp aI≥ tPmk^v tPmhm≥ ({]nb) H Xpcp-Øn-sIm-®n-Ød tPmk^v ˛ t{Xkym aI≥ tPmtam≥ > >sI.‰n amXyp (Ip™p aØmbn) sI.-‰n. tXmakv (sXm-Ω-®≥ DΩ-®≥)W ap‰Øv tNm°m´v tPm¨ W hS-Ic Xtem-Snbn¬ aØmbnA∂Ω aIƒ tacn- Gen-°p´n aIƒ sken≥ > > > >tdmbn (tXmakv) cmPn tam≥kn (t{Xkym) UmenbW -sIm®n tImt∂mØv (Pq-en) H ]mem aqgbn¬ H Fd-Wm-IpfwtPm¨ aIƒ H tPmfn tXmakv aI≥ PntPm kXoivsP€n shtdmn aIƒ dnb (_©-an≥) > > > A≥{Unb acnb tXma€v AtPmbv tdmbn H Xe-mSv Xmf-mn (A-p-tamƒ) 9-˛mw ¢m€v hnZym¿∞nn aI≥ tSman > tXmwk¨ tXmakv (An) W ate-∏-d-ºn¬ FkvX-∏m≥ aIƒ ann (ta-cn) > > > > tUm¨ aIƒ aIƒ 1-˛mw ¢m€v Unb Zbm-tacn hnZym¿∞nn LKG○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 75. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 78 Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ ˛ CS-a--ØSw D]-imJsI.‰n. Cu∏≥ (F´mw Xe-apd) tXmakv ˛t{Xkym Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ Cu∏≥XpS-ß-mSv F¬.]n.kvIqfn¬n∂pw memw ¢mkv Pbn®v ap´wkwkvIrX kvIqfn¬ tN¿∂p c≠p-h¿jw ]Tn®p. A∏≥ kzmX-{¥y-k-a-c-tk-m-n-bmbn mSp-hn´v t]mb-t∏mƒ ]Tw n¿Øn hoSvS-Øn-∏n¬ AΩsb klm-bn®p. ]n∂oSv ]mem-bn¬ Cu¥p-¶¬]IpXn Xd-hm-´n-seØn A∏s‚ IqsS Ipd-®p-mƒ Xma-kn®p. AXn-p-tijw tPmen tXSn ae-_m¿ taJ-e-bn-ep≈ A´-∏m-Sn-bn-seØnAhnsS Xm¬°m-enI X]m¬ in]m-bn-bmbn ]Øp-h¿j-°m-e-tØmfw tPmen tm°n. m´n-te°p aS-ßn-h∂ Cu∏v ]memCu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn Xd-hm-´nse hoSv hoX-Øn¬ In´n-b-Xn-m¬AhnsS ÿnc-Xm-a-k-am°n. 1976 am¿®n≥ Cu∏≥ IS-m-´n¬NmØ≥Ip-t∂¬ tXmakv ˛ adnbw aIƒ knkn-ensb hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ch¿°v sFhm≥, PnΩn, tPmhm≥ ({]nb) F∂n-ßsaq∂p a°-fp≠v. aqØ-a-I≥ sFhm≥ Ce-t{Œm-Wn-Ivknepw jo‰vsa‰¬ sh¬Unw-Knepw ]cn-io-ew tSn-sb-¶nepw X¬°mewhym]m-cim-ebn¬ IW-s°-gp-Øp-Im-cmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Ap- - - -P≥ PnΩn d_¿ em‰Ivkv t{]mk-knwKv Iº-n-bn¬ tPmentm°p∂p. Ah-cpsS ktlm-Zcn tPmhm≥ ({]nb) Fw.F. ]co£]m€mbn Fd-Wm-Ip-f-Øp≈ e£van tlmkv]n-‰-en¬ ]n.B¿.HBbn tPmen sNøp∂p. {]nbsb, Nß-m-t»cn Xpcp-Øn-bn¬sIm®o-Ød ho´n¬ tPmk^v ˛ sIm®p-t{Xkym aI≥ tPmtam≥2011 tabv amk-Øn¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. tPmtam≥ Fd-Wm-Ip-fØvhnbmn {]€nse DtZym-K-ÿ-mWv. Cu∏≥ tN´≥ 2011 Pp-hcn 15˛mw XobXn Cl-tem-I-hmkwshSn™p. ]mem Cf-t¥m´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 76. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 79sI.‰n. tXmakv (sXmΩ-®≥/DΩ-®≥) F´mw Xe-apd sI.kn.tXmakv ˛ t{Xkym Zº-Xn-I-fpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥tXmakv XpS-ß-mSv sk‚ v tXmakv Cw•ojv sslkvIq-fn¬n∂vFkv.Fkv.F¬.kn. ]m€mbn. sXmSp-]pg hSmØv Z¥-tUm-IvS¿hn.hn.amXyp-hns‚ IqsS Z¥-Nn-In’ ]cn-io-en®v cPn-kvt{S-j≥hmßn ap´Øv U‚n-Ãmbn {]mIvSokv sNbvXp. a‰p ktlm-Z-c-߃Hmtcm kml-N-cy-ß-fn¬ hoSp-hn´p t]mb-t∏mƒ CS-a-Ø-S-Øn¬ÿnc-ambn Xma-kn®v hoSv S-Øn-∏n¬ sXmΩ-®≥ AΩsb klm-bn®p. IqØm-´p-Ipfw hSIc Xtem-Snbn¬ aØmbn ˛ Gen-°p´naIƒ skeo-s hnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v tam≥kn(t{Xkym), An¬ (tXmwk¨ tXmakv), Umenb, B≥{Unb,acnb (Ap-tamƒ) F∂n-ßs A©v k¥m--ß-fp≠v. s]¨a-°ƒ mep-t]cpw gvknw-Kn¬ ]cn-io-ew tSn. An¬ N≈m-h-b¬ sSIvn-°¬ kvIqfn¬n∂v πw_nw-Kn¬ ]cn-io-ew tSn-sb-¶nepw Ct∏mƒ Bwth F∂ Ata-cn-°≥ Iº-n-bn¬ DtZym-KhpwhnSp S-Øn-∏p-ambn Ign-bp∂p. An¬ Be-t°mSv ate-∏-d-ºn¬FkvX-∏m≥ aIƒ annsb (tacn-°p´n) hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°vIst Std.bn¬ ]Tn-°p∂ tUm¨ F∂ ]p{Xpw c≠v ]p{Xn-amcpw(inip-°ƒ) D≠v. tXmakv ˛ sken≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aqØ-a-Iƒtam≥knsb ]mem sk‚ v tXmakv IØo-{U¬ ]≈n CS-hIaqg-bn¬ tXmakv aI≥ PntPm hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v aq∂pk¥m--ß-fp≠v. c≠m-asØ aIƒ Umen-bsb Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv I√p-¶¬ A¥-∏m-bn-˛-d-Po aI≥ kXoiv (s_©-an≥) hnhmlw Ign®p. Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v c≠v ]p{X-∑mcp≠v. Umenb Kƒ^v taJ-ebn¬ tgvkmbn -tPmen sNbvXn-cp∂p. hnhm-l-tijw bp.Fkv.Fbn-seØn `¿Øm-hn-sm∏w Unt{Sm-bv‰n¬ kz¥ambn hmßnb ho´n¬ Xma-kn®vtPmen XpS-cp∂p. aq∂m-asØ aIƒ B≥{Unb gvknwKv ]cn-io-ew Ign™v Kƒ^v taJ-e-bn¬ Ipd-®p-mƒ tPmen tm°n.]n∂oSv t_mws_-bn¬ DtZym-K-ÿ-mb Xe-mSv Xmf-mnbn¬tXma-kv-˛-G-en-bmΩ aI≥ tSman B≥{Un-bsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v Hcp aI-fp≠v. tXmakv ˛ sken≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsSmem-asØ ]p{Xn acnb (Ap-tamƒ) _mwKvfq-cn¬n∂pw gvknwKv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 77. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 80_n.Fkvkn ]mkmbn Ct∏mƒ DØ-cm-JWvUv Kh. tlmkv]n-‰-en¬ Ãm^v tgvkmbn Ct∏mƒ Fd-Wm-Ipfw en€n tlmkv]n-‰-en¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. 2010 Unkw-_¿ BZy-hm-c-Øn¬ ap´w SuWn¬h®v tdmU-]-I-S-Øn¬s∏´v hogvN-bn¬ Xebv°pw hmcn-sb-√p-Iƒ°pw tISp-]-‰nb ne-bn¬ tIme-t©cn anj≥ Bip-]-{Xn-bnse Xo{h-]-cn-N-cW hn`m-K-Øn¬ Hcp amk-tØmfw NnIn-’-bn-em-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepwc£n-°m-m-bn√; 2011 Pp-hcn 13p A¥-cn®p. XpS-ß-mSv sk‚ vtXmakv s^mtdm-m-]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ 15v ih-kw-kvImcwSØn.sI.‰n. amXyp (Ip™v aØmbn) F´mw Xe-apd sI.kn.tXmakv ˛ t{Xkym Zº-Xn-IfpsS A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ -amXyp (Ip™p-aØmbn) XpS-ßmSv Cw•ojv sslkvIq-fn¬n∂pw - -Fkv.Fkv.F¬.kn. ]mkmbn ap´-Øp-n∂p ssS∏vssd-‰nwKpw]Tn®p. ]©m-b-Øn¬ ¢m¿°mbn tN¿∂p. ]n∂oSv Xmeq°v B∏o-kn- t e°v amdn. Ahn- s S- n∂pw sIm®n- b n¬ ^nj- d okvUn∏m¿´vsa‚n¬ C≥kvs]-IvS-dmbpw XpS¿∂v Kk-‰Uv B∏o-k-dmbpw tkh--a-p-jvTn®p. Kh. k¿∆o-kn¬n∂p hnc-an-®-tijwamXyp Ipd-®p-Imew Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv tNmbokv Iº-n-bn¬ Hm^okvamt-P-cmbn tPmen tm°n-bn-cp∂p. sXmSp-]pg ap´Øv tNm°m´vtPm¨ ˛ A∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tacnsb 1965¬ hnhmlwsNbvXv Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv Ff-a°c (]mSw)bn¬ kz¥-ambn hoSv ]Wn- -bn®v Xma-kn®p. amXyp ˛ tacn Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v tdmbn (tXmakv), cmPn(Pqen) F∂p c≠p a°-fp≠v. tdmbn amXyp Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv hnZym-`ym-khpw Ign™v _nkn-- € n¬ G¿s∏- ´ n- c n- ° p∂p. If- a - t »- c n- b n¬ sIm®n≥ d_¿tImwπIvkv F∂ t]cn¬ d_¿ dot{]m-k-€nwKv ^mIvSdn S-Øp∂p. tdmbn, Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv tXm∏pw-]Sn tImt∂mØv tPm¨aIƒ sP€n (shtdmn)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°vHº-Xmw-¢m-kn¬ ]Tn-°p∂ AtPmbv tdmbv Fs∂mcp aI-p≠v.sP€n AUz-t°-‰m-sW-¶nepw Ct∏mƒ {]mIvSokv sNøp-∂n√. amXyp-hns‚ aIƒ cmPn (Pqen)sb Ff-a-°c B‚Wn ˛ tdmknen aI≥tPmfn (tPmfn h¿Kokv) hnhmlw sNbvXp. cmPn Ff-a-°-c-bn¬_yq´n-]m¿e¿ S-Øp∂p. Ip™p-a-Ømbn 2005 sabv amk-Øn¬A¥-cn®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 78. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 81 Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ˛ Xos∏m-gn-°p∂v D]-imJ sI.kn.h¿°n W I´-°bw ap{]-bn¬ Nm®n (kn-kn-en) > > > >sI.-hn. k°-dnbm sI.-hn. tPmk^v sI.-hn. amΩ≥W Xncp-h√m hmbv∏-m-cn¬ (Ip-t™-∏v, sF∏v, tPmkv) W ncWw ]qXn-tbm´vCu∏≥ ˛ Ip´n-bΩ W Be∏pg ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ sNdn-bm≥˛km-dmΩaIƒ Iq™q-™Ω (ta-cn) tP°p_p Nm≠n-˛-A-∂Ω aIƒ kzmn (kq-k-Ω) aIƒ Beokv (G-en-°p-´n) > > > > > > >tPm¨ k°-dnb F’n en€n tPm¿÷v tPmk^v(tPm-bn-®≥) H hmgq¿ Xmc-aw-K-eØv H am-¥-hmSn (tPm-Pp) W ssakq¿W sska¨ ]m{Sn-°v˛ aØmbn ˛a-dnbw aI≥ IpS-°-®nd cmakzman ]pjv]mB·€v aIƒ Ane tPmk^v (tPm) ^nen-∏v-˛-a-dnbw aIƒ joe(F-{Un≥) aI≥ kndn-b°v > > BZ¿iv IV std > > >A⁄p acnb tPm¨ A∂p Nn®p (kn-kn-en) H sNß-∂q¿ H Xncp-th-√m-aÆn¬ - ]qap-J∏m-dºn¬ - - ]pØ≥]p-cbv°¬- mWp-˛am-[h∏Wn-°¿ kJ-dn-b˛tim-imΩ - - - - - - aI≥ hmkp-∏Wn-°¿ aI≥ tPm¿÷v - > > > > > ann Fen-k-_Øv tPm¿÷v amΩ≥ tdmbn amΩ≥ H ]pØ≥ho-´n¬ (tPmPn) W aptØmen DΩ-®≥˛ W am∂m¿ sXßn≥ AΩnWn aI≥ a´-bv°¬ G{_mlw tXm´-Øn¬ Capt. ]n.-H. Nmt°m sIm®-∂mΩ tXma-kv˛ (tam-n) aIƒ Fen-k-_Øv dq_n aIƒ (tc-J) oa > > tPmb¬ amΩ-≥ tPm¿÷v tdbm (inip) VIII std○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 79. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 82Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ ˛ N≈m-h-b¬ (Xos∏m-gn-°p∂v) D]-imJsI.hn.k°-dnbm (Idnbm/kvIdnbm) F´mw Xe-apd h¿°n ˛ Nm®n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS {]Ya ]p{X≥ kvIdnb 1920¬Pn®p. ]mem-bnepw ]n∂oSv tIm´bw Fw.Sn.skan-mcn Cw•ojvsslkvIq-fnepw ]Tn®v Fkv.Fkv.F¬.kn. ]m€m-b-tijw D∏m-∏≥ C´n sF∏ns‚ klm-b-tØmsS C¥y≥ sdbn¬th-bn¬¢m¿°mbn tPmen-bn¬ {]th-in®p. sSÃp-Iƒ Pbn®v tÃj≥ amÿXkvXn-I-bn-seØn. 1948¬ Xncp-h√m NmØ-¶cn hmbv∏-m-cn¬Cu∏≥ ˛ Ip´n-bΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aqØ aIƒ Ip™q-™Ω(tacn)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v F¬kn F∂ aIfpw tPm¨(tPmbn-®) F∂ aIpw Pn®p. ]nXm-al≥ DWn-s®-dn-bXpw D∏m-∏≥ C´n sF∏pw t^m¿thUv -_m¶v F∂ ÿm]--hp-am-bp-≠m-bn-cp∂ tI€nepw IS-_m-≤yXX¿°-Ønepw s]´v IjvS-s∏-´-t∏m-sg√mw kvIdnbm sdbn¬thk¿ho-kn¬n∂v Ah-[n-sb-SpØv m´n-seØn Ahsc klm-bn-®n-cp-∂Xn-m-emImw kvIdn-bbpsS A∏≥ h¿°n-bpsS hoX-Øn¬ h®n- - -cp∂ Xo∏p-gn-°p∂v ]pc-bnSw Idn-bm-bp-tSbpw Ap-P-∑m-cp-tSbpwt]cn¬ ]nXm-a-l≥ DWn-s®-dnb Fgp-Xn-h®p. sdbn¬th tPmen-°m-eØv kvIdnbm ae-_m-dn¬ aÆm¿°mSvIm™n-c-∏pg `mKØv kz¥-ambn hoSpw ]dºpw I≠hpw hmßn-bn-cp∂p. Du´n sh√nw-KvS-Wn¬ tÃj≥ amÃ-dmbn tPmen-bn-en-cn-°p-tºmƒ kzbw hnc-an-°¬ ]≤Xn Ap-k-cn®v DtZymKw cmPn-h®v kvIdn-bmbpw IpSpw-_hpw ae-_m-dn-seØn Xmakw XpSßn.Ipd-®p-Im-e-Øn-p-tijw Ahn-sS-n∂pw IpSpw-_-k-taXw ssakq-cn-seØn, Ap-P≥ sF∏ns‚ klm-b-tØmsS hoSp-h®v Xma-kn®vtImtfPv hnZym¿Yn-Iƒ°p-th≠n ss{]h‰v tlmì SØn. CXn-nsS m´n¬ A∏-≥ h¿°n-bpsS BtcmKyw tami-am-b-Xn-m¬IpSpw-_-k-taXw XpS-ß-mSv N≈m-h-b-en¬ FØn hoSpw ]dºpwtm°n S-Øp∂ Npa-Xe Gs‰-SpØp. A∏≥ h¿°n, aI≥ sF∏n-tm-sSm∏w Xma-kn-°m≥ ssakq-cn-te°pw amdn.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 80. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 83 kvIdn-bm-bpsS aIƒ F¬kn tImb-º-Øq¿ H‰-∏mew F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw ]q¿Øn-bm°n ssakq¿ doPn-¬tImtf-Pn¬n∂pw _n.F._n.FUpw ]n∂oSv Fw.Fbpw ]mkmbn.Xr»n-m-∏≈n tlmfn-t{Imkv tImtf-Pn¬ eIvN-d¿ Bbn tPmentm°p-tºmƒ, 1975 PqWn¬ hmgq¿ Xmc-aw-K-eØv aØmbn ˛ adnbwZº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPmk-^ns hnhmlw sNbvXp. At±lwtkmtjym-f-Pn-bnepw F¬kn Xmc-aw-Kew Cw•ojv `mj-bnepw]n.F®v.Un _ncpZw tSn. A[ym-]--hr-Øn-bn¬ G¿s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p.35 h¿j-tØmfw Im-U-bn¬ ÿnc-Xm-a-k-am-°nb Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v ssa°nƒ F∂ ]p{Xpw saen F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. aI≥ tPm¨ (tPmbn-®≥) sXmSp-]pg Uot]mƒ Cw•ojvsslkvIq-fn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw Ign™v ssakq¿ kn.]n.kn.t]mfn-sS-Ivn-°n¬ n∂v Hmt´m-sam-ss_¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dnw-Kn¬Untπma ]m€mbn Kƒ^v taJ-e-bn¬ c≠p-h¿j-tØmfw tPmensNbvX-tijw ssakq¿ Pmhm tamt´m¿ ssk°nƒ Iº-n-bn¬DtZym-K-ÿ-mbn. tPmbn-®≥ ssakq¿ kn‰n-°-SpØv ÿnc-Xm-a-k-am-°n-b-t∏mƒ m´n-ep≈ hoSpw ]dºpw hn‰v kvIdnbm ]Xvo-k-taXw Ahn-tS°v amdn. hmb-m-X-ev]-c-m-bn-cp∂ kvIdn-bmbv°pw]nXm- h n- s - t ∏mse s√mcp ]pkv X - I - t i- J cw D≠m- b n- c p∂p.sI.hn.k°-dnb Ing-t°-°c Xmh-gn-Ncn{Xw F∂ ]pkvXIw FgpXn -1992¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn®p. 1980 apX¬ lrt{ZmKw Ae-´n-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepwFgpØpw hmb-bpw bm{X-bp-ambn kZm I¿Ω-n-c-X-m-bn-cp∂kvIdnbm 2003 s^{_p-h-cn-bn¬ ac-W-Ønp Iog-Sßn. ssakq¿sk‚ v tPmk^v `{Zm-k ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ ih-kw-kvImcwSØn. Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ ˛ ssakq¿ D]-imJtPm¨ k°-dnbm (tPmbn-®≥) HºXmw Xe-apd F´mw Xe-apd k°-dnbm ˛ Ip™q-™Ω Zº-Xn-IepsS ]p{X- -mbn 1959˛¬ Pn®p. aÆm¿°mSv, ssakq¿, sXmSp-]pg Uot]mƒCw•ojv sslkvIqƒ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 81. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 84]q¿Øn-bm°n ssakq¿ kn.]n.kn. t]mfn-sS-Ivn-°n¬n∂v Hmt´m-sam-ss_¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dnw-Kn¬ Untπmam tSn. Kƒ^v taJ-e-bn¬c≠p-h¿j-tØmfw tPmen sNbvX-tijw ssakq¿ Pmhm tamt´m¿ssk°nƒ Iº-n-bn¬ DtZym-K-ÿ-mbn. am-¥-hm-Sn-bn¬n∂pwssakq-cn¬ ÿnc-Xm-a-k-am-°nb {^m¶v hn√-bn¬ sska¨ ]m{Sn-°n-s‚bpw BKv€n-s‚bpw ]p{Xn Ane (F{Un≥)sb 1989 HIvtSm- -_-dn¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v 1991 G{]n-en¬ ARvPpacnb tPm¨ F∂ ]p{Xn Pn®p. ssakq-cn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkwIgn™v ARvPp ]qm knº-tbm-knkv C‚¿m-j-W¬ bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n-bn¬n∂pw _n._n.F _ncpZw tSn. ssakq¿ Pmhm tamt´m¿ ssk°nƒ ^mIv S - d n- b psS{]h¿Øw ne-®-t∏mƒ _n¿f bal Iº-n-bn¬ tPmbn-®≥Gcnbm amt-Pcmbn tPmen sNbvXtijw Ct∏mƒ IotÃm¨ {Kq∏v - -dnb¬ FtÉv sUh-e-]vsa‚ v Iº-n-bn¬ tPmen tm°n-h-cp∂p.k¶ev]m sk≥{S¬ ]m¿°v F∂p t]cp≈ A∏m¿´vsa‚p-Ifpwamfp-Ifpw AS-ßnb ann Su¨ jn∏v sUe-h-]vsa‚ v Iº-n-bpsSXe-h-mbn Ct∏mƒ tPmen sNbvXp-h-cp∂p. amXm-hn-tm-sSmØvIpSpw-_-k-taXw ssakq¿ kn‰n-°-SpØv mbn-Up--K-dn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ ˛ N≈m-h-b¬ (Xos∏m-gn-°p∂v) D]-imJ{]^. sI.hn.tPmk^v (Ipt™∏v, sF∏v, tPmkv)F´mw Xe-apd h¿°n ˛ Nm®n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS ZznXob ]p{X≥ tPmk^v 1928¬Pn®p. sXmSp-]pg, Xncp-h√ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ym-khpw Nß-m-t»cn sk‚ v _¿°vsa≥kv, ssakq¿ sk‚ v ^ntem-an-mkv F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ tImfPv hnZym-`ym-khpw Ign™v ]Tn®Iem-im-e-bn¬ Xs∂ t_m´Wn Un∏m¿´vsa‚n¬ Utam¨kvt{S-‰¿ XkvXn-Ibn¬ tPmen°p tN¿∂p. tPmk^v Be-∏pg ]pØ≥]p- -c-bv°¬ tP°_v Nm≠n ˛ A∂Ω Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ Beo-kns -(Gen-°p´n) 1957¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠p-h¿jw sk‚ v ^ntem-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 82. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 85an-m-kn¬n∂pw Ah-[n-sb-SpØv ]Tn®v ssakq¿ bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n-bn¬n∂pw Fw.Fkvkn _ncpZw tSn eIvNd¿ XkvXn-Ibn-seØn. - -]n∂oSv {]^-kdpw Un∏m¿´vsa‚ v Xe-h-p-ambn k¿∆o-kn¬n∂vhnc-an®p. ssakq¿ kn‰n-°-SpØv F≥.B¿.saml-√-bn¬ kz¥-ambn]Wn-bn® B≥hn-√-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmk^v ˛ Beokv Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v en€n, Ap, Nn®p F∂oaq∂p s]¨Ip-´n-Ifpw tPmPp (tPm¿÷v) Fs∂mcp ]p{X-p-ap≠v.en€n t_m´-Wn-bn¬ Fw.Fkvkn _ncpZw tSn ssakq¿ alm-dmWn tImtf-Pn¬ ]Tn-∏-°p-tºmƒ, ]mem-bn¬n∂pw am-¥-hm-Sn-bn¬ IpSn-tbdn ÿnc-Xm-a-k-am-°nb IpS-°-®nd ^nen∏v kmdn-s‚bpw `mcy adn-b-Øn-t‚bpw aI≥ kuØv C¥y≥ _m¶v DtZym-K-ÿ≥ kndn-b°v _n.F.sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°v ]qPFs∂mcp ]p{Xnbpw hnthIv Fs∂mcp ]p{X-p-ap≠v. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂p tPmk^v Fw.Fkvkn (kv]o®vB‚ v lob-dnwKv) sNß-∂q-cn¬n∂pw ate-jy-bn¬ IpSn-tbdnAhnsS ÿnc-Xm-a-k-am-°nb ]qap-J-∏-d-ºn¬ mWp ˛ am[-hn-∏-Wn-°¿ Zº-Xn-I-epsS aI≥ hmkp-∏-Wn-°¿ _n.F.sb hnhmlwsNbvXv ssakq¿ kn‰n-°-Sp-Øp≈ ^mw lukn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v inev], IhnX F∂n-ßs c≠p s]¨a-°-fp≠v.hmkp-∏-Wn-°¿ ate-jy-bn¬ tPmen XpS-cp∂p. aq∂m-asØ aIƒ Nn®p (knknen) _n.tImans Xncp-h√Imhpw-`mKw aÆn¬ ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ kJ-dnb ˛ timimΩ aI≥tPm¿÷v hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Zp_m-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.Ch¿°v kam¥m, sÃ^vn F∂o c≠p a°-fp≠v. ""hnhm-ln-X-m-Ip-tºmƒ Xp—-i-º-f-°m-c-mb tPmk^v km¿tlmì S-Ønbpw ÿm]-߃°pw hy‡n-Iƒ°pw sI´n-S߃ - -]Wn-bn®v sImSpØpw Syqj-s-SpØpw Nne-hns‚ hnShv nIØn.43˛mw hb-€n-emWv ¢mt€msS Fw.Fkvkn _ncpZw tSn Ct±lwDtZym-K-°-b-‰-Ønp A¿l-m-bXv. AXn-cm-hn-sebpw sshIo´pwCu c≠p ¢mkp-I-fn-embn Ccp-∂q-tdmfw t]¿°v Syqj-s-SpØpw15 Intem-ao-‰¿ AIse t]mbn c≠m-≠p-Iƒ ]Tn®v A¿l-ambam¿°v tSn. Ap-tam-Z-m¿l-amb, Ap-I-c-Wo-b-amb ITn{]bXvw. (Ing-t°-°c Xmhgn NcnXw ˛ t]Pv 100).○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 83. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 86 Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ ˛ ssakq¿ D]-imJtPm¿÷v tPmk^v (tPmPp) _n.C. HºXmw Xe-apd tPmk^v ˛ Beokv Zº-Xn-I-epsS ]p{X≥ tPmPp ssakq-dn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ym-khpw Zmh¨Kmsc F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv tImtf-Pn¬n∂v _n.C (sa°m-n-°¬)epw ]m€mbn t•mt{Sm-WnIvkv B¿& Un Un∏m¿´vsa‚n¬ tPmen-bn¬ {]th-in®p. sdan-MvS¨ Iº-n-bn¬ tPmen sNøp- t ºmƒ, skte Iºn DtZym- K - ÿ bpwssakq¿ cma-kzman ˛ ]pjv]m Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI-fp-amb joeFw._n.Fsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{X-mb BZ¿iv hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. Ct∏mƒ tPmPp Be-∏pg hn.B¿.F¬ kvss]kkv t{]mk-knwKv B≥Uv FIvkvt]m¿´nwKv Iº-n-bn¬ P-d¬ amt-P-cmbntPmen sNbvXp-sIm≠v Fd-Wm-Ipfw ˛ Im°-m´v kz¥-ambnhmßnb ho´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ ˛ N≈m-h-b¬ (Xos∏m-gn-°p∂v) D]-imJsI.hn.amΩ≥ (F´mw Xe-apd) h¿°n ˛ Nm®n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ amΩ≥1932¬ Pn®p. Xncp-h√ {]n≥kv am¿Øm-WvU-h¿Ω sslkvIq-fn¬n∂v kwÿm kvtImf¿jn-t∏msS Fkv.Fkv.F¬.kn.]mkmbn. Beph bqkn-tI-tfPv, a{Zmkv {InkvXy≥ tImtfPv F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ ]Tn®v _n.Fkvkn _ncpZw tSn. tI{µ Kh¨sa‚ vcmPy-c-£m-h-Ip-∏np Iogn-ep≈ Izmfn‰n I¨t{Smƒ Ub-d-IvS-td-‰n¬ sSIvn-°¬ kq∏¿ssh-k-dmbn 1957¬ tPmen In´n. t_mws_,a{Zmkv, _mwKvfq¿, Im¨]q¿, sIm®n F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ tPmensNbvXp. 1986˛1992 hsc Fd-Wm-Ipfw {_m©v B∏o-kns‚ B∏o-k¿ C≥ Nm¿÷m-bn-cp∂p 1992¬ dn´-b¿ sNbvXp. N≈m-h-b¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 84. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 87Ih-ebv°v ASpØv IpSpw-_kz-Øn¬ Hml-cn-bmbn In´nb ÿeØv -hoSp-h®v Xma-kn-°p∂p. amΩ≥ 1962 Unkw-_-dn¬ ncWw ]qXn-tbm´v sNdn-bm≥ ˛kmdmΩ aIƒ kzmn (kqkΩ)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v ann (Fen-k-_Øv) F∂ aIfpw tPmPn (tPm¿÷v), tdmbn(sNdn-bm≥) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw D≠v. ann Fd-Wm-Ipfw,Im¨]q¿ F∂n-hn-Sßfn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw Ign™v a{Zm-kn¬ - -sshjvWh tImtf-Pn¬n∂v _n.Fkvknbpw {]kn-U≥kn tImtf-Pn¬n∂v dmt¶msS Fw.Fkvkn (t_m´Wn)bpw ]m€mbn. a{ZmkvbqWn-th-gvkn-‰n-bn¬n∂v Fw.^n¬ tSn. ann hna≥kv {InkvXy≥tImtf-Pn¬ A≤ym-]n-Ibmbpw ]n∂oSv Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv F.hn.Sn.Iº- -n-bn¬ dntk¿®v Akn-Âmbpw {]h¿Øn®p. 1995¬ tIm´bwknFw.Fkv tImtf-Pn¬ eIvN-d-dmbn tN¿∂p. 2010¬ t_m´-Wn-bn¬ ]n.F®v.Un. _ncpZw tSn Atkm-kn-tb‰v {]^-k¿ XkvXn-I-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. amth-en-°-c-n∂pw _mwKvfq-cn¬ Xma-k-am-°nb ]pØ≥ho-´n¬ DΩ-®≥ ˛ AΩnWn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥Iym]v‰≥ ]n.H.Nmt°m (tamn) 1988¬ annsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿°v oXn, o¬ F∂o c≠p a°-fp≠v. tPmPn (tPm¿÷v amΩ≥) Fd-Wm-Ipfw, Im¨]q¿ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw Ign™v sXmSp-]pg yqam≥ tImtf-Pn¬n∂v _n.F.bpw sIm®n≥ bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n-bn¬n∂v lnµn-bn¬¢mt€msS Fw.F.bpw ]m€mbn. 1995¬ alm-flm-Km‘n bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n-bn¬n∂v ]n.F®v.Un. _ncp-Zhpw tSnb tPmPn Ipd-®p-mƒam∂mw sI.C.tImtf-Pn¬ Xm¬°m-enI XkvXn-I-bn¬ tPmensNbvXtijw Imk¿tKmUv cmP-]pcw sk‚ v ]b€v sS≥Xv tImtf- -Pn¬ lnµn eIvN-d-dmbn tN¿∂p. Ct∏mƒ Atkm-kn-tb‰v {]^-k¿ XkvXn-I-bn¬ tPmen tm°p∂p. 1996¬ tPmPn Xncp-h√mam∂m¿ a´-bv°¬ G{_lmw ˛ sIm®-∂mΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒtcJ (Fen-k-_Øv) Fw.F€n _n.FÕns hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿°v F´mw ¢mkn¬ ]Tn-°p∂ tPmb¬ amΩ≥ tPm¿÷vFs∂mcp aI-p≠v. amΩ≥ ˛ kzmn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS Cfb aI≥ tdmbn a{Zmkv,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 85. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 88sXmSp]pg Uot]mƒ F∂n-hn-Sßfn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw Ign™v - -aqe-a‰w sk‚ v tPmk-^vkn¬n∂v {]oUn{Kn ]m€mbn F≥{S≥kv]co-£-sb-gpXn AUvan-jp tbmKyX tSn. tamU¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv tImtf-Pn¬ ]Tn-°p-tºmƒ Kpcp-X-c-amb BIvkn-U‚n¬s∏´vHcp h¿jw ]Tn-∏p-ap-Sßn. 1995¬ Iw]yq-´¿ F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn tPmen In´n t_mws_-bn-seØn. ]n∂oSv sF_nFw Iº-n-bn¬ tPmen-In´n _mwKvfq-cn-te°vamdn. AtX Iº-n-bn¬ tPmen-bn-en-cnt° bp.Fkv.Fbn-te°vt]mIm≥ Ah-kcw e`n®p. t_mÃ-Wn¬ tPmen-bn-en-cn-°p-tºmƒ]mem aptØmen sXßn≥tXm-´-Øn¬ tXmakv ˛ dq_n aIƒoasb 1999 Unkw-_-dn¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°vtdbm Fs∂mcp aIƒ (inip) D≠v. tdmbn Ct∏mƒ Imen-t^m¿Wn-bm-bn¬ sF.Un.Sn (C‚-t{K-‰Uv Unsshkv sSIvtm-fPn) Iº-n-bn¬ Ce-t{Œm-WnIvkv Unssk≥ F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn tPmen sNbvXp-sIm≠v kz¥-ambn hmßnb ho´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ ˛ sF°c D]-imJsI.sP.sNdn-bm≥ (F´mw Xe-apd) C´n sF∏v ˛ Ipt™-en-bmΩ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ sNdn- -bm≥ 1944¬ Pn®p. kvIqƒ ˛ tImtfPv hnZym-`ymk ImeØv ]Tn-∏n-sm∏w kvt]m¿Svknepw sKbnw-knepw sNdn-bm≥ {]mhoWywne-n¿Øn. saU-ep-Ifpw I∏p-Ifpw jo¬Up-Ifpw hmcn-°q´n taf-I-fn¬ Nmºy-mbn. 1962¬ Xncp-h¥]pcw F≥Pn-o-bdnwKv tImtf- - - - -Pn¬ kvt]m¿Svkv tIzm´m-bn¬ AUvan-j≥ tSn. _n.Fkvkn(F≥Pn) F∂ ]©-h-’c tIm¿gvkv ]m€mb sNdn-bm≥ 1973¬CS-a-‰Øv ]pen-°p-t∂¬ Idnbm ˛ ImX-ssd≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒssee (tdmk)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. ssee-tbm-sSm∏w tPmenÿe-amb Im-Um-bn-se-Ønb sNdn-bm-®≥ Hm‚m-dntbm k¿°m¿sshZypXn tI{µ- Ø n¬ hn`h kwtbm- P - I ≥ (s^kn- e n- ‰ okvtIm˛Hm¿Un-t-‰¿) Bbn DtZym-K-ÿ-mbn. sNdn-bm≥ ˛ sseeZº-Xn-am¿°v kRvPbv ˛ tPmk^v sNdn-bm≥, tkmWnb Fen-k-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 86. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 89t_Øv sNdn-bm≥ F∂o c≠p a°-fp≠v. Ch¿ hf¿∂Xpw hnZym-`ymkw sNbvXXpw Im-U-bn-emWv. c≠p-t]-cp-tSbpw hnhm-lhpwAhn-sS-h®v Xs∂ S∂p. tkmWn-bsb Umd≥ BWv hnhmlwsNbvXXv. kRvPbv Imjmsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°v eq°m,ARvPen, ^nen∏v F∂o aq∂p k¥m--ß-fp≠v. sI.bp.tPmk^v (C´n sF∏v) w- shfp-tØ-SØv ]d-ºn¬ Gen (Ipt™-en-bmΩ) > > > sI.sP.sNdn-bm≥ sI.sP.tPmkv (]m∏-®≥) w ]pen-°p-t∂¬ ssee (tdmkv) W Gdp-ºp-dØv Ip™q-™Ω (tdmk) > > > > kRvPbv tkmWnb [y > hnZy Fw._n.F w Imjm H - Umd≥ H tPmkv sk_m-Ãy≥ > > (Pn°p) hnoXv Fw._n.F > > > eq°m ARvPen ^nen∏v (]mem HDFC Fwtπmbn). Cu¥p-¶¬ ]Ip-Xn-imJ ˛ sF°c D]-imJsI.sP.tPmkv (]m∏-®≥) (F´mw Xe-apd) C´n sF∏v ˛ Ipt™-en-bmΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS ZznXob ]p{X≥tPmkv (]m∏-®≥) 1945¬ Pn®p. ]mem sk‚ v tXmakv sslkvIq-fn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ym-khpw sk‚ v tXmakv tImtf-Pn¬n∂v]n.bp.kn.bpw ]m€mbn am¿°p-I-fpsS ta∑-bn¬ Xncp-h--¥-]pcwF≥Pn-o-bdnwKv tImtf-Pn¬ AUvan-j≥ tSn. ]©-h’c tImgvkv - -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 87. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 90Bb _n.Fkvkn (F≥Pn ˛ sa°m-n-°¬) ]m€mbn, tImgn-t°m-´p≈ amhq¿ dtbm¨kv ^mIvS-dn-bn¬ DtZym-K-ÿ-mbn. c≠-c-h¿j-tØmfw AhnsS tPmen sNbvX-tijw ]m∏-®≥ sIm®n≥jn∏v bm¿Un¬ Akn. F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn tN¿∂p. 1976 s^{_p-h-cn-bn¬ tPmkv sXmSp-]pg ap´w Gdp-ºp-dØv Hutk∏v ˛ tdmk aIƒIp™q-™-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v [y (Fen-k-t_Øv) hnZy (tdmk), hnoXv tPmkv tPmk^v F∂o aq∂pa°-fp≠v. sIm®n≥ jn∏ym¿Un¬n∂pw dn´-b¿sNbvX tPmkv ]memSuWn--SpØv alm-dmWn Xntb-‰-dn-tmSv tN¿∂v kz¥-am-bp≈ho´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmkv ˛ Ip™q-™Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aqØ-a-Iƒ [y ]memA¬t^m≥km tImtf- P n¬n∂v _n.Fkv k nbpw tIm´bwkn.Fw.Fkv tImtf-Pn¬n∂v Fw.Fkvkn _ncp-Zhpw tSn. ]pfn-¶p∂v aW-Ød ho´n¬ kÆn-®≥ ˛ A∂mΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥tPmkv sk_m-Ãy≥ (Pn°p) [ysb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu Zº-Xn- I ƒ Cw•- ≠ n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. Cfb aIƒ hnZy ]memA¬t^m≥km tImtf-Pn¬n∂v _n.Fkvknbpw Xncp-h√m XpI-e-ticn amIv^mÃv tImtf-Pn¬n∂v Fw._n.F.bpw ]m€mbn_mwKvfq-cn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. aI≥ hnoXv tPmkv tPmk^v ]memsk‚ v tXmakv sslkvIq-fn¬n∂v kvIqƒ ]Tw Ign™v Dg-hq¿ sk‚ v Ão^≥kv tImf-Pn¬n∂v _n.F.bpw sk‚ v In‰vkn¬n∂v Fw._n.Fbpw ]m€mbn ]mem F®v.Un.F^v.kn.bn¬ tPmensNøp∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 88. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 95 Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ imJ Ing-t°-°c ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ Gen ˛ Cu∏-∑m-cpsS aq∂m-asØ aI≥ C´n sF∏pw `mcy sIg-h≥Ipfw sSp-ºp-dØv aØmbnaIƒ Genbpw kpam¿ 1895˛¬ ssItXm-en-te°p amdp-tºmƒAh¿°v c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. apºv B ho´n¬ Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ t]c-∏s‚ t]cp-Im-c≥ apØ-a-I≥ C´n-sF∏pw c≠m-a≥ ape-Ip-Sn-°p∂aØm-bnbpw. tsc tN´≥ DWn-s®-dn-b-bnepw Ap-P≥ aØm-bn-bnepw "ndhpw hÆhpw Ipdhv, A©Sn c≠n-©p-Im-c≥ C´n sF∏n-mWv; sI´n-h-∂-h-cn¬ IqSp-X¬ ndw `mcybv°pw. DWn-s®-dn-b-Xn-s-t∏mse C´n-sF∏pw a-bv°°≠Ønse hoXw Dt]-£n®v h≠- - - -a-‰Øv hkvXp-hm-ßm≥ {ian®p. XpS-ß-m-´n-seØn tNcn-°¬taSn®p. Nph-∂-πm-°¬ Nmt°m h¿Ko-kn-tmSv 1910 Unkw-_-dn¬25 G°¿ ae-hmcw hmßn. B[mcw S-Øn-bXp Im-Øp-Im-SnpwGev]n-®p-sIm-Sp-ØXv h≈n-∏m-d-bp-amWv. Im-Øpw-ImSv ]pØn-¶¬anJm-tb¬ ssIh-i-am-bn-cp∂p. AXv ssIhiw In´m≥ C´n-sF∏vtIkp-sIm-SpØp. hn[n-bm-Im≥ B≠p-Iƒ o≠p. F¶nepw 1912¬as‰mcp B[mcw SØn h≈n-∏md ÿnc-s∏-SpØn. AhnsS aqt∂-°¿ BZy-th-en-°Iw XpSßn. 1914¬ aqt∂-°¿IqsS c≠mw then-°Iw FSpØp. Aßs Btd-°¿ C´n sF∏v tZl-WvUn-∏n®p._m°n ImSmbn InS∂p. AXv aqØ-a-I≥ `mcym-k-taXw h∂p]m¿Øp-I-gn™v tZl-WvUn-∏n®p I≠w ncØn. 1910 ao-Øn¬C´n-sF∏v Imcn-t°mSv {]h¿Øn CS-∏≈n-Icbn¬ sImc-´n-bn¬ mb- - - -∑m¿ ]fl-m-`≥, IrjvW≥, DÆqen F∂n-h-tcmSp Ip‰n-°mSp ae-hmcw 16 G°¿ hmßn. DÆq-en-bpsS Ap-P-Øn-bpsS {]mb-]q¿Øn-bmb a°sf I£n tN¿Øn√. AXnp tI€mbn. ÿew tZl-WvUn-®n√. hmc-Ønp sImSpØpw BZm-b-sa-SpØpw InS∂p. 1925¬mb¿Ø-d-hm-´p-Im¿ Btfm-lcn `mKn-°m≥ nbaw h∂p. At∏mƒHmtcm-cp-Ø-cp-tSbpw Hmlcn hmßn tIkv Xo¿Øp. 1914˛¬ C´n-sF-∏ns‚ aq∂pw mepw k¥m--ß-ƒ GenbpwtXma-kp-a-S°w Imm-´p-]m-d-bv°-Sp-Øp≈ Ipd-®-[nIw Ip´n-Isf]mem Su¨ k¿°m¿ ae-bmfw ]≈n-°q-S-Øn¬ ÿe-an-√m-Ø-Xn-m¬ tN¿Øn√. ]nXm-°ƒ Iq´-l¿÷n-bn-eqsS ]cm-Xn-s∏´p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 89. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 96C≥kvs]-IvS¿ Ahsc H∂n-®p-h-cpØn. Imm-´p-]md Xcn-imbn InS-°p∂ ÿeØv Hcp kvIqƒ sI´nSw ]Wn-bn-°m≥ D]-tZ-in®p.Ap-hm-Zhpw klm-bhpw k¿°m-cn¬n∂pw hmßn-s°m-Sp-°m-sa∂p hmKvZmw sNbvXp. ]nXm-°ƒ tbmKw IqSn. kvIqƒsI-´nSw]Wn°v ssItXm-en¬ C´n-sF∏v, ]tg-ssI-tXm-en¬ Iptcy∏v,Ipt∂¬ C´n-sF∏v, ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n-sF∏v, ]pXp-a t]mØ≥,tXm∏n¬ Ip™p-sIm®p sshZy≥, ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ aØmbn,sIm´m-c-Øn¬ Iptcy∏v sXmΩ≥ F∂n-hsc IΩn-‰n-°m-cmbpw Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ C´n sF∏ns amt-Pcpw JPm≥Pn-bp-ambpw]Sn-™m-sd-°c sIm´m-cØn¬ Iptcy∏v sXmΩs sk{I-´dn-bmbpw - -Xnc-s™-SpØp. 1915 am¿®v 22se 2342/63˛mw º¿ DØ-c-hn≥{]-Imcw Xcn-in¬ sI´nSw ]Wn-bmpw klm-b-[w 250 cq]bpwk¿°m¿ Ap-h-Zn®p. ]ncn-s®-SpØpw {ia-Zmw S-Ønbpw sI´n-Sw-]Wn ]ptcm-Kan®p. ac-∏Wn ASp-Øp≈ C´n-sF-∏ns‚ ho´n¬h®v -SØn. Ah¿°pw I√m-im-cn-am¿°pw a‰p ]Wn-°m¿°pw C´n-sF-∏ns‚ ho´n¬ Blmcw sImSpØp. A∂p Blm-c-an-√msX ]Wn-∏o-cn√. sk{I-´dn sIm´m-c-am-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw IW°pw Fgp-Øp-IpØpw C´n-sF∏v SØn. Ah At±-l-Øns‚ kq£n-∏n¬n∂pIn´n. 1916 A≤y-b--h¿jm-cw-`-Øn¬ sI´nSw Xo¿∂p. k¿°m¿,A≤ym-]Isc nb-an®p. B B≠n¬ ]Tn-∏ocpw XpSßn. Cu∏≥km- -dm-bn-cp∂ BZy {]Y-am-≤ym-]I≥. Atß-cpsS `mcy A≤ym-]n-Ibpw. -kao] hoSp-I-fnse (Ing-t°-°-c-I-fn-tebpw) Ip´n-Iƒ ChnsS]Tn®p. Ing-t°-°c ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ mep ktlm-Z-c-cnepw IqSp-X¬ kap-Zmb k`m tkh--߃ S-Øn-bXv C´n-sF-∏mWv. C´n-sF-∏ns‚ aqØ-a-I≥ C´n-sF∏pw c≠m-a≥ aØm-bnbpw]mem Su¨ k¿°m¿ ae-bmfw ]≈n-°q-S-Øn¬ ]Tn®p memw-Xcw Pbn®p. ]≈n hI sk‚ v tXmakv Cw•ojv kvIqfn¬ tN¿∂p.A∂Xv anUn¬ kvIqfmWv. sk°‚n¬ ]Tn-°p-tºmƒ C´n-sF∏v]Tw n¿Øn A∏s‚ klm-bØn-sØn. aØmbn tX¿Uv Pbn®v -Nß-m-Ft»cn sk‚ v _¿°p-sa≥kn¬ tN¿∂p. C.Fkv.F¬.kn -Pbn®p. A∂Xv sslkvIq-fmWv. AhnsS s]‰n-sk-an-m-cn-bn¬tN¿∂p ]utcm-ln-Xy-]-Tw XpSßn. hcm-∏pg skan-m-cn-bn¬]q¿Øn-bm°n. C´n-sF∏v Ggm-t®-cn¬ sSp-º≈n s]mdn-©p-hns‚○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 90. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 97aIƒ adn-b-Øns IeymWw Ign®p. C´n-sF-∏ns‚ GI-a-Iƒ,ho´n¬ Ip™mΩ F∂p-hn-fn-°p∂ Gensb s]cp-h-¥m-Øv hS-°-bn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ kvIdn-bm-sb-s°m≠v sI´n®p. Gen-˛-kvI-dnb Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v Ip™q™v (tPm-k-^v), Ip´n-b-®≥, F∂oc≠m¨ a°-fmWv D≈-Xv. Ip™q™v Imf-sI´n Xpcp-Øn-bn¬A∂-°p-´nsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. tPmk-^˛A∂°p´n Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v v- - - -kvIdn-bm-®≥ (_m¶v DtZym-K-ÿ≥), amØ-®≥ (F-©n-o-b¿),sSÕn (Ir-jn, I®-h-Sw) F∂o aq∂m¨ a°fpw c≠v s]¨a-°-fp-am-Wp-≈-Xv. Ip™q™v 1989 BKÃv 26-˛v ncym-X-m-bn. s]cp-h-¥mw ]≈n- b n¬ kwkv I - c n- ® p. A∂- ° p- ´ n- ˛ - C - f b aI≥sSÕnbpsamØv I∏mSv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. kvIdn-b-˛-Gen Zº-Xn-I-fpsSc≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Im™n-c-∏≈n Icn-∏m-∏-d-ºn¬ tagvknsbhnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°v aq∂m¨Ip-´n-I-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. IrjnbpwI®-h-S-hp-ambn s]m≥Ip-∂Øv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. aq∂m-asØ aI≥tXmakv ]mem sk‚ v tXma-kn¬n∂v C.Fkv.F¬.kn. Pbn®p.Nß-m-t»cn sk‚ v _¿°p-sa≥kn¬n∂v F^v.F. tSn B{‘m-an-jy-n¬ tN¿∂p s√q-cn¬ ]´-Ønp ]Tw XpSßn. mem-a≥tZhkym (sIm®v) tX¿Un¬h®v ]Tw n¿Øn Irjn ]cn-io-en-°p-tºmƒ {]hn-Ømw Ign-™m-en¬ sNdn-bm-t‚bpw adn-b-Øn-t‚bpw aIƒ Nm®nsb (A∂Ω) IeymWw Ign®p. sIm®v hnhm-ln-X-m-bn-°-gn™v A∂p-hsc ssItXm-en¬ Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ aqØ-a-Ipw `mcybpw XpS-ß-m-´n¬ h≈n-∏m-d-∏-d-ºn¬ ]Wn-bn-®n-cp∂sIm®p ]pc-bn-te°v amdn-Øm-a-kn®p. C´n sF∏v hmßnb h≈n-∏m-dbv°pw Ip‰n-°m-Snpw tI€p-≠m-bXv FgpXn. acWw hsc C´n-sF-∏np Ht∂m ct≠m AXn-e-[n-Itam tI€p-Iƒ S-Øm-p-≠m-bn-cp∂p. Ah-bv°mbn At±lw sXmSp-]p-gbpw aqhm-‰p-]p-gbpw ]d-hqcpw Xncp-h--¥-]p-cØpw t]mbn h∂n-cp∂p. Pn⁄m-kp-hmbAtß¿ Cu bm{X-I-fn¬ ]pXnb Adn-hp-Iƒ tSn {]ÿm--߃]Tn®p. Ah m´n¬ S-∏m°n. C´n-sF-∏ns‚ A©m-asØ aI≥h¿°n BZyw ]mem IS-°-®nd Ipcy≥ aIƒ A∂sb IeymWwIgn®p. Ip´n Pn-°pw-apºv yqtam-Wnb _m[n®v Ah¿ acn®p.c≠m≠v Ign™p c≠m-aXpw aptØmen amtX-∏-≈n¬ hmg-th-en-°-IØv h¿°n-bp-tSbpw adn-b-Øn-t‚bpw aIƒ Gen-°p-´nsbhnhmlw sNbvXv amXm-]n-Xm-°-tfmsS ssItXm-en¬ Xma-kn®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 91. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 98h¿°n-bpsS c≠mw hnhm-lm--¥cw tsc aqØ tN´≥, `mcy Ip´n-Iƒ ktaXw ap´w CS-∏-≈n-bn¬ Ip‰n-°m-´p-]-d-ºnse sIm®p-]p-c-bn-te°v 1937˛¬ amdn-Øm-a-kn®p. C´n-sF∏v ssItXm-en-te°p amdn-Øm-a-kn-°p-tºmƒ hoXwIn´nb Cf-t¥m´w tNcn-°¬ ]mXn tZl-WvUn-®n-cp∂p. _m°n]n∂oSv C´n-sF∏v Xn®p Xo¿Øp. 1912¬ C´n-sF∏v IpSpw-_tbmKw -IW-°≥ (sk{I-´dn) Bbn Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏´p. Atß¿ IW-°-m-bn-cn-t°-bmWv BZy amt-P¿ Ing-t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ BK-kvXn-bpsS hoSpw ]dºpw IS-Ønp teew sNbvXXpw IpSpw-_-tbmKw ]nSn-®Xpw. BKkvXn I√n-S-]q-X-bnse Xs‚ ]dºv CuSpwC´n-sF-∏ns BƒPm-ay-hp-ambn sImSpØv ]mem Aßm-Sn-bn¬Kp≠n-I-°m-c≥ inh-cm-a-ø-tcmSpw ISw hmßn-bn-cp∂p. hkvXp-hn¬n∂v CuSm-°p-∂-Xnepw Ffp∏w Pmay-°m-cs ]nSn-°p-∂-Xm-sW∂v Adn-bm-am-bn-cp∂ hncp-X≥ ]´¿ ap-kn-∏¬ tI€p-sIm-SpØv hn[n tSn. tm´okv in]m-bn°p ssIa-S°p sImSpØv""apt´¬h®v aS-°n®p. hmd-≠n¬ C´n-sF-∏ns ]nSn-°m≥ DØ-c-hp-hmßn. Hcp Rmb-dmgvN ImØn-cp∂p. Ip¿_m I≠v ap≠m-¶¬]-≈n-bn¬n∂v Cd-ßnb C´n-sF-∏ns ]nSn-IqSn. C´n-sF∏vAbm-fp-sam-∂n®p S∂p. At∏mƒ Nßm-Xn-am¿ ]tg-ssI-tXm-en¬Iptcy-∏-®pw Ipt∂¬ C´n-sF∏pw Pmayw sImSpØv hnSp-hn®p.Ah¿ B XpI sI´n-h®p. BKkvXn ]dºv C´n-sF-∏nv Xosd-gpXn sImSpØp. B ]d-ºnse Hcp πm¥Sn hn‰v C´n-sF∏v kvtln-X-cpsS ISw-ho´n. B ]dºv ssItXm-en¬ "hmd-≠p-]-dºv F∂pAdn-b-s∏-´n-cp∂p. CXmWv C´n-sF∏v aI≥ aØmbn A®v ]{X-ta-n-bmbn sImSp-ØXv. 1912˛¬ C´n-sF∏v tI€n-p-th≠n Xncp-h--¥-]p-c-sØ-Øn-b-t∏mƒ sX°v tIm´m-dn¬ mSm-∑m¿ sbvØp-ime S-Øp-∂Xvt]mbn-°≠p. aSßn ]mem-bn¬ h∂v IpSpw-_-tbmKw tN¿∂-t∏mƒHcp sbvØp-ime XpS-ßp∂ Bibw Ah-X-cn-∏n®p. tbmKw AXvAwKo-I-cn®p. {]Xn-n-[n-I-fmb Ing-t°-°c ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬sXmΩ≥ssh-Zypw Ipºp-°¬ BK-kvXn-bp-sam-∂n®v ho≠pwtImt´m¿ t]mbn mS-∑msc Iq´n-s°m-≠p-h∂v 1913¬ sbvØp-imeXpS-ßn-bXv Fgp-Xn-bt√m. 1917¬ C´n-sF∏v ]pXp-a ss]tem-tbmSp○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 92. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 99ssItXm-en¬ AXn-cn-ep≈ Ipdp-h-¥m-hpw ]oSn-I-bn¬ BK-kvXn-bpsS ASp-Øp≈ ]ø-∏-Xnbpw hmßn. 1931¬ C´n-sF∏v ssh°wISp-Øp-cpØn ASpØv Bbmw-Ip-Sn-bn¬ mev]-Xp-]d Icn-newhmßn. AXv ]m´-Ønp sImSpØp. ]m´-°m-c≥ s√v ssItXm-en¬ sIm≠p-h∂p Af-∂p-h∂p. ]n∂oSv AXv hn‰v Bbmw-Ip-Sn°vt]mIp-tºmƒ AhnsS dm´n¬ Ib-dp-]n-cn-°p-∂Xp I≠p. Bim-cn-amsc hcpØn dm´p-≠m°n ssItXm-enepw Ib-dp-]ncn XpSßn. Np‰p-]m-Sn-ep≈ ]e hoSp-I-fnepw A∂p NIcn No°epw X√epw dm´n¬Ib-dp-]n-cnbpw Iptd-m-f-tØ°v S-∂n-cp∂p. 1933¬ C´n-sF∏v Xs‚ h°o¬ kZ-ky-Xn-e-I≥ Sn.sI.thep-∏n-≈sb ImWm≥ Xncp-h--¥-]p-cØv At±-l-Øns‚ B∏o-kn¬sN∂-t∏mƒ h°o¬ Hcp tbmK-Ønp t]mIm≥ Cd-ßp-I-bmWv.C´n-sF∏pw IqsS t]mbn. tI€p-Im-cy-߃ hgn°p ]d™p. ]c-kv]c klm-b-kw-L-߃ XpS-ßp-∂Xpw S-Øp-∂Xpw Bbn-cp∂ptbmK-Ønse hnjbw. C´n-sF∏v F√mw {i≤n-®p-tI´v Dƒs°m≠p.1934¬ Xm≥ ap∂m-fmbn ]Wn-bn® Imm-´p-]m-d-]-≈n-°q-S-Øn¬tbmKw IqSn. Atß-cp-Xs∂ {]kn-U‚pw Ing-t°-°c hey-]o-Sn-I-bn¬ sXmΩ≥ sk{I-´-dn-bp-ambn ]c-kv]c klm-b-kwLw XpSßn.1934 apX¬ 1937hsc C´n-sF-∏m-bn-cp∂p {]kn-U‚ v, B kwLwhf¿∂v ]S¿∂p ]¥-en-®-XmWv Ct∏mƒ ]mem ]´-W-Øn¬ tI{µ˛ {_m©v ˛ B∏o-kp-Ifpw a‰p-ap≈ Ing-XSn-bq¿ kl-IcW kwLw - -_m¶pw {_m©p-Ifpw. ]´-W-Øn¬ k¿°m¿ Bip-]-{Xn°p hS-°p-h-i-ap≈ tI{µ B∏o-kn¬ BZy {]kn-U‚ns‚ Ombm-]Swkq£n-®n-´p≠v. B ]mc-ºcyw XpS-cp∂p. sshZn-I-c-√mØ a°fpwsIm®p-a-°fpw Ah-c-h-cpsS {]h¿Ø--tI-{µ-ß-fn¬ ]c-kv]cklm-b-kwLw `mc-hm-ln-I-fmbn. C´n-sF∏v aq∂p-X-hW ]memhen-b-]≈n ssI°m-c-m-bn-cp∂p. A∂v AXv sa{Xm-k--∏-≈n-b√.Cf-t¥m´w, Iho-°p∂v, ap≠m-¶¬, s√n-bmn Hs° AXns‚ Ipcn-ip-]-≈n-Ifpw AXv hen-b-]-≈n-bp-amWv. ]n∂o-SmWv Ipcn-ip-]-≈n-Iƒ CS-h-I-Ifpw hen-b-]≈n sa{Xm-k--hp-am-bXv. sk‚ v tXmakvsslkvIq-fnse aq∂mw-ne X´n-So-®Xv C´n-sF∏v ssI°m-c-mWv.C´n-sF∏v {]tXyI Nn´n S-Øn∏p ssI°m-c-p-ambn. tI€p-IƒSØn Xg-°hpw ]g-°hpw D≈ C´n-sF∏v, Xh-W-hcn sI´m-Ø-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 93. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 100hsc tcn¬I≠p ]d-™n´pw tm´okv Ab-®n´pw apS°w hcp-Øn-bm¬ am{Xw Ah-cpsS t]cn¬ tIkp-sIm-Sp-°pI F∂ ]cn-jvImcw S-∏m°n. ]gb ]mem hen-b-]≈n (AXv C∂pw s]mfn-®p-am-‰msX kq£n-°p-∂p≠v). aZv_-lm-bnse sshZyp-X-Zo-]-߃C´n-sF-∏ns‚ kw`m-h--bmWv. 1935¬ C´n-sF∏v ssItXm-en¬NmhSn ]Wn-bn®p. ]n∂oSv AXn-semcp apdn-bn-emWv Xma-kn-®n-cp-∂Xv. ]mem sk‚ v tXmakv tImtfPv XpS-ßn-b-tijw sa{Xm≥sk_m-Ãy≥ hb-en¬, ]mem hnImcn sIm´p-Im-∏n≈n sXmΩ-®≥,Iøm-e-bv°Iw tXmam-®≥ apX-emb {]ap-J¿ ssItXm-en¬ sI´n-S-n¿ΩmW ]ncn-hn-sØn. C´n-sF∏v bmsXmcp kΩ¿Zhpw IqSmsXkk-t¥mjw 1500 cq] kw`m-h sNbvXp. AtX-hsc Hcp hy‡n¬Inb G‰hpw henb kwJym-bn-cp∂p AXv. Cf-In-n-∂n-cp∂ Hcp ]√v C´n-sF∏v Xnsb sImSn-enp]dn®p. AXv ]gpØv tamW apgp-h≥ hym]n®p. NnIn-’n-∏n-°m≥Atß¿ Iq´m-°n-bn√. B AkpJw h¿≤n®v 1957 Pq¨ 28p acn®p.AΩ-hgn ktlm-Z-c≥ ]mem sa{Xm--®s‚ apJy Im¿Ωn-I-Xz-Øn¬]nt‰∂p Cf-t¥m´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ AS°n. `mcy 1968 Pp-hcn 17p acn®p. Ah-tcbpw Ahn-sS-bmWv AS-°n-bXv. Cu¥p-¶-t∏mXn ]dºp hn‰v _m¶p-ISw ho´m≥ ssa°nƒ Idn-bm-am¿ {ian®p. hmtß-≠-h¿ hm°p-am‰n. At∏mƒ sF°chnev°m≥ Ah¿ {iaw XpSßn. D∏m-∏≥ FXn-cmbn tI€v ^b¬sNbvXp. B hnev] S-∂n√. Ipt™-en-bmΩ ]Øp sk‚ v hn‰vISw-ho-´n-bXv Fgp-Xn-bt√m. bp≤m--¥cw hkvXp-hne I≠-amwIqSn. ISw Aßs s]cp-In-√t√m. ]e e£-߃ C∂p hne-bp≈hkvXp A∂v ]nSn-bm-hn-ebv°v t]mbn-√t√m F∂v Bizm-k-n-izm-k-ß-tfmsS Hm¿Ωn-°p∂p. ssItXm-en¬ hey-∏m-∏s‚ tI€p-sI-´p-Iƒ tm°m≥ Ah-Im-in-Iƒ kΩ-Xn®p. ]pXp-a--bpsS l¿Pn,tX-Ωm-hp-am-bp≈ Icm¿,Imm-´p-]m-dbpsS IW-°p-Iƒ, Cßs - -]e hne-tb-dnb tcJ-Iƒ Cu {KŸ-c-N-bv°v DXIn. hyh-lm-c-{`aw nµy-ambn Icp-Xp-∂h¿ AXv `mhn-bn¬ hcp-Øp∂ ∑ ImWp- -∂n√. ]nXm-hn-s-t∏mse h¿°nbpw Ingp-XSn-bq¿ ]c-kv]c klmb -kl-I-c-W-kwLw {]h¿Ø-Ipw IΩn-‰n-bw-K-hp-am-bn-cp∂p. hoSn--SpØv B∏okpw ]pI-∏p-c-bp-ap≈ d_¿ ˛ kwkvI-cW ˛ hn]-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 94. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 101W kwLw kPo-h-{]-h¿Ø-I-m-bn-cp∂p. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmKw {]kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂Xpw AXnp Imcy-amb t´-߃ hcp-Øn-bXpw FgpXn. C´n-sF-∏ns‚ Cf-b-a-I≥ h¿°n amXm-]n-Xm-°-tfmsS Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-®Xv Fgp-Xn-bt√m. Imm-´p-]md memw-Xcw Pbn®vsk‚ v tXma-kn¬ C.Fkv.F¬.kn. hsc ]Tn® h¿°n ]co-£-sb-gp-XmsX ]Tw n¿Øn. tsc tN´≥ sIm®pw thsd t]mb-tijw ]nXmhpw aI-pw-IqSn ]mem sIm‰-t¶m-Sp-h-kvXp-°ƒ Atz-jn-°p-tºm-gmWv mj-W¬ πm‚nwKv Iºn Hml-cn-Iƒ FSp-ØXpw AXns‚ ]Wn-Iƒ°p IqSn-bXpw. C´n-sF∏v ]mem henb]≈n ssI°m-c-m-b-t∏mƒ Acn-∏-m-gn°p t]m°v Hgn-hm°n. Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ ]me sIm‰-t¶mSv D]-imJ Gen-°p´n ˛ h¿°n Zº-Xn-am¿°v memWpw Bdp-s]-Æp-ambn]Øp a°ƒ Pn®p. BZy PmX≥ Cu∏-®≥ Imm-´p-]m-dbpw ]memsk‚ v tXmakv sslkvIqƒ tImtf-Pp-I-fnepw ]Tn®v Un{Kn tSn.]n∂oSv a{Zmkv {InkvXy-n¬n∂v IW-°n¬ _n.F. tlmtWgvkpw]mem sk‚ v tXma-kn¬n∂v Ãm‰n-Ãn-Ivkn¬ Fw.F.bpw Pbn®p.]mem sk‚ v tXmakv tImtf-Pn¬ eIvN-d-dmbn tPmen kºm-Zn®p.Cu∏-®≥ ]pd-∏pg hb-‰m-´n¬ tPmk^v aIƒ eoem-Ωsb IeymWwgn®p. Ch¿°v tPm¿Pv Cu∏≥ (kPn), tPmk^v Cu∏≥ ({]`p)F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fp≠v. kPn Fw._n._n.Fkv Pbn®v tIm´bwsaUn-°¬ tImtfPv Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ lukv k¿P-mWv; {]`pF≥Pn-o-bdnwKv ]Tw ]q¿Øn-bm°n. Cu∏-®≥ sIm‰-t¶mSv hoXw -In´nb hkvXp-hn¬ hoSp-h-bv]n®p Xma-kn-°p-tºmƒ Ah-[n-bn¬ssPo-cn-bm-bn¬ A≤ym-]-I-mbn. AhnsS tPmen Hcp sIm√wXnI-bp∂ Znhkw Imd-]-I-S-Øn¬ acn®p. arX-tZlw 25˛mw Znhkwm´n¬ sIm≠p-h∂p ssItXm-enepw kzh-k-Xn-bn-epw-h®v At¥ym-]-Nm-c-߃ A¿∏n®p. Cf-t¥m´w skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 95. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 102a°ƒ hntZ-i-Øm-b-Xp-sIm≠v eoemΩ Fd-Wm-Ipfw sSp-ßm-S≥A∏m¿´vsa‚ v It®-cn-∏-Sn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. a°ƒ c≠m¨a-°ƒ. 1. tUm. kPn Cu∏≥ bp.Fkv.Fbn¬NnIn-’-I-mWv. `mcy enPp Fw.F. hcm-∏pg hnX-b-Øn¬ A¥-∏mbn amπ s]ÆΩ aIƒ. a°ƒ: tPm Cu∏≥, Fen-k-_ØvCu∏≥. sNdnb ¢m€p- I - f n¬ ]Tn- ° p∂p. hnemkw:sajieapen@gmail.com. Ph: 0018657699251. 2. {]`p Cu∏≥ _n.sSIv F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn bp.Fkn¬ tPmen.`mcy enj _n.sSIv. I≠-»mw-I-Shv tXm´p-¶¬ t]mƒ ˛BeokvZº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ. a°ƒ: 1. tPmjz, 2. sIhn≥. 3. kdo F√m-hcpw sNdn-b-Ip-´n-Iƒ. hnemkw: prabhueapen@gmail.com. Ph: 0019143801221. h¿°n-bpsS aqØ-a-Iƒ s]ÆΩ (sI.hn.Fen-k-_Øv)_n.Fkv k n, _n.FUv _ncp- Z - ß ƒ tSn a{Zmkv ssaem- ∏ q¿{^m≥kn-kvI≥ aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂p. 1961¬ k`m-hkv{Xw kzoI-cn®p.BhUn sk‚ v tPmk^vkv lb¿ sk°≥Udn kvIqƒ So®-dmbpw{]n≥kn-∏-embpw A-h[n h¿jw tkh-w-sNbvXp. dn´-b¿sa‚n-p-tijw k`-bpsS Xr»n-m-∏-≈n-bv°-SpØv s]c-º-eq-cp≈ lb¿sk°≥Udn kvIqƒ {]n≥kn-∏-embn 15 h¿j-tØm-f-ambn tkhwsNøp∂p. 3000˛tesd hnZym¿Yn-Ifpw AXn-m-h-iy-amb So®nwKv,tm¨ So®nwKv Ãm^p-ap≈ √ hnP-b-i-X-amw ]pe¿Øp∂kvIqfm-WnXv. CubnsS knÃ-dns‚ kph¿Æ-Pq-_nen sN∂-bn¬h®vBtLm-jn-°p-I-bp-≠mbn. henb Btcm-Ky-{]-iv-ß-sfm-∂p-an-√msX knÿ Xs∂ tPmen-bn¬ apgp-h≥ hym]r-X-bm-bn-cn°p∂p. Ah-cpsS Ap-PØn Ip´n-b-Ωsb hnf-°p-amSw ]nW-a-dp-In¬ssa°nƒ ˛ t{XkymΩ aI≥ amXyp _n.Fkvkn, _n.FUv hnhmlwsNbvXp. hnf-°p-amSw sslkvIqƒ A≤ym-]-I-m-bn-cp∂ amXyp-hnpw Ip´n-b-Ωbv°pw mev B¨a-°fpw Hcp s]¨Ip-´n-bp-am-Wp-≈Xv. AXn¬ aqØ B¨Ip´n ncym-X-mbn. Ip´n-bΩ tcmKwaqew 2004 HIvtSm-_¿ 16p ncym-X-bmbn. amXyp dn´-b¿sNbvXvhn{i-a-Po-hnXw bn-°p∂p. Ip´n-b-Ω-bpsS Ap-PØn A∂-Ωsb (Ip-™-∂) Bc-°p-g-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 96. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 103n∂pw Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂ amtX-°¬ tXma€v PUvPn-bpsS aI≥ ]mem sk‚ v tXma€v s{]m^. amXyp Sn amtX-bv°¬(kÆn) Fw.Fkvkn hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°v kptcjv F∂aIpw _nµp F∂ aI-fp-am-Wp-≈Xv. kptcjv tkm^v‰v shb¿F≥Pn-o-b¿ Bbn _mwKvfq-cn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. aIƒ _nµplb¿ sk°≥Udn kvIqƒ A≤ym-]-I-bmWv. s{]m^. amXyp dn´-b¿ sNbvXv Ct∏mƒ Nq≠-t®cn F≥Pn-o-bdnwKv tImtf-Pn¬ A[ym- -]-I-mbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Ip™∂ 2004˛¬ tcmKw-aqew ncym-X-bmbn. 1948 am¿®v Hº-Xnp Pn® tPm¿÷mWv Gen-°p´n ˛ h¿°n-am-cpsS ASpØ aI≥. Imm-´p-]m-d-n∂v memw-X-chpw ]memsk‚ v tXmakv sslkv I q- f n¬n∂v Fkv . Fkv . F¬.kn.¢mt€mSpw AtX t]cnse tImtf-Pn¬n∂v {]oUn-{Knbpw Pbn®psI.hn.tPm¿Pv Ae-l-_mZv Bÿm--ambn {]h¿Øn-°p∂ sk‚ vt]mƒ skmssk-‰n-bn¬ tN¿∂p. Ae-l-_m-Znse Ah-cpsS ÿm]--Øn¬ ]Tn®v ]{X-{]-h¿Ø--Øn¬ Untπma tSn. 1970˛¬ BZy{hX-{]-Xn-⁄bpw 1976¬ nXy-{hX {]Xn-⁄bpw SØn. 1977am¿®v 20p ]utcm-lnXy ]´-ta‰p. 1976 s^{_p-h-cn-bn¬ tPm¿÷-®≥ tdmanse {KnKdn k¿∆-Iem-im-ebn¬ ssZh-imkv{X Kth-jW - -hnZym¿Yn-bmbn. 1984¬ kz¥w {]_‘w qdp-i-X-amw am¿°npymbo-Icn®p. k¿∆-Iem-ime Atß¿°v ]n.F®v.Un ]Zhn ¬In. - -A-¥cw A¥¿t±-iob kwkvImc hnn-ab ]≤-Xn-bpsS kmº-Øn-I-k-lm-b-tØmsS P¿Ω-n-bn¬ Xma-kn®v Xt±-i-`m-jbpwkwkvIm-chpw ]Tn®p. C‰en, {_n´≥, {^m≥kv, bp.Fkv.F, ImU,P¿Ωn, Hmkv{Snb, kzn‰vk¿e‚ v, ]me-kvXo≥, km≥a-cotm F∂ocmPy-ß-fn¬ ]cy-Sw SØn. P¿Ω-n-bn¬ Bdpw Ata-cn-°-bn¬aq∂pw amk-߃ CS-h-I-`-cWw SØn. sshZn-I-hn-Zym¿Yn-bm-bn-cns° A[ym-]-I-mbn tkhwSØn. hnhn[ ]{X-am-kn-I-I-fn¬ teJ--sa-gpXn. AtIw ]pkvX-I-ß-fpsS kºm-Z-I-mbn. B mfp-I-fn¬, tIhew 24˛mw hb-€n¬,""Zn lu≠v Hm^v slh≥ ({^m≥knkv tXmwk¨) F∂ Ihn-X-bpsS Bkzm-Zw ]pkvX-I-am°n {]kn-≤o-I-cn®p. ""ns∂ Xs∂sa®-s∏-Sp-ØpI F∂ ]pkvX-I-]-c-º-c-bn¬ kvtlw, {]Xymi,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 97. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 104ImcpWyw F∂o D]-hn-[¿Ω-ßsf B[m-c-am°n ]Øp ]pkvX-I-߃ {]kn-≤o-I-cn®p. slvdp, en¶¨, am¿´n≥ eqY¿InwKv F∂oalm-∑m-sc-°p-dn®v ]pkvX-I-߃ cNn®p. CXn-Iw Cw•o-jn¬ Ccp-]Xpw amXr-`m-j-bmb ae-bm-f-Øn¬ mepw ]pkvX-I-߃ CuAp-Kr-loX {KŸ-Im-c≥ cNn-®n-´p≠v. ""au-Øns‚ kwKoXw.""kz¿§-hm-Xn-ep-Iƒ, ""kvtl-Zo]w, ""PohnXw Hcp {]m¿∞ ˛Cu ae-bmf ]pkvX-I-߃ k∂ym-k-km-lnXy hn`m-K-Øn¬s∏Spw.tUm. ssItXm-en-ens‚ IrXn-Iƒ H∂v Xan-gn-te°pw cs≠Æwlnµn-bn-te°w hnh¿Øw sNbvXp. ]sØÆw sXep-¶n-te°vX¿÷a S-°p∂p. ]e IrXn-Ifpw Bdp-X-h-W-hsc ]p:{]kn-≤o-I-cWw Ign™p. CXn-Iw tUmIvS-dpsS IrXn-I-fpsS Bdpe£-Øn-e-[nIw tIm∏n-Iƒ hn‰-gn-™n-´p≠v. Cnbpw ajn h‰n-bn-´n-√mØ Cu Ap-Kr-loX Xqen-I-bn¬n∂pw a‰-tIw IrXn-Ifpwap°p {]Xo-£n°mw. A®Sn BZn-bmb am≤y-a-ß-fn-eqsS aX-{]-Nm-c-W-amWv sk‚ v t]mƒ skmssk-‰n-bpsS {]h¿Øw. AXnpC¥y-bn¬ ]e-bn-SØpw temI-Øm-I-am-hpw imJ-I-fp≠v. ]ptcm- l n- X - m- b - t ijw A®≥ c≠m- ≠ p- I ƒ t_mws_ssa¿ skan-m-cn-bp-tSbpw A©m-≠p-Iƒ Ae-l-_mZv taP¿skan-m-cn-bp-tSbpw sdIvS-dm-bn-cp∂p. A∂v c≠p {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-ß-fpsS ]{Xm-[n-]cpw as‰m-∂ns‚ Iu¨kn-enwKv Imcy-Z¿in-bp-ambn tkhw SØn. AtX-Im-eØv Ae-l-_mZv doP-W¬ sk‚ vtPmk^v skan-mcn s{]m^-k¿, sk‚ v t]mƒ skmssk‰n {]mtZ-inI Iu¨kn-e¿, kwÿm Iu¨kn-e¿, Bkq-{X-W-hn-`mKwsk{I-´dn F∂o ÿm-߃ hln®p Ct∏mƒ tUm. ssItXm-en¬sk‚ v t]mƒ skmssk-‰n-bpsS C¥y-bnse F√m {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-ß-fp-tSbpw apJy s]mXp-]-{Xm-[n-]-cmWv. Ct∏mƒ t_mws_-bn¬skmssk-‰n-bpsS DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-s∏´ tPmen sNøp∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 98. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 105 Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ Imfn-Imhv D]-imJ h¿°n ˛ Gen-°p´n Zº-Xn-am-cpsS B‰w k¥mw amØ-®≥(sI.hn. amXyp) Imm-´p-]m-dbpw ]me sk‚ v tXmakv sslkvIqƒtImtf-Pp-I-fnepw ]Tn®v _n.Fkvkn _ncpZw tSn. Irjn Imcym-Zn-I-fn¬ ]nXm-hns klm-bn-®p-h-cp-tºmƒ 1974¬ ]mem Icq¿Rmh≈n tiJ-cØn¬s∏´ Iq¥m-Øv Nm≠n ˛ Gen-am-cpsS ]p{Xn -F¬kn (Fen-k-_Øv) _n.F.sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. hnhm-ln-X-mb aqØ-tN-´≥ Cu∏-®≥ tcsØ amdn-Øm-a-kn®p. F¬knhnhm-lm-¥cw Xs∂ B hen-bIp-Spw-_m-Ybmbn. AΩ-bn-√msX - - - -hf¿∂-Xn-m-emhmw, amØ-®v Ing-t°-°-c-°m-cpsS s]mXp-_-e-lo--X-bmb ""aqt°-e-cniw C√. Ccp-]-Xp-I-fn¬ Adp-]-Xns‚£abpw ]Iz-Xbpw {]m]n-®n-cp∂p. `mcy F¬kn tbmPn® CWbpwXpW-bp-amWv. Xncp-ta-n-b-®≥ ho´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-tºmƒ aq∂pmem-≠p-Iƒ F¬kn Xmev]-cy-]q¿∆w hr≤-]-cn-N-cWw SØn.Hcp hymg-h´°mew Xd-hm-´n¬ ]nXm-hp-samØv Xma-kn-®Xn-p-tijw - - -Ap-Ps‚ hnhm-lm--¥cw 1987˛¬ F¬knbpw amØ-®pw BZy-PmX ]p{Xn-am-cp-samØv ae-∏pdw Pn√-bn¬ Imfn-Im-hn-te°v Xmakwam‰n. Ct∏mƒ Icp-hm-c-°p≠v hnt√-Pn¬ t]mØ≥Im-´n-ep≈ÿeØv tXm´w ]nSn-∏n-°p∂p. Ap-P≥ tSman-bp-tSbpw Afn-b≥kÆn amtX-bv°-t‚bpw ÿe-ß-fpsS Npa-X-ebpw amØ-®-mWv.1973˛77¬ tImßm-´n¬ d_¿tXm´w D≠m-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ AXns‚Npa-Xe amØ-®pw tSman-°p-am-bn-cp∂p. ASp-Ø-Imew hsc hmS-I-ho-´n-em-bn-cp∂ amØ-®≥ CubnsS kz¥-ambn H∂p hmßn. CuZº-Xn-am-cpsS aqØ-a-Iƒ nΩn (Fen-k-_Øv amXyp) AS-bv°m-°p≠v sslkvIq-fn¬n∂v Fkv.Fkv.F¬.kn. Pbn®p. nΩn ]T--tijw aÆm¿°mSv Nc-Wm-Ip-t∂¬ Ae-Ivkm-≠¿˛adnbw aI≥_nPp-hns hnhm-lw-sNbvXp. Ah¿°v Hcp aI-p≠v. c≠m-asØ]p{Xn acnb amXyp-hns tIm´bw ]mºmSn ]me-°p-t∂¬ Im™n-c-a-‰-Øn¬ tPmk^v ˛ eqkn aI≥ kvIdnb (PnΩn) Fw._n.Fhnhmlw sNbvXp. aI≥ Zo]Iv amXyp Fw._n.F. Ign™v tImgn-t°mSv tPmen sNøp∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 99. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 106 h¿°n ˛ Gen-°p-´n-am-cpsS mem-asØ aIƒ F¬ksb(^ntem-an) Im™n-c-∏≈n Xº-e-°m´p tX°pw-tXm-´-Øn¬t__n-®pw (amXyp) ASpØ ]p{Xn ]pjv]sb (sIm®p-t{Xky)IS-mSp ]qh-Øp-¶¬ amXyp aI≥ tPmk^pw IeymWw Ign®p.]pXnb BNm-c-߃ S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn¬ D’p-I-mb h¿°n hnhm-l-Øn-p-apºv ]pjv]sb sI´n-°-b-td≠ hoSp sIm≠p-t]mbnImWn®p. s]Æp-Im-W¬ A√, Hcp hn[-Øn¬ s]Æp h∂p ebn-t°≠ sNdp-°s‚ hoSpw a‰p-at√ ImtW-≠Xv? Bdm-asØ aIƒkmen (sken≥ tPm¿Pv) Fw.F.sb sXmSp-]pg Imcn-t°m-´p-]m-S-Øn¬ Ip™m-t°m-®≥ ˛ adn-bmΩ aI≥ tPmk^v _n.C IeymWwIgn®p. G‰hpw Cfb aI≥ tSman (sI.hn.tXmakv) Imm-´p-]m-dbpw sk‚ v hn≥k‚ v Cw•ojv aoUnbw kv I qfnepw ]n®vFkv.Fkv.F¬.kn. Pbn®v ]mem sk‚ v tXma-kn¬ {]oUn-{Kn°p]Tn-°p-tºmƒ ]Tw n¿Øn. ho´p-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ kl-I-cn®p Ign-bp-tºmƒ ]mem CS-h-I-bn¬ hS-t°¬ tPmk^v ˛ adn-bmΩ aIƒtamfΩ (tacn)sb IeymWw Ign®p. tSman Ing-XSn-bq¿ _m¶n-s‚bpw -]mem an¬°v _m¿ skmssk-‰n-bp-sSbpw Ub-d-IvS¿ t_m¿Uvsaº¿ Bbn-cp-∂p. Ch¿°v sd∂n (tPm¿Pv tXmakv), A®p (tPmk^v tXmakv)F∂o c≠p B¨Ip-´n-Ifpw Hcp s]¨Ip´nbpap≠v (ARvPen),tSman 1998¬ ncym-X-mbn. aqØ-a-I≥ sd∂n Fw.-_n.-F. Ign™vFd-Wm-Ip-fØv tPmen sNøp-∂p. c≠m-a≥ A®p {Sn®n-bn¬ F©n-o-b-dnw-Knv ]Tn-°p-∂p. aIƒ ARvPen _n.-tIm-anv ]Tn-°p-∂p. h¿°n-bpsS `mcy Gen-°p´n 1961¬ tSm¨kn¬ (IWvTho°w) -ikv{X-{In-bm--¥cw Xncp-h--¥-]pcw saUn-°¬ tImtfPv Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬h®v acn®p. tN´≥ Xncp-ta-n-b-®pw AkvtX¥n s√n-°m-´-®pw ImWm-s-Øn-b-t∏m-gmWv acn-®Xv. Ah¿ h∂ Imdn¬arX-tZlw ssItXm-en¬ sIm≠p-h∂p. At¥ym-]-Nmcw A¿∏n®vCf-t¥m´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvIcn®p. {]m]vXn-bmb ]p{X- -∑m¿ klm-b-Øn-n-√m-™-Xn-m¬ h¿°n a°-fpsS ]T--Ønepw]mem ]cn-k-c-ß-fnse ]d-ºp-Ifpw sIm‰-t¶m-Sp-I-≠hpw {i≤n-®p-I-gn™p. 1962˛63 Xd-hmSv Adbpw ncbpw Hme-s°´pw s]mfn®vhm¿°-s°-´nSw ]Wn-bn®p. aq∂pw mepw ]p{X-∑m¿ klm-b-Øn-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 100. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 107s- Ø n- b - t ijw 1973˛¬ ]me- ° mSp Pn√- b n¬ tImtßm- ´ n¬,A∂sØ t]meokv sF.Pn. cmPs‚ 50 G°¿ d_¿tXm´w hmßn.At∏mƒ h¿°n-bpsS mj-W¬ πm‚wKv Iºn Hml-cn-Iƒ Hcp-e£w cq]m sImSpØv sI.Fw.amXyp FSpØp. 1977¬ B tXm´whn‰p. 1979˛¬ h¿°nbpw _‘p-°m-c≥ Ip¥m-Øp Nm≠nbpw acp-a-I≥ kÆn amtX-bv°-pw-IqSn ae-∏pdw Pn√ Icp-hm-c-°p≠v hnt√-Pn¬ t]mØ≥ImSv ]gb d_¿tXm´w 70˛e[nIw G°¿ hmßn.]e qem-am-e-Ifpw oßn AXv ssIhiw In´m≥, 1981 Bbn.Ct∏mƒ a°ƒ amØ-®pw tSman°pw 20 hoXw G°¿ ÿewAhn-sS-bp≠v. amØ-®≥ Imfn-Im-hn¬ Xma-kn®p tXm´w ]nSn-∏n-°p-∂Xv FgpXn.Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ XpS-ß-mSv h≈n-∏md D]-imJ h≈n-∏m-d]dºnse sIm®p-]pc icn°pw Be-bn¬ XpS-ßp∂ - - -IpSn-tb-‰-°m-cs‚ H∂m-asØ hoSm-bn-cp∂p. Ing°v Z¿i--h-iØvA[nIw hoXn-bn-√mØ hcm¥. ]n∂n¬ c≠p apdn-Iƒ; nc-bmWv`nØn; hS-t°Xv ]Øm-b-apdn, AXnp Sp-hn¬ Hcp hmXn¬; Ccp-h-iØpw nc tN¿Øv ]Øm-b-߃. sX°v InS-∏p-ap-dn°v Ipd-®p-IqSn hen-∏ap≠v. AXnp hSt° AcnI tN¿∂v ap∂nepw ]n∂nepw -hmXn-ep-Ifpw sXt° A‰w ASpØp nc-bn¬ Ing°pw ]Sn-™mdpwP-ep-I-fp≠v. InS-∏p-ap-dn-bpsS ]Sn-™msd hmXn¬ sSp-o-f-Øn¬Nm¿Øn-sb-Sp-ØXv ap°m¬ ]¶pw aÆn-jvSn-I-bm¬ AS-hm-°nbASp-°-f-bn-te-°mWv. hSt° ]¶v ASp-°-fbpw sXt°Xv Xpd∂Nmbn-∏p-amWv. Nmbn-∏n¬ s√p-Ip-Øm≥ ne-a-Wbpw Ah-bv°m≥ne-aW°p-gn-bp-ap≠v. ASp-°fbv°v Nmbn-∏n-te°v Xpd-°p∂ hmXn- - - -ep≠v. A©Sn aq∂n-©p-Im-c≥ C´n sF∏np tX°p-Im-X-ens‚ndhpw HXp-ßnb DSepw ]fp-¶p-an-gn-I-fp-amWv. Ccp-n-d-°mcn `mcyX≠nbpw Xchpw Xs∂. F√m-h-tc-bpw-t]mse Ac-bn-e√, apebv°vsXm´p-Xm-sg-bmWv C´n-sF∏v ap≠p-Sp-°mdv. Ipfncv IqSp-X-em-sW-¶n¬ I£w-hsc ""DS Ibdpw. A€-embn ASp°p sRmdn-bn´papdn-bp-Sp-°p∂ `mcy henb hrØn-sa--°m-cn-bmWv. Ch¿ aqØ-a-I≥ HuX- ° p- ´ nbpw (tPmk^v) c≠m- a ≥ ]m∏- ® p○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 101. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 108({^m≥knkv)samØv taev]-d™ ho´n¬ hmkw XpSßn. 1924 apX¬ kpam¿ Bdm-≠p-sIm≠v I≠w FSp-°m≥ h≈n-∏md sh≈m-c-¶√p tXm´-cnIv Hgn-®n´v _m°n apgp-h≥ C´n-sF∏vtZl-WvUn®p. ae-¶c tXm´-Øn¬ d_¿ hbv°p-∂Xv Ap-I-cn®vC´n-sF∏pw d_¿ h®p. XpS-ß-m-´n¬ BZyw d_¿ sh®Xv C´nsF∏mWv. ]pXnb then-°Iw hbv°m≥ tNcn-°¬ C´n-sF∏vAtz-jWw XpSßn. C´n-sF-∏ns‚ kl-]mTn ]pen-b-∂q¿°m-c≥Cc-hn-∏n-≈bm-bn-cp∂p h≈n-∏m-dbpsS Icw-sI-´p∂ Imc-t°mSv {]hr- - -Øn-°-t®-cn-bnse amk-∏Sn. Abmƒ Ing°v K-cw-]md dntk¿hpwhS°pw ]Sn-™mdpw sXmSp-]pg dntk¿hpw sX°v s]m´≥]Sn ae-bp-amb t]mØp-a‰w 300 G°¿ k¿t∆ 774/1 dh-yq-hw sIm≠p-t]mbn ImWn®p. hf-°q-dp≈ IdpØ aÆv; nc-∏mb ÿew, C´n-sF-∏np CjvS-s∏´p. Abmfpw Ab¬°mcpw ]cn-N-b-°mcpw h∂p.Ah¿ B B≠n¬ B {]tZiw apgp-h≥ sh´n-®p´p hoXn®p. h≥hnfsImbvsX-SpØp. ASp-Ø-bm-≠n¬ Fw.F¬.kn. aom-´q¿ amWn-h-°oepw Iq´-cp-saØn. Ah¿°v hnØn-Sm≥ H´pw CSw In´n-bn√. dh-yq-h-hpw Xcnipw sXfn-°mpw Irjn-bn-d-°mpw ]´-b-ØnpAt]- £ n- ° mpw I¿j- I ¿°v Ap- h m- Z - a p- ≠ m- b n- c p∂p. Xl-kn¬Zm¿ ÿew ]cn-tim-[n®v ntcm-[--Icw NpaØpw. ]n∂oSv]Xn®p sImSp°pw. dhyq h-ssI-tb‰w A[n-I-am-b-Xn-m-emhmw.31˛5˛ 1929¬ AXv ntcm-[n®v k¿°m¿ DØ-c-hn´p. DØ-chv D≤-cn®v Fw.F¬.kn aom-´q-cm≥ Znhm≥Pn°v ]cmXn Ab®p. Znhm≥t]jvIm¿°pw Atß¿ Xl-kn¬Zm¿°pw DNnX S-]-Sn-Iƒ°vDØ-c-hn´p. hnh-c-a-dn™ ssIh-i-°m¿ Xß-fp-tSXv ]gb ssItø-‰-am-sW∂v sXfn-bn-°m≥ {]mb-amb ssXIƒ ae Ib‰n FØn®p]nSn-∏n®p. sXmSp-]pg Xl-kn¬Zm¿ ÿew ]cn-tim-[n®v ssItb‰w1932p tij-am-sW∂v hn[n®p. AXnp Ap-Iq-e-ambn samgn-sIm-SpØ Cc-hn-∏n-≈sb C´n-sF∏v ASn®p. h≈n-∏md C´n-sF∏v, Xs‚A∏≥ Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ Cu∏≥ C´n-sF-∏np 1923 apX¬61 G°¿ 71 sk‚ v ÿew ssIh-i-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂pw a‰pwImWn®v h°o¬ F≥.mcm- b - W - ] - W n- ° ¿ aptJ tIm´bwt]jvIm¿°v hn[n ]p¿hn-Nm-c-Wbv°v l¿÷n sImSpØp. 31˛05˛1929˛se DØ-c-hnp 31˛5˛39˛se t`Z-K-Xnbpw Cu∏≥ C´n-sF∏pw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 102. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 109a‰pw sImSpØ l¿Pn-I-fpsS ]I¿∏p-Ifpw 104˛mw º¿ k¿t∆]m¿´n em‚ v cPn- à ¿ ]I¿∏pw lmP- c m°n. ssIh- i - ° m¿t]jvIm¿°pw No^v sk{I-´-dn°pw Znhm≥Pn°pw alm-cm-Pm-hnpwIq´ nth-Z--߃ Ab®p. ]p¿hn-Nm-cW SØn. tcJ-Iƒ icn-bm-sW-¶n¬, hne-∏n-Sn-∏p≈ Na-b-߃ Ds≠-¶n¬ ]´bw sImSp-°m≥ t]jv°m¿°v DØ-chp h∂p. tIm´bw t]jv°m¿ Sn.Nm≠nem‚ v cPn-Ã-dn¬ Cu∏≥ C´n-sF-∏ns‚ t]¿ tcn¬I≠p t_m≤y-s∏´p. sXmSp-]pg Xl-kn¬Zm¿ ]p¿hn-Nm-c-W-bv°p-tijw 30G°¿ ÿew ntcm-[--Icw NpaØn ]Xn-®p-sIm-Sp-°m≥ hn[n®p.me-©m-≠p-IƒIqSn h≈n-∏md C´n-sF∏v t]mØ-a‰w tZlWvUwXpS¿∂p SØn. nc-¥cw Im‰p Nodn-ho-ip∂ B ÿeØv ae-º-n-bn√. hr£-߃ hf-cn√. s¬Ir-jnt° DXIq. AXn-m¬ AXv]n∂oSp ]m´-Ønp sImSpØp. BZy B≠n¬ aqØ-a-Ipw AXn--SpØ c≠p sIm√-ß-fn¬ Ap-P≥ sIm®pw t]mbn ]m´w ]ncn®p.aq∂p-`m-KØpw dnk¿hv h-ß-fn¬n-∂n-d-ßp∂ arK-߃ Irjnin-∏n°pw. Imh¬ hfsc IjvSamWv. AXn-m¬ Bcpw ]m´-Ønp -FSp-°m-Xmbn. ÿew Dt]-£n®p k¿°m-cn-te°v Fgp-Xn-s°m-SpØvIcw Hgn-hm°n. ae-ºn C√mØ ae-hmcw tZl-WvUn-°m-p-f-Afkwcw`w ]cm-P-b-s∏´p. t]mØp-a‰w Dt]-£n-®p-h∂ h≈n-∏md C´n-sF∏v o°n-bn-´n-cp∂ sh≈m-c-¶√p tXmS-cnIv I≠w ncØp XpSßn. h≈n-∏md]d-ºns‚ hSt° AXncv sh≈m-c-¶-√p-tXmSpw, Ing-t°Xv ]mc-∏m≥tXm-Sp-amWv. N≈m-h-b¬ Ih-e-bn¬n∂p h∂p sh≈m-c-¶√ptXmSp-]mew IS-∂Xpw CS-Xp-h-iØv ImWp∂ HXp°v ]Sn-I-fn-d-ßn-bm¬ tXm´p-Xocw tN¿∂v Ing-t°m´p ofp∂ S-∏p-hgn-bn-embn. -AXn-eqsS S∂v Ae-cn-tØm-Sns‚ H‰-Ø-Sn-∏mew IS-∂m¬ hnim-e-amb h≈n-∏md I≠-Øn-seØn. he-Xp-h-iØv hf-™p-]p-f™pIc-b-cnI tN¿∂v Hg-In-tbm-Sp∂ ssItØmSv. CS-Xp-h-iØv tsco≠p XmWp-Xm-Wp-t]mbn ]mc-∏m≥tXmSp Ic-sb-Øp∂ hoXn-tb-dnb S-h-cºv. AXnpw hS°v ]md ASn-Ø-´nse ]e-]e Db-c-]-Sn-I-fn-te°v B¿Ø-e-®p-ho-gp∂ ip{`-Pew hoWp-≠m-Ip∂ At-I-a-tIw sIm®p-sIm®p o¿®m-´-߃ nc-¥cw hmcn-hn-X-dp∂kv^Sn-I-P-e-apØp ]qØn-cn-Iƒ. Ic tN¿∂v Db¿s∂m-cp-Ip∂○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 103. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 110ssItØm-´n¬n∂pw S-h-c-ºn-te°pw tsc ap∂n¬ ]c-∏m≥tXm-´p-I-c-bn-te°pw ˛ hS-t°m´pw Ing-t°m´pw ˛ sNdp-h-c-ºp-I-fm¬Ifw-Ifw Xncn-°s∏´ ]®-∏chXmn ]mS-߃. angn-Ifp-b¿Øn-bm¬ - - - - -tsc ap∂n¬ sIm√w-Ip-∂ns‚ IdpØ Ij≠n. sX°v Ingt°aqe- b n¬ D®n- b n¬ aq∂p henb ape- I - f p≈ IpSb- Ø q¿ae.AXn¬n∂pw ]Sn-™m´p ofp∂ taep-Imhv F≈p{ºw Ip∂p-Iƒ.IpS-b-Øq¿a-ebpw taep-Im-hp-Ip∂pw tbmPn-°p∂ Nfp-°n-eqsSZqsc-n∂p FØn-tm-°p∂ IS-Np-cp´n. t]cp-t]mse AXns‚BIrXn Npcp-´nb ioe-°p-S-bp-tS-XmWv. F≈p{ºw Ip∂npw ]Sn-™mdv H‰-°-√mbn Dcp∂ sImS-°√v. AXnpw ]Sn-™mdp ]∂n-°p∂pw s]mtdm-f-°p∂pw ofp∂p. hnim-e-amb ]®-∏-c-h-Xm-n-∏m-Shpw Np‰pw Hgp-Ip∂ ]fp-¶p-tXm-Sp-Ifpw sas√ Db¿∂p-b¿∂p oem-Imiw Npw_n-°p∂ Ip∂p-Ifpw ae-bp-sam-°-°qSn AXn atm-l-c-Zriyw krjvSn-°p∂p. ae-sh≈ IpØn-sbm-gp-°n¬ FSp-Øp-t]m-ImsX henb henb I√p-Iƒ ASp-°n-bn´v c≠p ao‰¿ Db-c-Øn¬H∂-c-In-tem-ao-‰¿ Zqc-Øn¬ of-ap≈ Iøme, A√; AIØv Xmßp-I-√n´p kna‚n-SmØ Icn-¶¬ `nØn me-©m-≠p-IƒsIm≠v C´n-sF∏v sI´n®p. A{Xbpw Xs∂ B≠p-I-fn¬ ]me-°m-S≥ Ipfw-tXm-≠n-Iƒ taSp sh´n-t°mcn Npa∂p Ip≠p-I-fn-en´p. I≠wncØn. I≠n FSp-Ø-tijw AXnp sXt°-°-c-bn¬ Db-c-Øn¬hS-t°m´p Z¿i--ambn henb hoSpw ASp-°-f-s°´pw ]Wn-bn®p;ap‰w ncØn sI´n®p. ]n∂oSv Imcy-amb ]Wn-sbm∂pw C´n-sF∏vFSp-∏n-®n√. ap´w ]c-kv]c klm-b-kwLw ÿm]I tXm-°-fn-sem-cm-fmb C´n-sF∏v AXns‚ c≠mw {]kn-U‚m-bn-cp∂p. ]n∂oSv ]eXhW IΩn‰n saw_dpw {]kn-U≥cpw Bbn-´p≠v. Ct∏mƒ ap´wk¿hokv kl-I-cW _m¶pw a‰p-ambn ap´w Ih-e-b-SpØv kz¥wCcp-ne sI´n-S-Øn¬ {]i-kvX-ambn tkhw S-Øp∂ ÿm]whf¿Øp-h-ep-Xm-b-XmWv. 1934˛35Ifn¬ A∂p Fw.F¬.kn.bmbn-cp∂ Ad-°pfw tPm¨ I´-°-b-hp-samØv D’m-ln®v, {]b-Xvn®v;C´n sF∏v ap´w N¥ ÿm]n®p. N¥-Zn-h-k-ß-fnepw Rmb-dmgvNCd-®n-sh´pw ÿncw DW-°-ao≥ IS-bp-ap≠v. N¥-bn¬. Aº- X n- e - [ nIw B≠p- I ƒ C´n- s F∏v XpS- ß - m´v○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 104. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 111am¿tØmΩm «olm ItØm-en°m s^mtdm-m-]-≈n-bpsS IΩn-‰n-bw-Khpw ]e-h´w ssI°m-cpw s]cp-∂mƒ {]kp-tZ-¥nbpw a‰p-ambn. AXns‚ ]pXp-°n-∏-Wn°pw sk‚ v tXmakv F¬.]n., bp.]n.sslkvIq-fp-I-fp-tSbpw c≠p Iym-kv{Xo-a-T-ß-fp-tSbpw ]≈n-ta-S-I-fp-tSbpw ˛ ]g-bXpw ]pXn-bXpw ˛ dmWn-Kncn Bip-]-{Xn-s°-´n-S-ß-fp-tSbpw ]Wn-Iƒ°v Imcy-amb kw`m-h--Ifpw {ia-Zm--ßfpwS-Øn-bn-´p≠v. F{Xtbm hg-°p-Ifpw A`n-{]m-b-`n-∂-X-Ifpw At±-l-Øns‚ a≤y-ÿ-X-bn¬ sI´-Sßn. nc-¥c `¿Ør-]o-U--Øm¬kln-sI´p ]cn-t°‰p hoSp-hn-´n-dßn h≈n-∏md A`bw tXSnb Ap-P≥ Xo∏p-g-°p-t∂¬ h¿°n-bpsS `mcy Nm®nsb h¿°n-bpsSA{]oXn Imcy-am-°msX kwc-£n® D]hn {]hr-Ønbpw IrX-⁄-X-tbmsS kvacn-°p∂p. {]mbm-[n-Iy-Øn¬ CS-Xp-hiw Xf¿∂v C´n-sF∏v aq∂m-≠p-Iƒ ]s‰ InS∂p. Atß¿°v B AkpJw XpSßn Hcm≠p Ign™vAtX AkpJw _m[n®v `mcybpw InS-∏n-embn. A∂p AXoh {i≤-tbmsS Atem-∏Xn Bbp¿thZ NnIn-’-Iƒ SØn ]cn-N-cn®pIqsS Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ acp-a-Iƒ t{Xkym-tbbpw aI≥ amΩ-tbpwAh-cpsS amXr-]n-Xr-`n-‡n-tbbpw £a-tbbpw F{X hmgvØn-bmepwA[n-I-am-In√. C´n-sF∏v 1974 Pp-hcn Hº-Xnpw `bmcy 1975sk]vXw-_¿ F´npw acn®p. Ccp-h-tcbpw XpS-ß-m´v s^mtdm-m-]≈n skan-tØcn Nm∏-en-p-≈n¬ AS°n. h≈n-∏md XmakwXpS-ßn-btijw C-h¿°v Gen-°p´n (knÿ skdm-^nb) Fs∂mcp -aIfpw amΩ≥ (sI.sF.tXmakv) Fs∂mcp aI-pw-IqSn ]nd∂p. aq∂m-asØ aI≥ amΩ-mWv amXm-]n-Xm-°-tfmsS h≈n-∏mdXma-kn-®Xv. XpS-ß-mSv ]p≈n-hI sk‚ v tXmakv F¬.]n., bp.]n.kvIqfp-I-fn¬ ]Tn®v sslkvIq-fn¬ hnZym-`ymkw S-Øp-tºmƒamΩ≥ ]Tw n¿Øn. Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ ioen-®p-I-gn-bp-tºmƒ IS-mSp ]m≠n-bm-am-°¬ tPmk^v˛adnbw aIƒ t{Xkym-ΩsbI√ymWw Ign®p. Ch¿°n t{Kkn (sI.Sn.adn-bmΩ), emen (Gen-bmΩ tXmakv) F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am¿ Pn®p. aqØ-a-Isf Ad-°pfw I®n-d-a‰w tXmakv A∂Ω aI≥ tPmk^pw c≠m-asØ]p{Xnsb tN¿∏p-¶¬ ]I-tem-a‰w imJ sXmgp-Øp-¶¬ tPmk^v˛ A∂Ω aI≥ kndn-b°pw IeymWw Ign®p. ZØmbn h≈n-∏md○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 105. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 112Xma-kn-°p∂ emen ˛ kndn-bIv Zº-Xn-am¿°v Ap (A∂Ω),tPmkp-Ip´n (sPÃn≥) F∂ c≠p a°-fm-Wp-≈Xv. AXn¬ A∂Ω(Ap) πkv Sp hnZym-`ymkw Ign™v I¿Ω-eo-Øm-aTØn¬ (]mem) - -tN¿∂p k`m- h kv { Xw kzoI- c n®v Iym- k v { Xo- b mbn tkhwsNøp∂p. aI≥ tPmkp-Ip´n _n.tImw ]Tw gn™v Ct∏mƒ Xncp-h-¥]p-cØv tlm´¬ amt-Pvsa‚ v hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. amΩs‚ aqØ- - -a- I - f mb t{KkΩ ˛ tPmkv (I®n- d - a ‰w) Zº- X n- a m¿°v ‰ntPm(tXmakv), t‰mWn (sUma-nIv) F∂ c≠m¨a-°-fmWv. AXn¬‰ntPm tkm^v‰v shb¿ F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv ]m€mbn sNss∂-bn¬Snkn-Fkv Iº-n-bn¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Ap-P≥ t‰mWn t]mfn-sS-Ivn°v hnZym¿∞n-bmWv. ]c-kv]c klmbkwLw Ub-d-IvSdpw tIm¨{Kkv aWvUew Ωn‰n {]kn-U‚p-ambn{]h¿Øn-®n-´p≈ amΩ≥ njv]£ a≤y-ÿs∂v P-kΩXn tSn- - -bn-´p≈ kXy-k-‘pw P-{]n-b-p-amWv. Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ awKew Umw D]-imJ h≈n-∏md C´n-sF∏v ˛ adnbw Zº-Xn-am-cpsS aqØ-a-I≥ HuX-°p´n Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. Imm-´p-]md memw-Xcw Pbn®p ]memsk‚ v tXmakv sslkvIqƒ ]Tn-°p-tºmƒ ]Tw n¿Øn h≈n-∏md h∂v Irjn-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ ]nXm-hns klm-bn®p. Af-m-´p-Ic Cf-t¥m´w CSI hcn-°-am-°≥ tXmakv ˛ adnbw aIƒ A∂-Ωsb IeymWw Ign®p. Ch¿°v Nn∂Ω (hn.B¿.Nn∂Ω),Ip™q™v (sI.sP.tPmk^v) F∂o c≠p a°-fp≠v. _n.Fkvkn_ncpZw tSnb Nn∂Ω Aco{X sk‚ tPm¿Pv tImtfPv {KŸm-e-b-Øns‚ Npa-Xebn¬ Ccn-°p-tºmƒ Ah-[n-sb-SpØv ]Tn®p tImgn- - -t°mSv k¿h- I - e m- i m- e - b n¬n∂pw sse{_dn kb≥kn¬Fw.F._ncpZw tSn. Acp-hn-Øpd tImtf-Pn¬n∂pw slUvsset{_-dn-b-mbn dn´-b¿sNbvXp. Ahn-hm-ln-X-bmWv. am∂mwNmhd Ipcym-t°mkv tImtf-Pn¬n∂v _ncpZw tSnb Ip™q™vAco-{X-b-SpØv hmc-WØv tPmk^v ˛A∂-°p´n aIƒ tkm^n(^ntem-an) sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v {]nb Fen-k-_Øv,_m_p tPmk^v, Pqen-b‰v tPmk^v F∂o aq∂p a°-fp≠v. {]nb○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 106. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 129tgvknwKv hnZym-`ymkw ]q¿Øn-bm°n Xriq¿ Nnd-bn¬ ho´n¬sP≥ks hnhmlw sNbvXv Xriq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. _m_pF≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv hnZym-`ymkw Ign™v _mwKvfq-cn¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. h≈n-∏md ]dºv hoXw In´n-b-Xn¬ hoSp]Wn-bn®v Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ HuX-°p´n AXv hn‰v awKew Uman¬hf∏pw hoSpw d_¿tØm-´-ßfpw hmßn. Ct∏mƒ _mw•q-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ {]nb˛P≥k¨ Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v tPmb≥ (4 hb-€v), {InÃo(9 amkw) F∂ c≠p- I p- ´ n- I - f p- ≠ v . Cfb aIƒ Pqen- b ‰vA¬t^m≥km tImtfPv hnZym¿∞n-n-bm-Wv. 1997 ncym-X-mbHuX-°p-´nsb sk‚ v tkthygvkv s^mtdm N¿®v awKew Uman¬kwkvI-cn-®p. Ip™q™pw IpSpw-_hpw awKew Uman¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. AXp-t]mse A∂-Ωbpw Nn∂-Ωbpw Hcp-an®v awKewUman¬Xs∂ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ aqhm-‰p-]pg D]-imJ h≈n- ∏ md adnbw C´n- s F- ∏ p- a m- c psS c≠m- a sØ aI≥sslkvIq-fn¬ ]Tn-°p-tºmƒ ]Tw n¿Øn ]´m-f-Øn¬ tN¿∂p.sskn-tI-h--Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ Idp-Ip‰n ss]m-SØv At{]w ˛A∂-°p´n aIƒ ¢mcsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]´m-fw-hn´p Ipd-®p-mƒ Im™n-c-∏pg henb C©n-°p∂p tXm´-Øn¬ klm-bn-®n-cp∂p. Hcm≠p Ign™v Ahn-Sw-hn´v t]m∂v h≈n-∏md hoXw In´nbhkvXp-hn¬ hoSp ]Wn-bn®p Xma-kn®p. AXv hn‰v ae-∏pdw Pn√-bn¬ aWn-aq-fn°p IpSn-tbdn. aq∂p-mev B≠p-Iƒ Ign™v AXpwhn‰p. aqhm-‰p-]pg ]´-W-Øn¬ F´mw hm¿Un¬ hoSp hmßn ]cn-jvI-cn®p ]Wn-bn®v Xma-kn®p. 1990 sabv 17˛mw XobXn Icƒkw-_-‘-amb Akp-J-Øm¬ acn®p. hnb-∂-bnepw bp.Fkv.FbnepwD≠m-bn-cp∂ a°ƒ h∂-tijw arX-tZlw aqhm-‰p-]pg tlmfn amKn]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ AS°n. 1986¬ ASpØv Bn-°m-´n¬ Btd-°¿ ]dºp hmßn. kmº-Øn-I-ambn ]s‰ XI¿∂ ]m∏-®≥ ]®-]n-Sn-°m≥ hntZ-iØp tPmen-bp≈ a°ƒ Ab® XpI-Iƒ D]-I-cn®p. hoSn-tmSv tN¿Øv Iptd apdn-Ifpw c≠mw-n-ebpw ]Wn-bn®v○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 107. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 130`mcy ¢mc-Ω Xma-kn-°p∂p. ]m∏-®s kw_-‘n®v H∂v {]tXyIw]d-bm-p-≈Xv, At±lw AXym-hiy-Im-eØv hmßnb IS-ßsf√mw - -a°ƒ hntZ-iØv tPmen-I-fn-embn ]Ww Ab-®-t∏mƒ Bcpw Bh-iy-s∏-SmsX Ah-c-h-cpsS hoSp-I-fn¬ sIm≠p-sN∂p sImSp-Ø-XmWv. AXn¬ Atßcpw a°fpw A`n--µ-a¿ln-°p-∂p. ]e DØ-a¿Æcpw In´m-°-S-ß-fmbn Fgp-Xn-Ø-≈n-b-h-bm-bn-cp∂p Ch. hnb-∂-bn¬ C‚¿m-j-W¬ At‰m-anIv Du¿÷-tI-{µ-Øn¬ tPmensNbvXn-cp∂ sI.F^v.tPmkv BWv aqØ-a-I≥. tPmkv XpS-ß-mSv, F¬.]n., bp.]n, sslkvIq-fp-Ifn¬ ]Tn®v Fkv.Fkv.F¬.kn -Pbn®v Nß-m-t»cn sk‚ v _¿°p-sa≥kn¬n∂v _n.Fkvkn,Fw.Fkvkn _ncp-Z-߃ tSn. hnb-∂-bn¬ FØn-b-Xn-p-tijw yq¢n-b¿ ^nkn-Ivkn¬Fw.FUv _ncpZw hnb-∂-bn¬ bqWn-th-gvÃn-bn¬n∂pw ]q¿Øn-bm- ° p- I bpw XpS¿∂v hnb∂ bqWn- t h- g v k n- ‰ n- b n¬ Xs∂]n.F®v.Unbpw ]q¿Øn-bm°n. hnZym¿∞n Bbn-cn-°p-tºmƒ Xs∂Adn-bs∏-Sp∂ Hcp kmaqly {]h¿Ø-Im-bn-cp∂p. tPmknv 1970¬ - -Nß-m-t»cn apn-kn-∏m-en‰n G‰hpw √ kmaqly {]h¿Ø-I-p≈ ]pc-kvImcw ¬In BZ-cn-®n-cp∂p. tImf-Pn¬ ]Tn-®Xv tPmkvkzbw kmº- Ø nIw Is≠- Ø n- b m- b n- c p∂p. Xn°pw Ap-P≥am¿°pw hntZ-iØv tPmen-Iƒ kºm-Zn-®Xv tPmkmWv. AXn¬At±lw A-y-amb Ignhpw Iqdpw sXfn-bn®p. hnb-∂bn¬ FØn--b-Xn-p-tijw At±-l-Øns‚ Iem˛ kmwkvIm-cnI ˛ kmaqly aXImbn-I-cw-K-ß-fn-ep≈ {]h¿Ø-߃ XpS¿∂p-sIm-≠n-cp∂p. {][m--a{¥n hmPvt]-bn-bpsS `c-W-Im-eØv G‰hpw √ kmaqly{]h¿Ø--Øn-p≈ Ahm¿Unp tPmkv Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´n-cp∂p.Xriq¿ ]pen-t°m-´n¬ B‚Wn ˛ sIm®∂w Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒsIm®p-t{Xkym Fw.Fkvkn-bmWv `mcy. hnhm-l-k-a-bØv sIm®p-t{Xky hnae tImtfPv Xriq-cn¬ ck-X-{¥-hn-`mKw eIvN-d-dmbn{]h¿Øn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. 2007 hsc tPmkv hnb∂ bqWn-th-gvÃn-bnepw bp.F∂n-ep-ambn {]h¿Øn®p. sIm®p-t{Xkym Hmkv{Sn-b≥Kh¨sa‚ns‚ Iogn¬ Kth-jW et_m-d-´-dn-bn¬ imkv{X-⁄-bmbn {]h¿Øn®v c≠p-t]cpw 2007¬ tPmen-bn¬n∂v hnc-an®v m´n-seØn. m´n-se-Ønb tPmkv n¿Ωe ]ªnIv kvIqfnepw hna-e-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 108. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 131Kncn ]ªnIv kv I qfnepw A≤ym- ] - I - mbn {]h¿Øn- ® - t ijwCt∏mƒ tImX-aw-Kew kn_n.FkvC kvIqfn¬ {]n≥kn-∏-embn{]h¿Øn-°p∂p. m´n¬ h∂-Xn-p-tijw _n.FUv ]co£ {]i-kvX-ambn ]mkm-b-Xn-p-tijw Ct∏mƒ Fw.FUv hnZym¿Yn-Iq-Sn-bmWv . tPmkv ˛ sIm®p- t {Xkym Zº- X n- I ƒ°v {^m≥kokvssl≥dnIv tXmakv (sStPm), B‚Wn entbm-t]mƒUv Fa-dnIv(kmtPm) F∂o c≠m¨a-°fpw sS€n ¢mcokv A∂ (sS€n) F∂s]¨Ip-´n-bp-am-Wp-≈Xv. AXn¬ sStPm F≥Pn-o-bcnwKv ]mkmbn -tkmfn (F-en-k-_-Øv) Fs∂mcp Hmkv{Sn-b≥ s]¨Ip-´nsbhnhmlw sNbvXv hnb-∂bn¬ A¥¿tZ-iob ÿm]-Øn¬ F≥Pn- - -o-b-dmbn tPmen tm°p∂p. Ah¿°v {^m≥kokv PqWn-b¿Fs∂mcp B¨Ip-´n-bp≠v. c≠m-asØ aI≥ kmsPm saUn-°¬hnZym- ` ym- k - Ø n- p- t ijw hnb- ∂ - b n¬ tUmIv S - d mbn tPmensNøp∂p. aIƒ sS€n Fw.F.bpw Fw.Fknbpw {]i-kvXamb coXn- -bn¬ ]m€mbn Xe-tbm-e-∏-dºv s]mXn-bn¬ ]∂n-t°m-´n¬ Ipcy≥˛ X¶Ω Zº- X n- I - f psS ]p{X≥ dn¶p- h ns hnhmlw sNbv X vkzn‰v k ¿e- ≠ n¬ F≥Pn- o- b - d mbn tPmen sNøp∂p. dn¶pkzn‰v k ¿e≠v Kh¨sa‚ ns‚ Btcm- K y- h - I p- ∏ n¬ tkhwsNøp∂p. Ah¿°v oen Fs∂mcp s]¨Ip-´n-bp-≠v. tPmkv hnb-∂bv°v t]mIpw-apºv Fgp-ØpIpØv aptJ Ap-P≥ At{]w _n.Fkvkn°v ssPo-cn-bm-bn¬ A≤ym-]I tPmentSn Ab®p. At{]w Ah-[n-bn¬ h∂-t∏mƒ Rmd-bv°¬ hmfq-cm≥ tPmk^v ˛ adnbw aIƒ tacn-°p´n _n.Fkvkn, _n.FUnsIeymWw Ign®p. Ahcpw AhnsS A[ym-]n-Ibmbn. At{]w Iw]yq- -´-dn¬ Fw.Fk.v ]Tn-°m≥ Ata-cn-°-bn¬ t]mbn. IqsS-t∏mb tacn-°p´n tgv k nwKpw ]Tn®v Pbn®v AhnsS tgv k mbn tPmensNøp∂p. Ah¿°v {^m≥kokv At{]w (]ms©), ¢mc At{]wF∂o c≠p Ip´n-I-fm-Wp-≈Xv. Hlmtbm tÉv Bjve‚ v Iayq-Wn‰n tImtf-Pn¬ A≤ym-]-I-m-bn-cns° Un{Kn ]m€mb aIƒAp-hn-tm-sSm∏w saUn-°¬ F≥{S≥kv ]co£ Fgp-Xp-IbpwA∏pw aIƒ°pw dmt¶m-Sp-IqSn AUvan-j≥ In´n-b-t∏mƒ c≠p-t]cpw Hcp-an®v Htc ¢mkn¬ ]Tn®v 2001¬ c≠p-t]cpw tUmIvS¿am-cmbn. tUmIvS¿ At{]w Ct∏mƒ Ata-cn-°-bn¬ tUmIvS-dmbn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 109. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 132tkhw sNøp∂p. aIƒ tUmIvS¿ Ap-hns tUmIvS¿ tlmUvPvF∂ Ata-cn-°≥ tUmIvS¿ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°v aq∂psIm®p- I p- ´ n- I - f m- W p- ≈ Xv . At{]- a ns‚ GI- a ≥ {^m≥kokv(]ms©) {]i-kvXamb coXn-bn¬ F≥Pn-o-bdnwKpw Fw._n.Fbpw - -]m€mbn ]t£, Ata-cn-°-bn¬ Pp-hcn F´mw-Xo-bXn 2004¬ HcpImd-]-I-S-Øn¬ ac-W-s∏´p. ¢mc ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aq∂m-asØ aI≥ Ip™p-a-Ømbn (sI.F^v.amXyp) XpS-ß-mSv sk‚ vtXmakv sslkvIq-fn¬n∂pw Fkv.Fkv.F¬.knbpw tImgn-t°mSvsSIvn-°¬ C≥Ãn-‰yq-´n¬n∂pw Untπm-abpw ]m€mbn hnb-∂-bn¬ tPmen-bn-emb At±lw søm-‰n≥Ic amXyp ˛adnbw aIƒ¢mcsb hnhmlw Ign®p. ]n∂oSv Ata-cn-°-bn¬ t]mbn Iw]yq-´¿kb≥kn¬ Un{Kn kºm-Zn®v amXyp IpSpw-_-k-taXw hnb-∂-bn¬FØn Hmkv{Sn-b≥ Iº-n-bn¬ Iw]yq-´¿ F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn tPmensNøp∂p. Ah¿°v kvanX, knsPm F∂ c≠v a°-fm-Wp-≈Xv.kvanX F∂ aIƒ Fw._n.F. ]m€mbn hnb-∂-bn-semcp Iº-n-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. knsPm Ata-cn-°-bn¬ D]-cn-]-Tw SØnCdnm Fs∂mcp djy≥ s]¨Ip-´nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ata-cn-°-bn¬ tPmen-sNbvXv IpSpw-_-k-taXw Xma-kn-°p∂p. amXypHmkv{Sn-bbnse Adn-bs∏-Sp∂ Hcp Iem ˛ kmwkvIm-cnI ˛ kmaqly - -{]h¿Ø-I-mWv. ]m∏-®≥ ˛ ¢mc Zº-Xn-I-fpsS mem-asØ Ip´n tacn-sb∂aI-fmWv. tacn-°p´n 1973¬ Fkv.Fkv.F¬.kn.Pbn®v I¿Ω-eoØmkym-knn k`-bpsS Xe-t»cn cq]-X-bnse sk‚ v tPmk^vt{]mhn≥kn¬ tN¿∂p. k`-hI tX°pw-Ip-‰n-bn-ep≈ ]T--tI-{µ-Øn¬ ]cn-io-ew SØn. 1974 Unkw-_¿ 28p {]Ya {hX-hm-KvZmw SØn. k`m-h-kv{Xhpw knÿ Pb F∂ t]cpw kzoI-cn®p. ]n∂oSv ]me-°mSv tagvkn tImtf-Pn¬ {]oUn{Kn ]Tw SØn.et_m-d-´dn sSIvo-jy≥ tImgvkpw Pbn®p. 1978 apX¬ 1983 hscsk‚ v tPmk^v anjy≥ Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ tkhw SØn. 1983¬I¿Æm-S-I-Ønse c-knwl cmP-]pcw CS-h-I-bn-ep≈ k`-hI]pjv]m-ip-]-{Xn-bn-te°v amdn. 1986 apX¬ DUp∏n temw_m¿UvkvamcI Bip-]{Xn-bn¬ tgvknwKv ]Tn®v H∂mw-¢m-kn¬ ]m€mbn. -1990 apX¬ am-¥-hmSn {]hn-iymw-K-ambn ]pjv]m-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 110. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 133tkhw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cnt° P¿Ω-n-bn-te°v t]mIp-Ibpw P¿Ω-n-bn¬ 13 h¿jsØ tkh-Øn-p-tijw 2007¬ ´n¬ Xncn-s®Øn -Xe-t»cn t{]mhn≥kn¬ tkhw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°bm-Wn-t∏mƒ. - ¢mc ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS a°-fn¬ A©m-asØ BƒtXmakv (Ip™n-sXm-Ω≥) F∂ ]p{X-mWv. XpS-ß-mSv, aWn-aqfn,aqhm-‰p-]pg F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ sslkvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw ]q¿Øn-bm°n. XpS¿∂v ]nd-hØv emt_m-d-´dn hnZym-`ym-khpw ]q¿Øn-bm°n hnb-∂-bn-seØn tPmen-bn¬ {]th-in®p. Ip™n-sXm-Ω≥XpS-ß-mSv hmg-Nm-cn-°¬ tPm¨ ˛ adn-b-°p´n aIƒ Bn-b-Ωsbhnhmlw Ign®p. Ch¿°v ¢mcnkv, {^m≥knkv (Ip´-∏mbn) F∂c≠p a°-fm-Wp-≈Xv. AXn¬ ¢mcnkv kvIqƒ Hm^v _mk-en¬_tbm saUn-°¬ Am-en-knkv hnZym¿Yn-n-bmWv. {^m≥kokv(Ip´- ∏ mbn) kqdn®v bqWn- t h- g v k n- ‰ n- b n¬ F°- t Wm- a nIv k vhnZym¿∞n-bmWv. Ch-cn-t∏mƒ kzn‰vk¿e-≠n¬ _mk-en-emWvtPmen sNøp-∂Xv. Bn-b-Ωbv°v hnb-∂-bn¬ tPmen tSn-s°m-Sp-ØXv tPmkmWv. IqSmsX kmº-ØnI hnj-a-X-bn-em-bn-cp∂ XpS-ß-mSv hmg-Nm-cn-°¬ IpSpw-_-Ønse aq∂p Ap-P-Øn-am-scbpwIp™n-sXm-Ωpw Bn-b-Ωbpw IqSn hnb-∂-bn¬ tPmen-bn-em°n. ¢mcΩ ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS a°-fn¬ Bdm-a-sØ-bmƒt{Xkym-°p-´n-sb∂ aI-fmWv t{Xkym-°p´n _n.Fkvkn, _n.FUv]mkmbn sIm´-°mSv sNd-bØv Xm©≥ sIm®p-h-doXv ˛ A∂w-Ip´n Ia≥ hn≥sk‚ v Fw.F€nsb hnhmlw Ign®p. `¿Øm-hp-samØv Ata-cn-°-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. ¢mcΩ ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS a°-fn¬ Ggm-a-sØ-bmƒ tPm¿PvIp´n F∂ ]p{X-mWv(sI.F^v.tPm¿Pv). n¿Ωem tImtf-Pn¬n∂pw _n.F _ncp-Z-sa-SpØ tPm¿Pp-Ip´n sXmSp-]pg Be-t°mSv ºym-]-d-ºn¬ ]pXp-t»cn tPm¨ ˛ adn-bmΩ aIƒ emen (tacn)sb hnhmlw Ign®p.amXm-]n-Xm-°sf kwc-£n®v aqhm-‰p-]pg ho´n¬ 2007 hsc Ign-bp-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. emen ˛ tPm¿÷vIp´n Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v anp ¢mc, Ap-a-cnb F∂ c≠v s]¨a-°fpw {^m≥kokv (DÆn-Ip-´≥) F∂]p{X-p-am-Wp-≈Xv. anp _n.Fkvkn tgvknwKv ]mkmbn sIm´nbwBip-]{Xn-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. At{]w IpSpw-_mw-K߃s°√mw - -Ata-cn-°≥ hnkbv°pw {Ko≥ Im¿Unpw At]-£n-®n-cp∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 111. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 134AXn≥{]-Imcw tPm¿PvIp-´nbpw emenbpw _n.Fkvkn tgvknwKv]mkmb Ap-a-dn-bbpw kvIq¬ hnZym¿Yn-bmb DÆn-Ip-´-p-samØv2007 apX¬ Ata-cn-°-bn¬ Xma-kn®v tPmen sNøp∂p. ¢mcΩ ˛]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS a°-fn¬ F´m-asØ Bƒ sk_m-Ãy≥{^m≥kokv F∂ ]p{X-mWv. At±lw _n.F.bpw Fw.F.bpw {]i-kvX-amb coXn-bn¬ ]m€mbn saUn-°¬ hnZym¿Yn-bmbn hnb-∂-bn-seØn. Ahn-sS-n∂pw Ata-cn-°-bn¬ t]mbn {]i-kvXam coXn-bn¬ tgvknwKpw AXns XpS¿∂v saUn-kn≥ ]Tn®v saUn-°¬tUmIvS-dmbn. sk_m-Ãy≥ Im™mWn Xm≠Ω ˛ ]utemkv Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ joe Fw.F€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. joe Ata-cn-°-bn-seØn kn.F.]Tn®v Ata-cn-°≥ Akw-ªn-bn¬ A°u-≠‚mbn tPmen sNøp∂p. tUmIvS-dmbn tPmen sNøp∂ sk_m-Ãypw joebv°pw kmap-sh¬ F∂ ]p{X-mWv (kmap) D≈Xv.kmap kvIqƒ hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. ¢mc ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS ]Xn-mep a°fn¬ Hº-Xm-asØ Bƒ Beokv (Beokv {^m≥kokv) _n.Fkvkn, _n.FUvaWn-a-e-bn¬n∂pw Xncp-h-ºm-Sn°v IpSn-tb-dnb Be-∏m´p tXmakvadnbw aI≥ tXmakv Fw.F hnhmlw sNbvXp. hnZym¿Yn-I-fmbaq∂p a°-tfm-sSmØv Ct∏mƒ Ata-cn-°-bn¬ tPmen sNbvXv Xma-kn-°p∂p. ¢mcΩ ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS ]Xn-∂m-ep-a-°-fn¬ ]Øm-a-sØ-bmƒ t]mfn (t]mƒ {^m≥kokv) BWv. t]mfn aWn-aqfn, aqhm-‰p-]pg F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ kvIqƒ hnZym-`ymkw ]q¿Øn-bm°n. aqhm-‰p-]pg n¿Ωem tImtf-Pn¬n∂pw _n.tImapw ]m€mbn. 1991¬hnb-∂-bn-seØn. t]mfn tN¿Øe Ip∂p-Xd tPmk^v ˛ {_nPoØaIƒ nΩnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch-cpsS hnhmlw hnb-∂-bn¬h®p S∂p. Ah¿°v ]m{Sn°v (tamp), km≥{Z (tamfp) F∂oc≠p kvIqƒ Ip´n-I-fm-Wp-≈Xv. hnb-∂-bn-seØn hnb∂ bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n-bn¬ XpS¿∂p ]Tn® nΩnbpw t]mfnbpw a°-tfm-sSmØvhnb-∂-bn¬ Xma-kn®v tPmen sNøp∂p. ¢mc ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS ]Xn-sm-∂m-asØ Bƒ^nen∏v tcn Pn®v A[n-I-mƒ Ign-bp-∂-Xn-p-aptº acn®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 112. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 135 ¢mc ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS a°-fn¬ ]{¥-≠m-asØ BƒA∂-°p´n (A∂-Ip´n {^m≥kokv) {]oUn{Kn ]Tn-®-tijw 1986¬I¿Ω-eoØm kym-kn-o-k-`-bn¬ tN¿∂p A∞n-n-bmbn B≥kvacnb F∂ t]¿ kzoI-cn®p. k`-hI tX°pw-Ip‰n ]T--tI-{µ-Øn¬]cn-io-ew SØn. 1989¬ Ccn-ßm-e-°pS ISp-ßm-®nd enkyq aTwhI s{Sbn-nwKv kvIqfn¬ tN¿∂v 1991¬ Untπma tSn. Ct∏mƒae-∏pdw Pn√-bn¬ Icp-hm-c-°p-≠n--SpØv sk‚ v tacokv aTw-hIkvIqfn¬ A≤ym-]n-I-bmWv. ¢mc ˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS ]Xn-aq-∂m-a-sØ Bƒ sken≥ (sken≥ {^m≥kokv) F∂ aI-fmWv.aqhm-‰p-]pg n¿Ωem tImf-Pn¬ _n.Fkvknbpw aWn-∏m-en¬ _n.-FUpw ]Tn®v Bc-°pg kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-∏n-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. 1995¬Bc- ° pg πmtØm- ´ - Ø n¬ entbm- W ≥ F∂ AUz- t °- ‰ nshnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°v {^m≥¶n-en≥, Unssh≥ F∂o c≠pB¨Ip-´n-I-fmWv. 2010¬ Ah¿ Ata-cn-°-bn-te°v IpSn-tbdn. ¢mc˛ ]m∏-®≥ Zº-Xn-IfpsS ]Xn-∂mep a°-fn¬ ]Xn-m-em-asØ Bƒ -sUman-nIv kmhntbm BWv. aµ-_p-≤n-bmb kmhntbm ]Sn-™msdtImSn-°p-fØv ^mZ¿ sPbnwkv hS-t°-ens‚ tXr-Xz-Øn¬ S-Ø-s∏-Sp∂ kvtl-`hn¬ Ign-bp∂p. Ahp-[n-kabØpw {]tXyI - - - -hnti-j-Zn--ß-fnepw aqhm-‰p-]pg ho´n¬ h∂v Nne-h-gn-°p∂p. F√mAp-P-∑m-scbpw hnb-∂-bn¬ FØn-®Xpw AhnsS tPmen-bp≈{kmWn bph-Xn-I-sf-s°m≠v hnhmlw Ign-∏n-®Xpw tPmkmWv.tPmkpw IpSpw-_hpw Ct∏mƒ hb-€mb AΩ-bp-tSbpw aµ-_p-≤n-bmb kmhn-tbm-bp-sSbpw kwc-£Ww Gs‰-SpØv aqhm-‰p-]pg ho´n¬Ign-bp∂p. s]mXp-{]-h¿Ø-I-m-bn-cp∂ ]m∏-®s‚ a°ƒ {]tXy-In®v tPmkv, amXyp, tXmakv, t]mfn F∂n-h¿ Iem˛kmwkvIm-cnI ˛ kmaqly kwL-S--I-fn¬ {]apJ ÿm-߃ hln®v bqtdm-∏n¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-p. Ah-sc√mw Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Øns‚bi€v h¿[n-∏n-°p∂p. h≈n-∏md adnbw ˛ C´n-sF-∏p-am-cpsS GI-a-Iƒ Gen-°p´nXpS- ß - mSv F¬]n, bp.]n, sslkvIq- f p- I - f n¬n∂pwFkv.Fkv.F¬.kn. Pbn®p. 1948 Pqsse 15p Nß-m-t»cn cq]-X-bn-em-bn-cp∂ I¿Ω-eoØm k∂ym-kn-o-k-`-bpsS XpS-ß-mSv imJ-bn¬ BZyw tN¿∂ A¿∞n-n-I-fn¬ Hcm-fmbn. skdm-^nb F∂○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 113. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 136t]¿ kzoI-cn®p. k`-hI B¿∏q-°c `h-Øn¬ ]cn-io-ew SØn -1950 sabv 18p {]Ya {hX-hm-KvZmw SØn. 1950¬ Xs∂ Nß-m-t»cn sk‚ v _¿°p-am≥kn¬ tN¿∂p 1955¬ _n.Fkvkn _ncpZwtSn. 1953 sabn¬ nXy-{h-X-hm-KvZmw sNbvXp. 1955 apX¬ 1956Pqsse hsc cma-]pcw tk{IUv lm¿´v sslkvIq-fn¬ A≤ym-]n-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. ae-_m¿ IpSn-tb-‰-°m¿°p-th≠n Xe-t»cn cq]Xÿm]n-Xam-bt∏mƒ Xncp-hºm-Sn-bn¬ aTw ÿm]n-°m≥ 1956 Pqsse - - -]Ønv AhnsS FØn. aTw ÿm]n®p. Pqsse 11 apX¬ 1980 hscXncp-h-ºmSn tk{IUv lm¿´v sslkvIq-fn¬ A≤ym-]n-I-bmbntkhw SØn. 1957¬ ]mem-bn¬ Bcw-`n® s{Sbn-nwKv tImtf-Pn¬ BZy-hn-Zym¿Yn-I-fn¬ Hcm-fmbn. IW°v, Cw•ojv hnj-b-ß-fn¬ _n.FUv tSn-bn-cp∂p. 1963 apX¬ 1967 hsc Xncp-h-ºmSn aT-Øns‚ t{ijvTØn, sk‚ v tPmk^v t{]mhn≥kns‚ doP-W¬kp∏o-cn-b¿ F∂o Npa-X-e-Iƒ hln®p. 1980¬ FSq¿ sk‚ v {SokmaT-Øn-te°v amdn AhnsS sslkvIqƒ A≤ym-]n-I-bmbn. 1986¬k`-bpsS P-d¬ Nm]v‰-dn¬ Hcp P-d¬ Iu¨kn-e-dmbn Xnc-s™-Sp-°s∏´p. 1986¬ A≤ym-]nI tPmen-bn¬n∂p s]≥j≥ ]‰n- -b-Xn-p-tijw k`-bpsS Bephm Xmbn-°m-´p-I-c-bn-ep≈ au≠vIm¿Ω¬ P-d-te-‰n-em-bn-cp∂p. 1991¬ S∂ sXc-s™-Sp-∏n¬skdm- ^ n- b m- Ω sb ho≠pw Xe- t »cn sk‚ v tPmk^vt{]mhn≥kns‚ s{]mhn≥jym-fmbn Xnc-s™-SpØp. Ct∏mƒBÿmw Xncp-h-ºm-Sn-bn-emWv. Ch¿ tdmapw ]me-kvXo≥m-Sp-Ifpw kµ¿in-®n-´p≠v. Ct∏mƒ Xncp-h-ºmSn aT-Øn¬ hn{iaPohnXw bn-°p-∂p. Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ sImt®en ˛ C´n-sF-∏p-am-cpsSc≠m-asØ aI≥ aØmbn ]mem Su¨ k¿°m¿ ae-bmfw ]≈n-°q-SØn¬ memw-Xcw Pbn®p. ]mem henb ]≈n-hI sk‚ v tXma- -kn¬n∂pw tX¿Uv t^mdhpw Nß- m- t »cn sk‚ v _¿°p-am≥kn¬n∂pw C.Fkv.F¬.kn.bpw tSn. 1921¬ aØmbn Nß-m-t»cn s]‰n skan-m-cn-bn¬ tN¿∂p. kpdn-bmn, eØo≥ `mj-Iƒ ]Tn®v 1923¬ hcm-∏pg skan-m-cn-bn¬ ]´-Ønp ]Tw XpSßn.A∂p Nß-m-t»-cn-bnepw Xriqcpw am{Xta kpdn-bmn tdma≥ItØm-en°m sa{Xm-∑m-cp≈q. At∂ aØmbn siΩm-»p ^en-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 114. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 137X-kn-≤n-bp≠v. klr-Z-b-mb Imfm-t»-cn-]n-Xmhv skan-mcn Ah-[n-°m-eØv kc-k-mb aØm-bn-s»-Ωm-»-s-IqsS Xma-kn-∏n-®n-cp∂p. ]d-™p-tI´ A∂sØ Hcp IY tN¿s°s´; ]nXmhpwsiΩm-»pw hnko-Øbv°v hn√p-h-≠n-bn¬ t]mIp-I-bmWv. ]nXmhvHcp ^enXw ]d™p. ""Ing-t°-°c Cu Ic-sb√mw Imf-h-≠n-bn¬a≠p-∂t√m. Ccp-hcpw Nncn®p. XpS¿∂v siΩm-»≥ Aa¿Øn-b-a¿Øn Nncn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂p. ""F¥m, Xm≥ Cnbpw Nncn AS-°m≥hnj-an-°p-∂Xv? ""AXp ]d-™m¬ ]nXmhp tZjy-s∏-Sptam?; t]Sn-bp≠v. ""Bcv? Rmtm? Xm≥ `b-s∏-SmsX ]d; Nncn-°m≥ RmpwIqSmw ""Cu Imf Imfm-t»-cnsb hen-°p-∂t√m Ft∂m¿ØmWv.]nXmhv, "_te t`jv ]d™p. Ccp-hcpw H∂n®v B¿Ø-´-l-kn®p.h≠n-°m-c≥ F¥p sNbvtXm! Ah¿ hgn-hn-j-a-X-b-dn-bmsX ]≈n-bn-seØn. 1928 Unkw-_¿ 23˛mwp At±lw Iio»m ]´w G‰p. aØm-bn-b-®s‚ kl-]m-Tn-Iƒ 24 t]cp-IqsS At±-l-tØm-sSm∏w Kpcp-∏´w kzoI-cn®p. F√m-hcp-tSbpw ]pØ≥ Ip¿_m H∂n®v BtLm- -j-ambn hcm-∏p-g-bn¬h®v SØn. A®s‚ AΩ-b-∏-∑mcpw AΩm-bn-b-Ωm-h-∑mcpw tN´pw `mcybpw Ip™p-ßfpw Ap-Ppw thm-Ubpw Ab¬°m-cp-sams° hf-h-c-bp≈ Hcp sI´p-h≈w ndsbBfp-Iƒ ]mem tXmWn-°-S-hn¬n∂p Ibdn. aq∂mw-mƒ Ah¿hcm-∏p-g-sbØn. CSn-®-Ω-¥nbpw (th∏n-e-°´n) De-Øp-I-dn-Ifpwtamcp-Im-®n-bXpw Ah¿ FSp-Øn-cp∂p. Nq≠-I-fn¬ [mcm-f-ambnIn´nb ao≥ hdpØpw Idn-sh®pw Ah¿ Bkz-Zn®p. tNmdp h≈-Øn¬ h®p. {]Ir-Xn-bpsS hnfn-Iƒ AXnp kuI-cy-ap≈ ÿe-ß-fn¬ h≈w ASp-∏n®p SØn. A∂v C∂-sØ-t∏mse ASp-∏n-®-Sp-∏n®v BƒØm-a-k-an-√t√m. hcm-∏p-g-bn¬ Xma-k-Ønp hosS-SpØp. `£Ww skan-m-cn-°m¿ sImSpØp. 25 t{XmtWm-kp-I-fn¬h-ssh-Zn-I¿ {]Ya Znhy-_-en-b¿∏n®p. Hmtcm ]´-°m-c-t‚bpw_‘p-an-{Xm-Zn-Isf Atß¿ Ip¿_m sNm√p∂ AƒØm-cbv°ptsc n¿Øpw. A∂v Aysc ]≈n-bn¬ Ib-‰n√. aS-°-bm{Xssh°w-hsc h≈-Ønepw XpS¿∂v _€nepw SØn. Aßsbm{Xm-t¢-i-a-dn-bmsX aµ-am-cp-X-t‰v {]Ir-Xn-c-a-Wo-b-Xbpw ]®-aopw btYjvSw `£n®v hnip≤ I¿Ω-Øn¬ kw_-‘n®v a-»m¥n○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 115. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 138tSn hntm-Z-bm{X S-Ønb kwXr-]vXn-tbmsS Ah¿ aS-ßn-sbØn. hoSpw ASp-°-f-bp-ambn Ign-™n-cp∂ kv{XoIƒ ∂mbnBÀm-Zn-®n-cn-°Ww. Ing-t°-°c sIm®-®≥ IS-mSv, cma-]pcw s^mtdm-m-]-≈n-I-fn¬ AkvtX-¥n-bmbn CS-h-I-`-cWw ]cn-io-en®p. siΩm-»-m-bn-cnt° Xs∂ kp]-cn-Nn-X-mb Ing-t°-°c aØmbn A®sImfm-t»cn ]nXmhv Atß-cpsS kz¥w CS-hI Cf-t¥m´w hnIm-cn-bm°n. hnko-Øbv°v h∂-t∏mƒ kzmK-X-Ønp adp-]Sn ]d-bth]nXmhv, Cßs {]kw-Kn®p. ""Hcp-Im-eØv I¬Zmb k`m-hn-`m-K-Øns‚ ]pem-Øn-bm-bn-cp∂ Cf-t¥m-´-Øns‚ A[n-]s hnIm-cn-b-®-s-∂√, Xncp-ta-n-b-®≥ F∂p hnfn-°-W-sa∂p ap°v Xm¬∏-cy-ap≠v. ]n∂oSv F√m-hcpw Atßsc "Xncp-ta-n-b®≥ F∂p hnfn- -®p-Xp-Sßn. Ing-t°-°c aØm-bn-b-®s Adn-bm-Ø-h¿IqSn Xncp-ta-n-b-®s Adn-™n-cp∂p. A®s‚ A∏s‚ AΩbpw ]mem cq]-X-bpsS BZy sa{Xm≥ am¿ sk_m-Ãy≥ hb-en-ens‚ A∏pwBß-f-s]-ß-∑m-cm-bn-cp∂p. {]mb-°q-Sp-X¬ A®-m-bn-cp∂p. amWn-°p´n Bbn-cn-°p-tºmƒ apX¬ A®p am¿ hb-en-ens √ ]cn-N-b-amWv. Atß¿ BZy-Ip¿_m A¿∏n-®-t∏mƒ t{]c-I≥ Xncp-ta-n-b-®-m-bn-cp∂p. amWn-°p-´n-b-®≥ tdman¬n∂p sa{Xm-mbnh∂-t∏mƒ Xncp-ta-n-b-®≥ c≠mw-h´w Cf-t¥m´w hnIm-cn-bmWv.]e ssIa-Wn-°mcpw sa{Xms sN∂p-I≠p ssIapØn, Xncp-ta-n-b-®p t]mbn ImWm≥ kuI-cy-s∏-´n√. Aß-s-bn-cns° Hcpkmbm-l--Øn¬ AXm, sa{Xm--®s‚ Im¿ ]≈n-ap-‰Øv! hmXn¬Xpd∂p S-∂-Sp-°p∂ sa{Xms‚ ssIapØn A®≥ Cßs kzmK-a-cpfn: ""Atßm-´n-d-ßtWm Ctßm´p... hmNIw apgp-an-∏n-°m≥sa{Xm--®≥ kΩ-Xn-®n√. ""AXt√ ]gb amWn-°p´n Ctßm-´p-h-∂Xv Xncp-tao am¿ hb-enepw kµ¿`m-p-k-cWw Db¿∂p. Cf-t¥m´w, B¿∏q-°c, ]qh-cWn, hnf-°p-amSw, IS-πm-a‰w, sNΩ-e-a‰w (ChnsS aT-ÿm-]w SØn) ho≠pw Cf-t¥m´w Ch-bmWvA®≥ hnIm-cn-bm-bn-cp∂ CS-h-I-Iƒ. aq∂mw-h´w Cf-t¥m´w hnIm-cn-]Zw Zo¿L-mƒ hln-®-tijw sa{Xms‚ Ap-hmZw hmßn CS-h-I`cWw Dt]-£n®v AhnsS ]≈n-ap-dn-bn¬ hn{i-aPo-hnXw bn®p. - - -ho≠pw sa{Xms‚ Ap-hmZw hmßn Xma-khpw nXy _en-b¿∏-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 116. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 139Whpw kz¥w hoSp ssItXm-en-em°n. Aßs Ign-bp-tºmƒ aptº_m[n-®n-cp∂ {]talw aq¿—n®p. `c-W-ßmw tacn-Kncn Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ ]ptcm-ln-X¿°p am{X-amb apdn-bn¬ Hcp amk-Øn-e-[nIwInS∂p. B Ime-ØmWv GI ktlm-Zcn Ip™mΩ ap≠-°-bØvacn-®Xv. A®≥ AS-°np t]mbn Bip-]-{Xn-bn-te°p aSßn.{]talw nb-{¥-W-Øn-em-bXpw ssItXm-en-te°v Xncn-®p-t]m∂p.c≠p Znhkw Ign™v s^{_p-hcn 23˛mwp cm{Xn lrt{Zm-K-_m-[-bp-≠mbn. AXpw aptº D≠m-bn-cp∂p. ho≠pw tacn-Kn-cn-bn-em°n.]nt‰∂p cmhnse, s^{_p-hcn 24p 8.15p kz¥-°m-cp-tSbpw kplr-Øp-°-fp-tSbpw a≤y-Øn¬n∂v Xncp-ta-n-b-®≥ nXy-n-{Z-bn-te°vDu¿∂n-dßn. am¿ hb-en-ens‚ {][m Im¿Ωn-IXz-Øn¬ Cf-t¥m´w -]≈n-b-IØv I_-d-S°n. ap∏-Xmw-mƒ …m_n-So-enpw sa{Xm--®≥h∂n-cp∂p. I£n-h-g-°p-Iƒ A®≥ `cn-®n-cp∂ CS-h-I-Isf Xo≠n-bn-cp--n√. `n∂n-∏n®p `cn-°p∂ bw A®≥ kzoI-cn-®n-cp-∂n√. DNnXD]-a-Iƒ kµ¿`m-p-k-cWw Dƒs°m-≈n®v ^en-X-k-Ωn-{i-ambsNdp-`m-jWßfn-eqsS Adnhpw sFI-aXyhpw hnX®pw hnizm-khpw - - - -kvtlhpw sImbvXpw A®≥ CS-h-I-Iƒ `cn®p. `n∂n-®n-cp-∂-hsbhnf°n tbmPn-∏n®p. CXm-bn-cp∂p A®s‚ `c-W-ssien. B efn-X-Po-hn-Xt{]an B¿`mSw B{K-ln-®n√. ]qh-cWn-bn¬n∂pw A®p - -hnf-°p-am-S-Øn-m-bn-cp∂p am‰w. ]qh-c-Wn-°m¿ Imdp-I-fpsS AI-º-Sn-tbmsS hf-™-h-gn°v A®s hnf-°p-am-S-sØ-Øn-°m≥ ]cn-]m-Sn-bn-´n-cp∂p. sshIp-t∂-csØ bm{X-b-b∏v tbmK-Øn¬ µnAdn-bn®v A®≥ {]kw-Kn®p. Cu tbmKw Xo¿∂m-ep-S≥ Rm≥]Xnhp sshIp-t∂c SØw XpS-ßp-I-bmbn. {]nb-s∏-´-h¿ F√m-hcpw Ft∂m-sSm∏w h∂p Fs∂ Fs‚]pXnb CS-h-I-bn-em-°m≥ {]tXyIw Xmev]-cy-s∏-Sp∂p. ""Ah¿F√m-hcpw ^en-X-߃ ]d™pw Hm¿Ω-Iƒ Ab-hn-d-°nbpw Ipdp-°np S∂v hnf-°p-am-S-sØØn. Atßm´p ]pd-∏-Spw-apºv A®s‚s]´n-Ifpw InS-°bpw X´p-ap´p kmam--ßfpw Imf-h-≠n-bn¬ Ib-‰n-bn-cp∂p. I´n¬, tai, Itk-cm-Zn-Iƒ CS-h-I-°m¿ ]≈n-ap-dn-bn¬Icp-Xn-bn-cn-°pI ]Xn-hm-Wt√m. I£n-h-g°v IØn-n¬°p-tºm-gmWv A®≥ hnf-°p-am-S-sØ-Øn-bXv. ]≈n ]pXp-°n-∏-Wn-bm-bn-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 117. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 140cp∂p {]ivw. BbnsS ]pØ≥Ip¿_m sNm√nb ]mem cq]-X-bnse GI F≥Pn-o-bm-d-®s, ]t≠ Adn-bp∂ sa{Xm-tmSv]d™v A®≥ AkvtX-¥n-bm°n. Ap-Kr-loX Kmb-Ipw Nn{X-Im-c-pw-Iq-Sn-bmb s√n-t°m´p tImgn-sIm-Øn-°-e-®≥ hc® `mhn]≈n πm≥ F√m-hcpw CjvS-s∏´p. A®≥ H∂n-∏n-°-ens‚ H∂mw-]Sn Ibdn. Cßs Icp-X-temsS b-Øn¬ oßn CS-h-I-bnseI£n-h-g°pw atm-l-c-amb ]≈n-∏-Wnbpw A®≥ Xo¿Øp. 1958apX¬ 1968 hsc siΩmipw AkvtX-¥n-bp-ambn A®s‚ At¥-hm-kn-bm-bn-cp∂ s√n-t°m´p tImgn-sIm-Øn-°-e-®≥ kZbw tiJ-cn-®p-X∂ Xncp-ta-n-b-®s‚ ^en-X-ß-fnepw Imcy-am{X {]`m-j-W-ß-fnepw NneXv tN¿°s´. s√n-t°m-Ss‚ A∏≥ acn-®-Xn¬ Ap-tim-Nw Adn-bn®vA®s‚ IsØØn. AXn¬ ""F√m kwkvIm-c-th-f-I-fnepw Cº-Øn¬ CuW- Ø n¬ apg- ß m- d p≈ sIm®ns‚ i_v Z - Ø npImtXm¿Øp; (At±lw Fs∂ hm’-ey-]q¿∆w Hma-t∏-cmWv hnfn- -®n-cp-∂Xv) tI´n√. ImcWw, Fn-°-dnbmw. kz¥w ]nXm-hns‚ ac-W-Øn-ep≈ Zp:Jw. sIm®p Zp:Jnt°≠. Pohn-X-Ønse Hcp XØzwFgpXmw. Pn-®p-hoW inip-hnv H∂pw sNøm≥ høm. hf-cp-tºmƒIan-gp∂p. ssII-fn¬ s]mßp∂p. mep Imen-t∑¬ o¥p∂p. Ccn-°p∂p, ]nSn-s®-Wo-°p∂p. BcmWv ]cn-N-cn®v ]cn-io-en-∏n-°p-∂-h¿? amXm-]n-Xm-°ƒ. Ing-h-cmbn Ign-bp-tºmgpw Ah¿°v inip-°-sf-t∏mse H∂pw Xnsb sNøm≥ hø. At∏mƒ AΩ-b-∏-∑m-cpsS]cn-N-cWw kvacn-°p∂p. sImXn-°p∂p. Ah¿ ]c-tem-I-ØmWv;Ahsc Ap-K-an-°p∂p; AXmWv acWw."" hm¿jnI [ymm-h-kmw A®s‚ {]kwKw: ""C∂p ΩpsS[ymw kam-]n-°p-I-bmWv. √ Ipº-kmcw SØn hn.Ip¿_mssIs°m≠v F√m-hcpw hoSp-I-fn-te°p t]mIpw. ]gb Pohn-X-ta-J-e-I-fn-te°v ]pXnb {]Xn-⁄-I-fp-ambn. t_m¿Unw-Kn-te°v/tlmÃ-en-te°v aIs/aIsf bm{X-bm-°p∂ AΩ-sb-t∏mse Xncp-k` nßsf bm{X-bm-°p∂p. AΩ ]dbpw: ""AhnsS sN∂m¬IØ-bbv°Ww, h√-t∏mgpw FÆ tX®p-Ip-fn-°Ww, ]mepw ap´bpw -kvs]jy¬ hmßn Ign-°Ww. Xncp-k`m amXmhv Hm¿Ωn-∏n-°p∂p:FgpØv {]m¿∞ apS-°-cpXv, tX®p-Ipfn Ipº-kmcw S-ØWw,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 118. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 141kvs]jy¬ Znhy-Im-cpWyw kzoI-cn-°Ww."" B Rmb-dmgvN Gh≥tKm-en-tbm≥ hmb-bpw {]kw-Khpwim_-Øm-NcWsØ-°p-dn-®m-bn-cp∂p. nß-fpsS BtSm amtSm Ipgn- - - -bn¬ hoWm¬ Ab¬°m-tcbpw kvtln-X-tcbpw hcpØn Ib-‰p-I-bnt√ F∂ `mKw hni-Zo-I-cn-®p-h∂ A®≥ "tIma I≠-t]msen¿Øn ]Xps° ]d™p. ""Ω-fm-sW-¶n¬ Imcym-¶s hcpØnF¥p-Xcpw F∂p Xnc°pw. ÿew ÿncw Cd-®n-sh-´p-Im-c≥"Imcym-¶≥ ]≈n-bn-ep≠v. Pw Aa¿Øn-®n-cn®p. A®≥ H∂pwAdn-bm-Ø-t]mse {]kwKw XpS¿∂p. hnf-°p-amSw ]≈n-°-Sp-Øp≈ Hcp ho´nse Znh-k-°q-en-°m-c≥ IpSpw-_-m-Y≥ ]Wn-I-gn™p º-dn¬ Ibdn Uok-e-Sn®vhosSØn sXdn hnfn-°pI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp∂p. ]≈n-ap-‰Øv Ifn-°p∂B ho´nse Ip´n-Isf hnfn®v A®≥ ]d™p: ""nß-fpsS Nm®≥Htc sXdn-bm-Wt√m Znh-khpw ]d-bpI: Cn ]pXn-bh ]d-bWw.R߃°pw A®pw ]Tn-°m-at√m F∂v A®≥ ]d-™-Xmbn ]d-bWw. msf cmhnse Nm®≥ ]Wn-°p-t]m-Ipw-apºv, Ah¿ AßssNbvXp. sXdn-hnfn ]ns∂ tI´n√. Ip´n-Iƒ ]Tn-®m-h¿Øn°pw,A®≥ {i≤n-°p∂p F∂ Nn¥ Abm-fpsS AI-°Æp Xpd-∏n-®n-cn-°Ww. ""Xncp-ta-n-b®≥ hnf-°p-am-SØn-cn-°p-tºmƒ AkvtX-¥n-bmb - -Rmpw Hcp-an®v ]e Ing-t°-°c hoSp-Ifpw kµ¿in®p. A∂v F√m-hcpw Xs∂ [cn-°m-dp≈ sh¥nßm Imip-cq-]-߃ Bcp-tSbpwIgp-Øn¬ I≠n√. Fs∂ hmcm-dp≈ A®s H∂p sIm®m-°-W-sa∂v Fn°v IpkrXn tXm∂n. A®s‚ IpSpw-_mw-KßfpsS hnizm- - -k-cm-lnXyw Rm≥ ^en-X-a-b-ambn kqNn-∏n®p. ""Fs‚ sImt®,then NmSp∂ Imen-I-fpsS Igp-Øn-emWv sIm´n (ac-aWn) sIt´-≠Xv. Ing-t°-°-c-°m¿ acym-Z-°m-cmWv; sIm´n sIt´-≠-Xn√.A®s‚ ¿Ωw F∂ sIm®m°n."" lrt{Zm-Kn-bmb A®≥ Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ InS∂p NnIn-’-bn-emWv. t£am-tz-j-W-Ønp ]e-cp-saØn. F√m-hcpw "Fßs,Ipd-hpt≠m? F∂p Xnc°n. A®≥ ""D≠v XpS¿∂v o≠ auw.A®≥ AXv `RvPn®p. ""F¥m Ipd-sh∂p Bcpw tNmZn-®n-√t√m?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 119. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 142tfml Ducn Xq°n-bn-cp∂p. Ioi-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ A™q-dp-cq]mImWm-n√; AXm Ipdhv F√m-hcpw IqsS A®pw B¿Øp-Nn-cn®p. GXv n¿`m-Kyhpw ^en-X-Øn¬ Ae-bn®v Nncn-°mpw Nncn-∏n-°mpw A®p hi-am-bn-cp∂p. A®≥ sNΩ-e-a-‰-sØØn me©p amk-߃ Ign™v Ahn-SsØ Ipcn-ip-]≈n ]Wn-Xo¿∂p. aXn-ep-IqsS ]qcvØn-bm-b-t∏mƒaq∂n¬ Hcp sIm®p-ap‰w. ]Xn-hmbn ]≈n-ap-dn-bn¬ hcp∂ sNdp-∏-°mcpw A®pw ]qs®-Sn-°-ºp-Ifpw hnØp-I-fp-ambn h∂v, ´p--®p. hf¿∂-t∏mƒ sNdp-∏-°m¿°v AXn-smcp t]cn-SWw. Km‘n]m¿°v, slvdp ]m¿°v, Xncp-tan ]m¿°v, ]e t]cp-Ifpw n¿tZ-in-°s∏´p. HSp-hn¬ A®s‚ A`n-{]mbw: ""]n.F¬.Un.tam≥ ]m¿°v -A®s Hcp sXΩmSn, "]pe-bm-Sn-tam≥ F∂p hnfn-®Xv Ah¿°pwAdnbmw. AXns‚ a[p-c-ambn {]Xo-I-cWw Ahcpw AwKo-I-cn®p. `c-W-ßmw tacn-Kncn ]cn-Nm-cn-I-am¿ saUn-°¬ kntÃgvkvA®s‚ `mj-bn¬ "taSn-°¬ kntÃgvkm"Wv. A®s‚ _n√n¬ c‡-]-cn-tim-[ ]Øp-cq]m. A®≥: ""At∏mƒ, n߃°pw Hm¥v tNmcIpSn-°pw-t]mse tNmc-sb-Sp-°mpw Adnbmw, At√? knÿ:""AsX¥m At®m? ""Bcpw kndn-©p-sIm≠v Fs‚ tNmc FSp-Øn-√t√m. B ]Øp-cq] Ipdhp sNøm≥ A®≥ Bh-iy-s∏-tS-≠n-h-∂n√. CS-h-Imw-K-ß-fn¬ A®s‚ kzm[ow sXfn-bn-°p∂ Hcpkw`hw: IpSn-In-S-∏p-Im-c≥ ]pXp-{In-kvXym-n°v A¥y-Iq-Zm-ibv°v]d-ºp-Sa hn[-hbpsS aI≥ tImtf-Pp-Ip-am-c≥ ]mXn-cmbv°v A®s -X´n-ap´n DW¿Øn Cd°n. ""Ahp s]s´-∂mtWm AkpJw h∂Xv?sshIo´v mw XΩn¬ I≠t√m; Ft¥ ]d-™n√˛ A®≥ Xnc°n.""At∏m-g-hp tcnb ]ntb D≠m-bn-cp-∂p≈q. A®m. ""]ns∂s]s´∂p IqSn, Du¿≤≥ hen-®p-Xp-S-ßntbm? ""F∂m¬, Fn°vAtß-tem-I-Øp-n∂p Adn-bn∏v In´n-bn-√®m. A®≥ kwkmcwn¿Øn Hcp-ßn-bn-dßn. AS°p Ign™v Ahs‚ AΩ A®s‚ASp-Øp-h∂p. A®≥ Ifn-bm-sb-t∂mWw ]d™p: "aI≥ anSp-°-m-Wt√m! A¥y-Iq-Zm-ibv°v Fs∂ hnfn-°m≥ h∂-t∏mƒ F¥mhnhcw Ft∂mSp tcsØ ]d-™n√ F∂p tNmZn®p. Ahv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 120. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 143Atß-tem-I-Øp-n∂v Adn-bn∏v In´n-bn-s√∂p ]d™v Fs∂tXmev]n®p. AΩ ho´n¬ sN∂ DS≥ aIs hnfn®v, ""o F¥mSmA®-tmSv [n°mcw ]d-™Xv; A®s‚ apºn¬ ap´p-IpØn £a]d-™n-s√-¶n¬ taen¬ o Fn°v aIpw Rm≥ n°v AΩ-bp-a√˛ AΩ-bpsS A¥y-im-kw! B amXr-`‡≥ hnj-an®p. hncp- -X≥ F∂mepw hn´n√. A®≥ ap‰Øv a‰v c≠v A®-∑m-tcm-Sp-IqSnn¬°p-tºmƒ mS-Io-b-ambn ap´p-IpØn £am-]Ww XpSßn.A®≥ Ahs FWo-∏n®p: ""sk_mÃym, n°v tZjyw h∂p;Rmpw NqSmbn, ap-°Xv ad°mw: B ¿Ω {]nb≥ DZm-c-a--kvI-p-am-bn-cp∂p. ]pXp-°n-∏Wn-bn® hnf-°p-amSw ]≈n-°q-Zm-ibv°v IqSn-bhsc - -kzmKXw sNbvXv A®≥ sNbvX {]kwKw IqSn FgpXn, GsdFgp-Xm≥ hI-bp≈ CXv n¿Øs´. kzmK-X-a-cp-fn-b-tijw. A®≥Hcp IY-bn-te°p IS∂p ˛ ""aIpw AΩbpw √ hcn-°-®° NX-bmsX Cd-°n-sh®v ]gp-∏n-°m≥, Ib-dp-ambn Cdßn. Akm-amyhen-∏-ap≈ B N°-Xm-bvØ-Sn-bn¬ Ipd®v Db-c-Øn-emWv InS∏v.apI-fnepw Xmsgbpw Ih-c-߃ D≠v. kuI-cy-am-bn-cp∂p sR´npsI´n-Smpw apdn-°mpw ASp-Øn-S-an√. aI≥ Ib-dns‚ A‰-hp-ambnapI-fn-esØ Ih-c-bn-eqsS Ib-dn´v sR´n¬ Hcp hn[-Øn¬ `{Z-ambn sI´n-bp-d-∏n®p. at‰-b‰w ssIbn¬n∂p Du¿∂p-t]m-ImsXNp‰n _e-ambn ]nSn-°m≥ AΩsb Hm¿Ωn-∏n®p. Du¿∂n-dßn Hcp-hn-[-Øn¬ sR´p I≠n®p. N° ]Xps° Xmtgm-´n-dßn AΩ-bpsSne-hn-fn-tI´ aI≥ ]cn-{`-an®p Iotgm´p tm°n. AhnsS Ib-dns‚A‰Øv AΩ Rm∂p InS-°p∂p. {]mbm-[n-Iy-Øm¬ £oWn-®p-W-ßnb AΩbv°pw N°bv°pw Iw ka-am-bn-cp∂p. ΩpsS ]≈n-∏-Wn-bpsS hc-hp-Nn-ehpw CXp-t]mse ka-amWv. AXn-m-emWv]≈n-b¶w samssk-°n-SmsX aW¬ hncn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv. AXn¬ ap´p-Ip-Øp-tºmƒ Xcn-Iƒ Xpf-®p-I-bdpw. thZ, Ipd-®p-IqsS kw`m-h Xcm≥ nßsf Hm¿Ωn-∏n°pw. F√m-hcpw Ign-hp-t]mse X∂n-´p≠v. Cnbpw ]ncn-hn-n-dßn hnImcn nßsf _p≤n-ap-´n-°-bn√.F√m-h¿°pw Fs‚ µn; Rm≥ n¿Øp∂p."" ]{X-ta-n°v I√-S]qX hmd-≠p-]dºv hn¬t°-≠n-h∂p. sIm‰- - -t¶m´v A©c G°¿ Rc-f-°m-´p-]-dºv A®≥ kz¥w t]cn¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 121. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 144hmßn. sNdp-∏w-ap-X¬ hfsc h¿j-߃ IqsS Xma-kn®p ]cn-N-cn® hmen-b-°m-c≥ sNº-fn-bn¬ {]n©p-hnp Rc-f-°m-Sn--SpØvI√-d-bv°¬ ]m∏-bpsS Xd-hm-Sp-hoSpw, ]dºv c≠c G°dpw hmßnkΩm-n®p. Ahs‚ hnhm-lhpw S-Øn-s°m-SpØp. 17.3.1898 ¬Pn® aØmbn A®≥ (Xn-cp-ta-n) hm¿≤-Iy-Im-eØv Xd-hm-´n¬Xma-kn-°p-Ibpw 21.2.1982-˛¬ ac-W-s∏-Sp-Ibpw ASpØ Znhkw Cf-t¥m´w ]≈n-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ sImt®en ˛ C´n-sF-∏p-am-cpsSmemw k¥mw, aq∂mw ]p{X≥ sXmΩ-®≥ ]mem ]´Ww ae-bmfw ]≈n-°qSw, ]mem sk‚ v tXmakv F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ ]Tn®vC.Fkv.F¬.kn Pbn®p. Nß- m- t icn sk‚ v _¿°p-am≥kn¬n∂pw F^v.F.Pbn®p. B{‘-an-jy-n¬ tN¿∂p. s√q¿taP¿ skan-m-cn-bn¬ ]utcm-lnXy ]Tw SØn. 1938 Unkw-_¿ 13p a{Zmkv ssaem-∏q¿ aØn-bmkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-bn¬n∂v]´-ta‰p. s√q-cnepw kz¥w CS-hI Cf-t¥m-´-Ønepw ]pØ≥Ip¿_m BtLm-jn®p. A∂v tN´≥ aØm-bn-b®≥ AhnsS BZy- -X-hW hnIm-cn-bmWv. B{‘m anjy≥ A∂p U®p-an-jy--dn-am-cpsSNpa-Xebn-emWv. ]m°me, s]cp-ap√, Nndme, s√q¿, IS∏ Cßs - -]e CS-h-I-I-fnepw ^m. tXmakv Ing-t°-°c hnIm-cn-bm-bn-cp∂p.c≠p-h-´-ambn Ccp-]Xv B≠p-I-fn-e-[nIw At±lw ]m°mem hnIm-cn-bm-bn-cp-∂n-´p≠v. BZy-X-hW AhnsS hnIm-cn-bm-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒIeymWw Ign-∏n® ]e-cp-tSbpw a°sf c≠mw-h´w hnIm-cn-bm-b-t∏mƒ hnhm-ln-X-cm°n. ]m°me sk‚ v tPmk^v aTw ÿm]n-®Xv At±-lamWv. AhnsS Bbn-cn-s°-bmWv At±-lØns‚ ]utcm- - -lnXy cP-X-Pq-_nen BtLm-jn-®Xv. c≠m≠v At±lw s√q¿IØo-{U¬ hnIm-cn-bm-bn-cp∂p. A°m-eØv aZ¿ sXtc-k-bpsS D]-hn-bpsS ktlm-Z-cn-am-cpsS aTw s√q-cn¬ ÿm]n-°m≥ tXrXzw¬In. hnIm-cn-ÿmw Hgn-™-tijw At±lw Cu aT-Øns‚Nmtπ--bn-cp∂p. hnImcn P-dmƒ ÿmw At±lw nc-kn®p.tam¨kn-t™m¿ ]Zhn Atß¿°p e`n®p. c≠p sa{Xm-∑m-cpsSD]-tZ-i-Ipw cq]Xm Iu¨kn-e-dp-ambn At±lw tkhw SØn.A®s‚ ]utcm-lnXy kph¿Æ-Pq-_nen s√q-cnepw 1988 Unkw-_¿ 15p kz¥w CS-hI Cf-t¥m-´-Ønepw BtLm-jn®p. acn-°p-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 122. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 145∂-Xnp c≠m-≠p-apºp apX¬ A®≥ s√q¿ sF.Sn.sF amt-P-cm-bn-cp∂p. hfsc h¿j-߃ (hnhm-l-ti-jhpw) A®s‚ hmen-b-°m- c - m- b n- c p∂ Nn∂- ø - b psS aI≥ tPmkv sIm≠sbFkv.Fkv.F¬.kn.bpw Sn.Sn.kn..bpw ]Tn-∏n®v At±lw A≤ym-]-I-m°n. {]mb-am-b-tijw m´n-te-bv°p≈ bm{X-I-fn¬ tPmkvsIm≠ A®s Ap-Kan-®n-cp∂p. aptº D≠m-bn-cp∂ lrt{Zm-Khpw -c‡-k-Ω¿Zhpw h¿≤n®v A®≥ 45 Znh-k-߃ s√q¿ Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ InS∂p NnIn-’n®p. At∏mgpw "sIm≠ ip{iq-jbvs°Øn. -1989 G{]n¬ 23p A®≥ s√q-cn¬ A¥-cn®p. A¥y-m-fp-I-fn¬Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ s√q¿ sF.Sn.sF hf-∏n¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p. h{I-X-bn-√mØ Xpd∂ {]Ir-X-am-bn-cp∂p Atß¿°v. kXyw BtcmSpwapJw tm°msX Xpd-∂p-]-dbpw; Imepjyw hbv°n√. ho≠pwImWp-tºmƒ hnS¿∂ Nncnbpw o´nb Ic-ß-fp-ambn kzmKXwsNøpw. sXep¶v, Xan-gvm-Sp-I-fn¬ ]ptcm-ln-Xsc "kman-bm¿F∂mWv hnfn-°pI. AXn-m-emImw A®≥ ho´nepw m´nepw "kman-bm-c-®≥ "F∂ t]cn-emWv Adn-b-s∏-´n-cp-∂Xv. 8.6.1906 ¬ Pn®A®≥ hm¿≤Iy kl-P-amb Akp-J-Øm¬ 23.04.1989-˛¬ ac-W-s∏-Sp-Ibpw ASpØ Znhkw Zo¿L-Imew tkhw sNbvX s√q¿]≈n-bn¬ AS°w sNø-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ ap´w Ip‰n-°m´v D]-imJ Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ C´n-sF∏v ˛ sImt®-en-am-cpsSmem-asØ aI≥ sIm®v (sI.sF.tZhky) sRm≠n-am-°¬ Ih-e-bn¬ Ifcn S-Øn-bn-cp∂ hmcym-cm-i-s‚-IqsS aq∂p-mep amkw]Tn®p. At∏mƒ Nn≠-Ønp ka-bambn. Nn≠-Ønp Bim≥ Ip´n- -I-sf-s°m≠v mcmbw hngp-ßn-∏n°pw F∂p klm-]m-Tn-Iƒ]m™p `b-s∏-SpØn. t]Sn®v If-co-t∏m°p n¿Øn. If-cn-bn¬tN¿°p-∂-Xnp ne-sØ-gp-Øn-n-cp-ØpI F∂mWv ]d-bmdv. c£m-I¿Ømhv A∂p Ip´nbpw Adn-bp-ambn If-cn-bn¬ sN√pw. Acnne-Øp-hn-cn®v Ip´nsb aSn-bn-en-cpØn Bim≥ AXnp ap∂n-en-cn°pw. Ip´n-bpsS Nq≠m-Wn-hn-c¬ ]nSn®v "lcn{io KW-]-Xmsba: Ahn-Lv-akvXp F∂v Fgp-Xn°pw. {km-Wn-°p-´n-I-fm-sW-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 123. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 146¶n¬ ""Xºp-cm≥ XpW F∂p IqSn Fgp-Xn°pw. ]nt‰∂p apX¬IpSp-°-bn¬ s]mXp-a-W-ep-ambn Ip´n-Iƒ If-cn-bn¬ hcpw. AXvhncn®v Bim≥ A£-cßfpw A°-ßfpw Ah-bpsS s]cp-°ßfpw - -Fgp-Xn-∏n°pw. AXn-mWv "Nn≠w F∂p ]d-bpI. A∂v BimvAhepw tXßmbpw ]ghpw i¿°-cbpw Z£nW sImSp-°Ww. [-ÿn-Xn-bp-≈-h¿ A∂p kl-]m-Tn-Iƒ°v Ah¬ -®Xpw ]ghpwa‰pw sImSp°pw. Ct∏mƒ Nn≠-Øns‚ A∂v Fgp-Xnb HmebpwH∂mw ]mT-]p-kvX-Ihpw kvtf‰pw I√p-tImepw Ap-{K-ln®p sImSp-°p-I-bmWv ]nXhv. B¨s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ°v A∂v H‰-ap-≠mWvthjw. {kmWn s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ AXv sRmdn™p ASp-°n´vDSp°pw. Ah-cpsS B¨Ip-´n-I-fpsS Xe sam´-b-Snt®m A∏tam]nn-ktam sh´n-bn-cn°pw. lnµp-Ip-´n-I-fpsS Xe-bn¬ IpSp-abpwImXn¬ IpSp-°pw ImWpw. kº-∂-cpsS s]¨Ip-´n-I-fpsS Igp-Øn¬ Ig-h® X¶-°mtim ]Ømt°m [cn-®n-cn°pw. F√m-hcpwHme-°p-S-bmWv sIm≠p-h-cnI. "oXn-kmc"hpw "Aa-tci"hpw{InkvXym-n-°p-´n-Isf "pjvIm-chpw Bim≥ ]Tn-∏n°pw. tZhkym Ifcn ]Tw Ign™p Imm-´p-]md memw XcwPbn®v ]mem sk‚ v tXma-kn¬ t^m¿Øn¬ ]Tn-°p-tºmƒ {]hn-Ømw aWn-b-Ωm-°¬ Ign-™m-en¬ CØm°v ˛ adnbw aIƒNm®n (A∂)bpambn Ieym-Wm-tem-N h∂p. Dd-∏n®p. a-€-aXw{]hn-Ømw ]≈n-bnepw hnhmlw ap≠m-¶epw SØn. Xe-®ndaØm-bn-b-®≥ sI´n®p. sIm®v, IeymWw Ign™v Ipd-®p-m-fp-IƒIqSn ¢mkn¬ t]mbn. ]ns∂ ]Tw n¿Øn. Irjn-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ ]nXm-hns klm-bn®p Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. Cu Zº-Xn-am¿°v1932˛¬ A®mΩ, tacn F∂o Cc´ s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ Pn®p. Ah-cpsS Ap-P-Øn-am¿ Bn (A∂Ω)bpw Ip™mΩ (t{Xkym)bpw]nd∂p. Ap-P≥ h¿°n-bpsS c≠mw hnhm-lhpw Ign-™mWvtZhkym ˛ Nm®n-am¿ ap´w CS-∏≈n Ip‰n-°m-´p-]-d-ºn-te°v amdn-Øm-akn-®Xv. Ch¿°v ]n∂oSv Ip™q™n (¢mcΩ) tdmkΩ F∂o -c≠p ]p{Xn-am¿IqSn Pn®p. Ip‰n-°m-´n¬ Xmakw XpS-ßn-bXv ]oSn-I-a-´n¬ aS-°p-X-´n-I-fp-ambn ]Wn-bn-®n-cp∂ ]pc-bn-emWv. c≠m-≠p-Iƒ Ign™v 1942¬ X´n-Iƒ am‰n hmXn¬ ˛ P-ep-Iƒ h®p. H‰-ap-dn-bmbn InS-∂n-cp∂ AIw `nØn-sI´n apdn Xncn®p. IqsS ASp-°-f-s°´pw ]Øm-b-ap-dnbpw mep-h-i-tØ°v Nm¿Øp-Ifpw o´n-∏n-Sn-∏n®p. 1951¬ sX°p-h-iØv NmhSn ]Wn-bn-∏n®p. Xmbv]p-c-bpsS○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 124. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 147ta¬°qSv Db¿Øn-bXv 1968˛emWv. Ct∏mƒ Ip‰n-°m´v hoSns‚ apºn-eqsS Iym-a-ebv°v Sm¿ tdmUp≠v. ap´w ˛ Icn-¶p∂w tdmUn¬]c-∏m≥tXm-Sn-¶¬ h∂p-tN-cp∂ a¨]mX ]Sn-°¬h®v Sm¿tdm-Up-ambn tbmPn-°p∂p. tZhkym ÿew apgp-h≥ tZl-WvUn®p.Ipd®p ÿeØv d_¿ hbv]n®p AXv ]p:Irjnbpw SØn. Ipd-®p- ÿ ew I≠- s a- S pØp. ]Sn- ° ¬ Ipd®v I≠w- I qSn hmßn.GXmpw B≠p-Iƒ tXßm-°-®-h-Shpw sIm{]-sh´pw S-Øn-bn-cp∂p. ]©m-bØv tI{µ-amb ap´w Ih-ebn¬ ]oSn-IØdIƒ hmßn - - - -c≠p ]oSn-I-Ifpw ]Wn-bn®p. i¶-c-∏n≈n ˛ kn_n-Kncn ]≈n-°-Ωn-‰n-bw-Khpw ssI°m-c-p-am-bmWv tZhky s]mXp-{]-h¿Øw XpS-ßn-bXv. ]≈n ]pXp-°n-]-Wn-bn-®Xv 1943˛emWv. A∂p-ap-X¬ 1951 hsc Atßm¿ ssI°m-c-m-bn-cp∂p. ]n∂oSv ]≈n-apdn (hnIm-cn-h-kXn) ]Wn-bn-®-t∏mgpwsIm®m-bn-cp∂p ssI°m-c≥. ]e-X-hW ]≈n-°-‰n-bw-K-am-bn-´p≠v.kz¥w tPyjvT≥ h≈n-∏md C´n-sF∏pw a‰pw tN¿∂v XpS-ßnb"ap´w ]c-kv]c klmb kwLw {]h¿Ø--c-ln-X-am-bn-cp∂p.Ab¬°m- c ≥ N{µ≥Ip- t ∂¬ Ipcym- t °mkpw a‰pw tN¿∂vtZhkym AXv ]p-cp-≤-cn®p. 1950¬ AXns‚ {]kn-U‚mbn.. 1963hsc kwLw Ub-d-IvS-dm-bn-cp∂p. A°m-e-ØmWv kwLw kz¥wsI´nSw H∂mw-ne ]Wn-bn-®Xv. 1963¬ tZhkym ap´w ]©m-bØvaq∂mw-hm¿Uv saw_-dmbn Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏´p. XpS¿∂v 15 B≠p-Iƒ sshkv {]kn-U‚m-bn-cp∂p. A°m-eØv ]©m-bØv B∏okv,ap´w k¿°m¿ Bip-]{Xn, sl¬Øv sk‚¿, ]e ]©m-bØvtdmUp-Iƒ F∂n-h-bpsS ]Wn-bn¬ kl-I-cn®p. ap´w aWvUewtIm¨{Kkv {]kn-U‚mbpw tZhky {]h¿Øn-®n-´p≠v. tZhky ˛ Nm®n-am-cpsS aqØ Cc´ s]¨a-°ƒ A®m-Ωbpwtacnbpw Xd-hm´v ]mem ssItXm-en¬ Xma-kn®v Imm-´p-]m-d-bn¬]Tn®v memw-Xcw hnP-bn®p. XpS¿∂v XpS-ß-mSv sk‚ v tXmakvsslkvIq-fn¬ ]Øp-hsc ]Tn®v ]Tw ndpØn. XpS¿∂v ]Tn-°p-hmpw hnhm-ln-X-cm-Ip-hmpw B{K-ln-®n√. aT-Øn¬ tNcm-m-bn-cp∂p Xm¬∏cyw. XpS-ß-mSv aT-°m¿ ]{Xtan kwJy-sIm≠vASp-Øn√. Nß-m-ticn ¢mc aT-°m¿ Ah-cpsS Hcp imJ s]cp-h-¥m-Øv XpS-ßm≥ ÿew hmßn-s°m-Sp-Øm¬ tN¿°m-sa∂vkΩ-Xn®p. tZhky hS-t°¬ kvIdnb aptJ ÿew hmßn-s°m-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 125. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 148SpØp. 1942¬ A®mΩ s_o-ksb∂pw tacn Uman≥ Fvpw t]cp- -Iƒ kzoI-cn®v Nß-m-t»cn ¢mc aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂p. BZy {hX-hm-KvZm-hpw tmhn-jn-tb‰w Nß-m-t»-cn-bn¬ SØn. 1945¬ nXy-{h-X-hm-KvZmw SØn. s]cp-h-¥mw, I´-∏, AW-°c, shfn-®n-bmn aT-ß-fn¬ Ah¿ Hcp-an-®m-bn-cp∂p. AXn-p-tijw _okIm™n-c-∏≈n s]mSn-a‰w aT-Ønepw Uman≥ ]ºm-hen aT-Ønepwtkhw Ap-jvTn®p. Ct∏mƒ c≠p-t]cpw s]cp-h-¥mw ¢mc-a-T-Øn¬ hn{i-a-Po-hnXw bn-°p∂p. Ch-cpsS Ap-PØn-am¿ Bnbpw Ip™mΩ(t{XkymΩ)bpw -Hcp-an-®m-bn-cp∂p ]Tw. Ah¿ Imm-´p-]md memw Xchpw XpS-ß-mSv sk‚ v tXma-€n¬n∂pw Fkv.Fkv.F¬.knbpw Pbn®p. ASp-Ø-bm-≠n¬ Bn XpS-ß-mSv ]qh-Øn-¶¬ Im-Øpw-Im-´n¬ aØmbn ˛ I{Xo aI≥ aØm-bnsb hnhmlw Ign-®p.Bn aØmbn Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v km_p, kmen, kn_n, kn¬hn,k¨Pp F∂o A©p-a-°-fm-Wp-≈Xv. AXn¬ km_p sslkvIqƒhnZym-`ymkw Ign™v _nkn-kv S-Øn-s°m-≠n-cns° ncym-X-mbn. kmensb Ip‰n-bm-Sn-bn¬ IZ-fn-°mSv AUz. tm_nƒhnhmlw sNbv X p. tm_nƒ ]n∂oSv ncym- X - mbn. AUz.kn¬hnsb ]mem Imcym-¶¬ AUz. tXma-kp-Ip´n hnhmlw Ign®p.Bnbpw aØm-bnbpw Ct∏mƒ B¨a-°-fmb kn_nbpw k¨Pp-hp-samØv Ie-b-¥m-n-b-Sp-Øp≈ Nne-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ip™mΩ (t{XkymΩ) aphm-‰p-]pg n¿Ωem tImf-Pn¬]Tn®v _n.Fkvknbpw ]mem sk‚ v tXmakv s{Sbn-nwKv tImtf-Pn¬n∂pw _n.FUpw tSn. Hcp h¿jw tXm´-bv°m´v sslkvIq-fn¬ A≤ym-]n-Ibm-bn-cp∂p. ASp-Øbm-≠n¬ sXmSp-]pg hmg-°pfw - -od- º pg ho´n¬ h¿°n ˛ adnbw aI≥ sFk°v tPm¿Pv_nFkvkn, _n.FUns hnhmlw sNbvXp. hnhn[ kvIqfp-I-fn¬A≤ym- ] - I - mbpw ]n∂oSv FCH Bbn sFk°v tPm¿Pv{]h¿Øn®p. Ct∏mƒ Ccp-hcpw od-ºpg ho´n¬ hn{i-a-Po-hnXwbn-°p∂p. Ip™mΩ ˛ sFk°v Zº-Xn-Iƒ°v mep a°-fm-Wp-≈Xv. AXn¬ _nPp sFk°v Z¥-tUm-IvS-dmbn {]h¿Øn-°p∂p.c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Fw.F, _n.FUv hnhm-l-tijw B{‘-bn¬A≤ym-]n-Ibmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. aq∂m-a≥ c≥Pn hmg-°pfw hniz- -tPymXn F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv tImf-Pn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. mem-a-ØXv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 126. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 149Zo]-sb∂ ]p{Xn-bmWv. Nß-m-t»cn hmg-∏-≈n-bn¬ hnhmlwsNbvX-b®p. Ch-cpsS Ap-PØn am¿ ¢mc-Ωbpw tdmk-Ωbpw ap´wkwkvIrX hnZym-ebw k¿°m¿ ]≈n-°q-Sam-bt∏mƒ AXn¬ ]Tn®v - -memw-Xcw Pbn®p. XpS-ß-mSv sk‚ v tXmakv sslkvIq-fn¬n-∂mWv Ccp-hcpw Fkv-F-kv-F¬kn hnP-bn-®Xv. ¢mcΩ XpS¿∂vaqhm-‰p-]pg n¿Ω-e-bn¬n∂pw _n.Fkvkn _ncp-Zhpw lnµn-bn¬Fw.F.bpw FSpØp. ap´w CS-∏≈n N{µ≥Ip-t∂¬ Ipcym-t°mkv˛ I{Xn- ° p´n tem- ® ≥ Fw.Fkvkn, F¬.F¬._n,sF.B¿.F€ns IeymWw Ign®p. C≥Iw SmIvkv Hm^o-k-dmbnk¿ho-kn¬ {]th-in® Ipcym-t°mkv tIc-f-Øns‚ No^v C≥IwSmIvkv IΩo-j-W¿ ]Z-hn-bn-seØn {]ikvX Pohn-X-Øn-p-tijwCt∏mƒ Fd-Wm-Ipfw IS-h-{¥-bn¬ hn{i-a-Po-hnXw bn-°p∂p.Ah-cpsS sP∂n F∂ ]p{Xn kn.F.]mkm-b-Xn-p-tijw B™n-e-°¬ em¬ tkhy-dns hnhmlw Ign®p. Xºn-sb∂ ]p{X≥(sI.kn.tPmkv) ae-bmf atm-cabn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. aq∂m-asØ - -Bƒ sen F∂ ]p{Xn-bmWv. Snap F∂-dn-bs∏-Sp∂ sen bp.F.C. -tÃm°v FIv k v t N- © n¬ Fw._n.F. _ncp- Z m- - ¥ cw tPmensNøp∂p. tdmkΩ ]Tw ndpØn ho´n¬ Xma-kn®p. 1971¬ ap´w Ih-f-°m-´n¬ BKkvXn ˛ tdmkΩ aI≥ tPm¿PvIp-´nsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Ip‰n-°m´p Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v t_m_n, tdmkvtacnF∂ c≠p-a-°-fm-Wp-≈Xv. t_m_n apcn-°m-t»cn ]Xn-°m-´n¬enPnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. amXm-]n-Xm-°tfm-sSmØv Ip‰n-°m´v Xma- -kn-°p∂p. tdmkv tacn cma-]pcw tat®-cn¬ tPmbnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv cma-]p-cØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿PvIp-´n°v ap´-Øn¬ aq∂pI®-h-S-ÿm-]--ß-fp≠v. ap´w kl-I-cW kwLw Ub-d-IvS-dmbpwtPm¿÷p-Ip´n tkhw Ap-jvTn-®n-´p≠v. tZh-ky-bpsS `mcy Nm®nhm¿≤-Iy-k-l-P-amb Akp-J-ß-fm¬ Ah-i-X-bm-bn-cp∂p. 1991Pqsse Ah-km BgvN hoWv Imsem-Sn™p. Hcp amk-Øn-e[nIw -sXmSp-]pg apX-e-t°mSw ¢mc aTw hI Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ InS∂pNnIn-’n®p. ho´n¬ aS-ßn-sbØn IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fp-sSbpw sdUvt{Imkv kwL-S ASp-Øp-n∂v ip{iq-jn-°m≥ Ab® tgvkn-s‚bpw ]cn-N-c-W-Øn¬ Ign-bp-tºmƒ 1991 sk]vXw-_¿ c≠np○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 127. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 150acn®p. i¶-c-∏≈n kn_n-Kncn tZhm-eb skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p. ap´w ]©m-bØv sshkv {]kn-U‚mbpw a‰pw {]h¿Øn-®n-´p≈ tZhky 1994 hw-_¿ 24p ncym-X-mbn. hw-_¿ 25pi¶-c-∏≈n kn_n-Kncn tZhm-eb skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp.D). ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ Xd-hmSv]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ aØmbn Bdmw Xe-apd ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ aØmbn ]Sn-™m-td-°cimJ-bn¬s∏´ Nocmw-Ip-gn-bn¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlwsNbvXv Sp-hnse sISp-º≥]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ Xma-k-am°n. ]nXr-kz-Ønp ]pdta At±lw a-bv°¬I-≠-Ønepwaqe-a-‰Øpw tNcn-°¬hmßn tZl-WvUn-°p-Ibpw Nq≠-t®-cn-∏p-c-bn-S-ßfpw ne-ßfpw hmßn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. A≤zm--io-e-mbHcp Irjo-h-e-mWv At±lw. sIm√-h¿jw 1092˛¬ Bcw-`n® Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_tbmKw cq]o-Icn-°p-∂Xnpw AXnp Ipc-ß≥ae - - -]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Hcp sI´n-S-Øn-p-th≠ ÿew kuI-cy-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xnpw ap≥ssI-sb-Sp-Ø-h-cn¬ Hcm-fmWv {io. aØmbn. At±-l-Ønp Cu∏≥, sXmΩ≥, Hutk∏v, aØmbn, h¿°nF∂ A©p-]p-{X-∑mcpw, Gen, {_nPoØm F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠mbn. Hutk∏pw {_nPo-Ømbpw Cc´ ktlm-Z-c-ß-fmWv. aqØ-]p{Xn Gensb ]mem CS-hI amS-∏m´p ]Xp-∏-≈n¬ Nmt°m-bpsSaI≥ Ipcy≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn {_nPo-ØmsbIng-X-Sn-bq¿I-c-bn¬ aÆq-cmw-]-d-ºn¬ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp.Cu∏≥ aØm-bn-bpsS {]Ya ]p{X≥ Cu∏≥ ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ sIm´m-c-Øn¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns (Ip™p-s]Æv) hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-{K-l-Øn¬Øs∂ Xma-kam°n.Cu∏≥ s]mXp-P--k-Ω-Xpw [¿Ωn-jvTpw ]tcm-]-Imc Xev]-c-p-amb Hcp tXm-hmWv. At±-lØnp aØmbn, Hutk∏v, sXmΩ≥ -F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A®mΩ, A∂Ω F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 128. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 173D≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb Ihn-°p∂p ]≈n-bn-S-hI IZ-fn-°m-´n¬ sNdn-bms‚ aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂Ω (Nn∂Ω)sb ]mem hcn-°-am-°¬Ipcym-®s‚ aI≥ tXma€v hnhmlw sNbvXv ]g-b-∂qcn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.amXyp (amΩ≥) Cu∏s‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ amΩ≥ (amXyp) ]mem-bn¬ ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ ]tgm¿ ssIX-h-b-en¬ Ipcym-t°m-kns‚aIƒ A∂-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ aÆm¿°mSv Ccp-º-I-t®m-e-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. amΩv tPmk^v (Ip´n-®≥), Ipcym-t°mkv (tPmbn- ® ≥), tXma€v (tSman- ® ≥) amXyp (amØ-®≥),temd≥kv F∂o A©p ]p{X-∑mcpw tacn (emen), A∂Ω(tamfn) F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv a°ƒ. amΩs‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v (Ip´n-®≥) `c-W-ßmw XI-Sn-tb¬ tXma€n(A∏-®≥)s‚ aIƒ A∂ (h’Ω)sb hnhmlwsNbvXv Im™n-c-∏p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ip´n-®v oXp (A∂‰v)F∂ ]p{Xnbpw Inc¨ (amXyp), tSmw F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-amWv. ]p{Xn oXp (A∂‰v) hns Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ ºym-]-d-ºn¬tPmWn aI≥ tXma€v (knPp) hnhmlw Ign®p. Ccp-hcpw Ct∏mƒAta-cn-°-bn-emWv. Ip´n-®s‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ Inc¨ Fw._n.F Ign™v Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv tPmen sNøp∂p. Cfb ]p{X≥ tSmw Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv F≥Pn-o-b-dnw-Knp ]Tn-°p∂p. amΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Ipcym-t°mkv (tPmbn-®≥)aÆm¿°m´v hm®m-]-d-ºn¬ tXma-€ns‚ aIƒ A∂ (Bn)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv Im™n-c-∏p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmbn-®pZo]p, Acp¨, Cu∏≥ F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑m-cmWv a°ƒ. aqØ-]p-{X≥ Zo]p njsb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv Fd-Wm-Ip-fØvXma-kn-°p∂p. Zo]p-hnp tPml≥ Fs∂mcp ]p{X-p≠v. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Acp¨ Fw._n.F Ign™v Xncp-h--¥-]p-cØv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 129. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 174tPmen sNøp∂p. Cf-b-]p-{X≥ Cu∏≥ _n.tImanp ]Tn-°p∂p. amΩs‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXma€v (tSman-®≥) CS-a-‰Øv aWvU-]-Øn¬ Ip´n-®s‚ (Fw.hn.tXma€v) aIƒ Po (tdmknen)sb hnhmlw sNbvXvIm™n-c-∏p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tSman°p A∂p F∂ ]p{XnbpwamΩ-®≥, A`n-tjIv F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-amWv. ]p{Xn A∂p ^pUv sSIv t m- f - P n°v tImb- º - Ø qcn¬]Tn-°p∂p. ]p{X-∑m¿ c≠p-t]cpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. amΩs‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (amØ-®≥) Ipcy-mSva‰-Øn¬ tPmbn, Ip™q-™Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ _np-hnshnhmlw sNbvXv Ccp-º-I-t®m-e-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. amØ-®vAo‰m F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpw AanØv F∂ B¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v.c≠p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p∂p. amΩs‚ A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ temd≥kv tImX-aw-Kew Ce-™n-°¬ ho´n¬ kÆn, Nn∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ kpn-Xsbhnhmlw sNbvXv s]m≈m-®n-bn¬, IpSpw_w hI tXm´hpw NIn-cn-t®m¿ ^mIvSdnbpw tm°n S-Øp∂p. temd≥knp Smnb (B≥a- -cnb) F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpw Xcp¨, tSmtPm F∂o c≠p B¨a-°-fp-amWv. Ch¿ hnZym¿∞nIfmWv. amΩs‚ aqØ-a-Iƒ tacn (emen)sb sh≈n-°p-f-ßc πm°q-´-Øn¬ tZh€y, adn-bmΩ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ tUm. ]n.Un.tPmk^v -hnhmlw sNbvXv ]me-°mSv Icn-º-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tUm.]n.Un.tPmk^v t{X-tcmK hnZ-Kv[-mWv. amΩs‚ Cf-b-]p{XnA∂Ω(tamfn)sb Cucm-‰p-t]´ ]pfn-°¬ ]n.Fw.tXmakv, tacnZº-Xn-fpsS aI≥ AUz. tPm¿÷v ]pfn-°≥ (h°-®≥) hnhmlwsNbvXv Acp-hn-Øp-d-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. amΩ≥ 1991 HIvtSm-_¿30p hml-m-]-I-S-Øn¬ acn®p. Ccp-º-I-t®me ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.tPmk^v (Ipt™∏v) Cu∏s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (Ipt™∏v) ]me-∏≈n CS-hI Iq´n-bm-n-bn¬ tZh-kym-bpsS aIƒ cmP-Ωsb○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 130. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 175hnhmlw sNbv X v Im™n- c - ∏ p- g - b n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. Ch¿°vtPmk^v (kÆn), sk_m-Ãy≥ (kn_n), amXyp (sPΩn) F∂oaq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw hnae, Fanen F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv a°ƒ. Ipt™∏n(tPmk^v)s‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ kÆn (tPmk^v) Fcp-taen Ccp-∏-°m´v C.]n.^nen-∏ns‚ aIƒ adn-b-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Im™n-c-∏p-g-bn-ep≈ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.kÆn°v sIhn≥ F∂ B¨Ip-´nbpw sFdn≥, sadn≥ F∂ c≠ps]¨Ip-´n-I-fp-amWv a°ƒ. aq∂p-t]cpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. kÆnCcp-ºIt®m-ebn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p∂ {Ko≥hmen Hmbn¬kns‚ amt- - - -PnwKv ]m¿´-W-dmWv. Ipt™-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kn_n dm∂n B-ØmwamXyp aIƒ ]n¶nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nß-m-t»-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kn_n Nß-m-t»cn Fkv._n. tImf-Pn¬ ]Tn-∏n-°p∂p.kn_n°v ‰nb F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpw tPm F∂ B¨Ip-´n-bp-amWva°ƒ. Ipt™-∏ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sPΩn tImgn-t°mSv hmcyw-]-d-ºn¬ ]tc-X-mb amXyp aIƒ caysb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Zp_m-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v Cj F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpw tPmk^v F∂ B¨Ip- ´ n- b p- a p≠v . Cj H∂mw- ¢ mkvhnZym¿Yn-nbmWv. Ipt™-∏ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn hna-esb sSp-¶p-∂w Im´q¿ ho´n¬tPm¨ aI≥ {^m≥kokv (hmh-®≥) hnhmlw sNbvXv sSp-¶p-∂Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ipt™-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Fan-ensb Im™n-c-∏≈nIpcn-ipw-aq-´n¬ sUman-nIv aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ (tZh-kym-®≥)hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™n-c-∏≈n shfn-®n-bm-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ipt™∏v 1989 Unkw-_-dn¬ ac-W-a-S™p. Im™n-c-∏pg]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.tXma€v (tXmam-®≥) Cu∏s‚ aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ tXma€v (tXmam- ® ≥)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 131. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 176]me∏n≈n CS-hI Iq´n-bm-n-bn¬ Nmt°m-®≥ ˛ tdmkΩ aIƒtkm^nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]mem-bn-ep≈ ]pØ≥]p-cbv°¬ Xd- -hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. tXmam-®≥ 20˛03˛2008¬ acWw {]m]n®p. ]memIØo-{U¬ ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. tXmam-®vCu∏≥, tXmakv, tP°_v tXmakv, tSmw tXmakv F∂o aq∂p]p{X-∑mcpw aRvPp tacn tXmakv, tdmjnn (s]m∂n) F∂o c≠ps]¨a-°-fp-amWv a°ƒ. tXmΩm-®s‚ aqØ-a-I≥ Cu∏≥ tXma€v Fw.Un.Fkv]mkmbn tIm´-bØv I™n-°p-gn-bn¬ Z¥m-ip-]{Xn S-Øp∂p.Cu∏≥ t_mws_ eqbnk, tImdnb aIƒ tUm. sP∂n- ^ ¿_n.Un.Fkns hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v dnb, Znb F∂o c≠ps]¨a-°-fmWv. c≠p-t]cpw hnZym¿∞n-I-fmWv. t^m¨: 9447157317. tXmam-®s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tP°_v tXmakv Fw.kn.F]mkmbn t_mws_ F≥.kn.Bdn¬ sF.Sn.taJ-e-bn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. Sn tP°_v Ab¿°p-∂Øv IpS-I-t»-cn¬ tPmkv, en√n-°p´n aIƒ dmWnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv t_mws_-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tP°-_np tl F∂ ]p{Xn-bp≠v. ]Tn-°p∂p. t^m¨:09619339010. tXmam-®s‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tSmw tXmakv Fw.F€n.(sF.Sn) ]mkmbn Ata-cn-°-bn¬ yqtbm¿°n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.tSmw Fd-Wm-Ipfw Ing-t°-Ø-e-°¬ C´n-cm-®≥ ˛ h’Ω aIƒenk tSmans hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 0015164247634. tXmam-®s‚ aqØ ]p{Xn aRvPp tacn tXma-kns Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv IÆn-Im´v tPmkv ˛ sUbvkn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ _nPphnhmlw sNbvXv Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 0484 ˛2356259. tXmam-®s‚ Cfb ]p{Xn tdmjvn (s]m∂n)sb CS-a‰w Ipcp-hn-m-°p-t∂¬ amØ-®≥ ˛ I{Xn-°p´n aI≥ amØ≥ hnhmlwsNbvXv CS-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 09944155079.sXmΩ≥ (Ggmw Xe-apd) Bdmw Xe-apd ]pØ≥]p-c-°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 132. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 177]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ {]hn-Ømw ]≈n CS-hI Ce-hp-¶¬ ]m∏s‚aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ing-t°-°c Itcm-´p-ho-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. Cu hnhm-l-Øn¬ amXyp F∂ ]p{Xpw tdmk, Gen F∂oc≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠mbn. At∏mƒ `mcy ac-W-a-S™p. AXn-m¬aptØmen ]≈n CS-hI mK-q-en¬ Ip∂pw-]p-dØv Nmt°m-bpsSaIƒ Gensb ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v Cu∏≥, Nmt°m,tPm¿÷v, {^m≥knkv F∂o A©p ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen-bmΩ F∂]p{Xnbpw Pn®p. sXmΩs‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk `c-W-ßmw tacn-KncnsaUn-°¬ anj-n¬ tN¿∂p Ah-cmWv knÿ B¬a. c≠m-a-sØ-]p{Xn Gen fmew ¢mc-a-T-Øn¬ tN¿∂p knÿ_∂‰v F∂ t]cn¬ Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-bmΩ (Ip™mΩ) _n.FkvknsbXncp-h--¥-]p-cØv ]q¥pd A¬t^m≥kv aI≥ hnP-b≥ hnhmlwsNbvXv Xncp-h--¥-]p-cØv Bim--K-dn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.sI.Sn.amXyp (sIm®p-aØ) F´mw Xe-apd Ggmw Xe-apd sXmΩs‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ amXyp ]mem ]≈n-bn-S-hI Iq´n-bm-n-bn¬ sk_m-Ãys‚ aIƒ tamfnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv ]mem-bn-ep≈ Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. ]n∂oSvae-_m-dn¬ Ccp-ºIt®m-ebv°v Xmakw am‰n. Sn amXyp-hnv tXmakv, - -kn_n F∂o c≠m¨a-°fpw A∂Ω, s_‰n, tdmk F∂o aq∂ps]¨Ip-´n-I-fp-ap≠v. amXyp-hns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tXmakv (tXmam-®≥) Ipcy-mSv a‰-Øn¬ Idn-bm-®≥ aIƒ m≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ccp-º-I-t®m-e-bn-ep≈ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXmakv Ccp-º-I-t®me {Ko≥hmen Hmb¬kns‚ ]m¿´vW-dmWv. k®n≥ F∂]p{Xpw KoXp, nbm F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fp-amWv. ]p{X≥ k®n≥ F≥Pn-o-b-dnw-Knp sNtºcn hna¬ tImf-Pn¬ ]Tn-°p∂p. tXma-kns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn KoXp sIm®n≥ cmP-Kncn tImf-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 133. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 178Pn¬n∂pw Fw.sSIv ]mkmbn KoXp-hns aqe-a-‰Øv hmg-Nm-cn-°¬ Hutk-∏-®≥ (tPmkv hn. tPmk^v) ˛ Beokv Zº-Xn-I-fpsSaI≥ t{]w hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{Xn nbm ]Tn-°p∂p. amXyp-hns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn A∂Ω (B≥kn)sb CS-a-dpIv Iq´p-¶¬ Ip™-∏≥ (tPmk^v)s‚ aI≥ tPmk^v k°dn-bmkv (Idn-bm-®≥) hnhmlw sNbvXp CS-a-dp-In¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. amXyp-hns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn s_‰vknsb tImX-aw-K-eØv]me-Ød tPmWns‚ aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw Ign®v ]co-°-Æn-bn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk (dn≥kn)sb A¶-amen a™{] hS-°pw-tN-cn-bn¬ h¿°nbpsS aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXv Xh-f-∏mdbn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. amXyp-hns‚ Cf-b-]p-{X≥ kn_n hb-m-´n¬ ap≈w-sIm-√n-bn¬ Xd-∏Øv tPmkns‚ aIƒ kn‘p-hns hnhmlw sNbvXv_mwKv f q- c n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. Ccp- h cpw _mwKv f q- c n¬ tPmensNøp∂p. kn_n°v tdmkn‰, Ao‰ F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fmWv.Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p.Cu∏≥ tXmakv (Cu∏-®≥) ˛ F´mw Xe-apd Ggmw Xe-apd sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Cu∏≥ Im™n-c-∏pg awKen C´o-c-bpsS aIƒ tdmkn-en‚ns hnhmlw sNbvXvIm™n- c - ∏ p- g - b n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. Cu∏≥ s√mcp πm‚dpwcmjv{Sob kmaq-ly-cw-K-ß-fn¬ kPo-h-ambn {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-h-p-amWv. Cu∏v Hcp s]¨Ip-´nbpw aq∂p B¨a-°-fp-amWv. Zo]mF∂ ]p{Xnbpw {]Zo]v, {]im¥v, {]Xm]v F∂o ]p{X-∑m-cp-amWva°ƒ. ]p{Xn Zo]sb Ccn-ßm-e-°pS ssXh-f-∏n¬ eqbnkv aI≥PnPp hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Ata-cn-°bn¬ lqÃ-Wn¬ tPmen -sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v Pm°v, sdbv®¬ F∂o c≠p a°-fp≠v. Ch¿]Tn-°p∂p. Cu∏s‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ {]Zo]v, hmbm-´p-]-dºv Icp-h≥Nm¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 134. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 179Ag-IØv (tahnS) tXma-kp-Ip-´n-bpsS aIƒ oXp-hns hnhmlwsNbvXv ]me-°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p. C-h¿°v Chm≥ Fs∂mcp ]p{X-p≠v. Cu∏s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ {]im¥v ]≈n-°tØmSv (aqgq¿) -aqßm-am-°¬ ]tc-X-mb tPmkns‚ aIƒ Pnjsb hnhmlwsNbvXv _mwKvfq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. {]im-¥np antj¬, tdmj≥F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. Cu∏s‚ Cfb ]p{X≥ {]Xm]v gvknwKv Ign™v Cw•-≠n¬tPmen sNøp∂p.Nmt°m (Nmt°m-®≥) sXmΩs‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m kpJ-an-√mØ Bfm-bn-cp∂p. 2006 hw-_dn¬ ac-WaS™p. Ccp-ºIt®me ]≈n skan- - - - - -tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.tPm¿÷v (tPm¿÷p-Ip´n) sXmΩs‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v (tPm¿÷p-Ip´n)Fen-hmen Iq¥m-Øv Ip™-∏≥ ˛ GeΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒen€-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™n-c∏pg Ccp-ºIt®m-ebn¬ Xma- - - - -kn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷np aq∂p s]¨a-°-fmWv. hnoX, kwKoX,hnX F∂n-h-cmWv a°ƒ. tPm¿÷ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn hno-Xsb sIm√w XS-Øn¬ ho´n¬{]^. temd≥kv ssa°n-fns‚ aI≥ ssa°nƒ hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿ _mwKvfq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v Hcp Ip´n-bp≠v. c≠m-asØ aIƒ kwKo-Xsb I√-Sn-t°mSv ]q≠n-°p-fØvt__n-®≥ aI≥ Zo]p hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿ _mwKvfq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn anX _n.sSIv ]Tn-°p∂p.AUz. sI.Sn.tXmakv (tSman) Ggmw Xe-apd sXmΩs‚ A©m-asØ aI≥ tXmakv (tSman)hnf-°p-amSw sNº-I-t»-cn¬ amXyp-hns‚ aIƒ Gen (emen)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv Im™n-c-∏pg Ccp-º-I-t®m-e-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 135. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 180cmtJjv, cRvPnXv F∂o c≠m¨a-°fpw aocm, Xmcm F∂o c≠ps]¨a-°-fp-amWv. cmtJjv _n.sSIv Ign™v _mwKvfq-cn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. cRv P nXv _n.tImanp ]Tn- ° p∂p. ]p{Xn aocmBbp¿thZw Un{Kn Ign™v lukv k¿P≥kn sNøp∂p. XmcsaUn-knp ]Tn-°p∂p.{^m≥kn€v (tSmWn) sXmΩs‚ Cfb ]p{X-mb {^m≥kn€v (tSmWn) ]md-tØm´vIpcn-ipw-aq-´n¬ (]pfn-am-°¬) tXma-kns‚ aIƒ acn-b-tKm-tcØn(Pm≥kn)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp Ccp-º-I-t®m-e-bn-ep≈ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tSmWn ]e kmaqly kwL-S--I-fp-tSbpwXe-∏Øv {]h¿Øn-°p∂p Ccp-ºIt®me {Ko≥hmen Hmbn¬kns‚ - -]m¿´vW-dmWv. tSmWn°v aq∂p s]¨a-°-fmWv. en‚p, anen, bF∂n-h-cmWv ]p{Xn-am¿. aqØ-]p{Xn en‚p Fw._n.F ]mkmbn.en‚p-hns aWn-aeπm°m´v sken≥ ˛ ]tc-X-mb amXyp ]n.tPmk^v aI≥ Ipcy≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. anenbpw b-bpw hnZym¿∞n-I-fmWv. sXmΩ≥ 1998 Pp-hcn 11p acWw {]m]n®p. Ccp-º-I-t®me]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.Hutk∏v (HuX) Ggmw Xe-apd ˛ Ipdp-aÆv Bdmw Xe-apd aØm-bn-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ Hutk∏v(HuX) `c-W-ßmw ]≈n-bn-S-hI ]d-ap-≠-bn¬ Ipcys‚ aIƒadn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv Ipdp-aÆv a-bv°-°-≠-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Hutk-∏np amXyp, Ipcy≥, tPmk^v, tXmakv F∂omep ]p{X∑m-cp≠v.sI.sP.amXyp (amØ-∏≥) ˛ F´mw Xe-apd Ggmw Xe-apd Hutk-∏ns‚ aqØ-a-I≥ amXyp (sI.sP.amXypFw.F) ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ taep-Im-hn¬ sXt°-°-≠-Øn¬ Cu∏s‚ aIƒ tacn-°p-´nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™n-c-∏pg Xma-kn-°p∂p. amXyp-hnp Cu∏≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw ann, nΩnF∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. ]p{X≥ Cu∏≥ Acp-hn-Øpd πmtØm-´-Øn¬ h¿°n-bpsS○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 136. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 181aIƒ dosb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Ata-cn-°-bn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. Cu∏v {InÃo F∂ ]p{Xn-bp≠v. ]Tn-°p∂p. amXyp-hns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn annsb Bc-°pg tN¿t°m´v Hutk-∏®s‚ aI≥ -tSman hnhmlw sNbvXv Fd-Wm-Ipfw If-at»-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. -Cfb ]p{Xn nΩn Fw._n._n.Fkv Ign-™p-n¬°p-∂p.sI.sP.Ipcy≥ (Ipcym-®≥) Hutk-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Ipcy≥ ]mem I∏mSvCS-hI Nqc-m´v Nm≠n-bpsS aIƒ s]Æ-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXva-°°≠Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ipcyp tPmkv (tPmbn-®≥) F∂ - - -]p{Xpw tacn (tamfn) F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ipcys‚ ]p{X≥ tPmbn-®≥ XnS-mSv Rmb¿Ip-fØv tUm.h°-®≥, tagvkn-bΩ aIƒ kntm-ansb hnhmlw sNbvXv a-°-°-≠-Øn-ep≈ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-p. tPmbn-®v n∂ps¢b¿, dn∂p acnb F∂o c≠p ]p{Xnam-cp≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿∞n-I-fmWv. ]p{Xn tamfnsb hmI-°mSv aÆq¿ Ipt™∏v, tdmkΩ aI≥km_p hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ipcy≥ 19˛5˛2001¬ acn®p. Ipdp-aÆv ]≈nskan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.dh. ^m. tPmk^v Hutk- ∏ ns‚ aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (dh. ^m.tPmk^v Ing-t°-°c) ]mem cq]-X-bn¬ CS-hI sshZn-I-mbn1969¬ h-]qP A¿∏n®p. Ct∏mƒ XpS-ß-mSv sk‚ v tXmakvs^mtdm-m-]≈n hnIm-cn-bmbn tkh--a-p-jvTn-°p∂p.sI.sP.tXma€v (tXmam®≥) Hutk-∏ns‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv ]mem ]≈n-bn-S-hI Iq´n-bm-n-bn¬ sk_m-Ãy≥, Gen-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒeqknsb hnhmlw sNbvXv a-bv°°≠Øn-ep≈ ]nXr-`hØn¬ - - - - - -Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-€np tPmkv, kn_n, amXyp F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw acnb F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. tXma-kns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmkv Acp-hn-Øpd hmfn-πm-°¬tPmk^v, Benkv aIƒ kn≥kp-hns hnhmlw sNbvXp a-°-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 137. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 182°- ≠ - Ø n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. tPmknp A¬t^m≥km F∂]p{Xnbpw tSmw F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fmWv. tXma-kns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kn_n Fen-hmen ssaem-Sq¿ tPmk^v ˛ {Sok Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tkmWnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv a-°-°-≠-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kn_n°v tXmakv F∂]p{Xpw Smnb F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. tXma-€ns‚ ]p{Xn acnbFw.tImw Ign-™p-n¬°p-∂p.sI.Fw.amXyp (Ggmw Xe-apd) Bdmw Xe-apd ]pØ≥]p-c-°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS mem-asØ]p{X≥ amXyp (sI.Fw.amXyp _n.Fkvkn) Im™n-c-∏-≈n¬ Icn-∏m-∏dºn¬ sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ s]ÆΩ _n.F.sb hnhmlw sNbvXv - -Im™n-c-∏pgbn¬ Xma-k-am-°n. Im™n-c-∏p-g-bn-ep≈ Zn mj-W¬πmt‚-j≥ Iº-n-bpsS amt-PnwKv ]m¿´vWdm-bn-cp∂p. Sn amXyphpw -ktlm-Z-c-∑mcpw IqSn Im™n-c-∏p-g-bn¬ Hcp ]≈nbpw tlmkv]n-‰epw ]Wn-bn®v s]mXp-P--߃°mbn hn´p-sIm-Sp-Øn-´p≠v. amXyp1986 HIvtSm-_¿ 24p ac-W-a-S™p. Im™n-c∏pg skan-tØ-cn-bn¬kwkvI-cn®p. amXyp-hnp amXyp Fs∂mcp ]p{Xpw A°Ω F∂Hcp ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. amXyp-hns‚ ]p{X≥ tUm. amXyp amXyp Fw._n._n.FkvssX°m-´p-t»cn Aø-mSv ]mdm-bn¬ ]n.sI.tPm¿Pv Xc-I≥ aIƒtdmk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™n-c-∏p-g-bn-ep≈ ]nXr-`-h--Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Sn amXyp √ Hcp Irjn-°m-c-mWv. B[p-nI coXn-bn¬ F√m-hn[ Irjn-Ifpw S-Øp∂p. amXyp-hnv hnthIvtPm¿÷v amXyp F∂ ]p{Xpw tdmjvn, tdmkn F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. amXyp-hns‚ ]p{X≥ hnthIv Be-∏p-g-bn¬ A°-c-IfwtXma-kns‚ aIƒ Sosb hnhmlw sNbvXp. amXyp-hns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn tdmjvnsb Nß-m-t»-cn¬ tImt®-cn¬ sk_m-Ãy≥ aI≥ c≥P≥ hnhmlw sNbvXv apwss_-bn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. c≠m- a sØ ]p{Xn tdmknsb Xº- e - ° mSv IX- b - m´v]utemkv aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXv sNss∂-bn¬ Xma-kn-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 138. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 183°p∂p. sI.Fw.amXyp-hns‚ ]p{Xn A°-Ωsb Nme-°pSn ]cn-bmcwIÆw-]n-≈n¬ tem-°p™v aI≥ t]mƒ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿Im™n-c-∏p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.sI.Fw.h¿°n aqe-a‰w (Ggmw Xe-apd) Xot°mbn CS-bmSn sXmΩ≥ ˛ adnbw aIƒ adn-bsØhnhmlw sNbvXp. A©p a°ƒ. aq∂p s]Æpw c≠v BWpw. `mcyacn-°p-I-bm¬ ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp. h[p sXmSp-]pg Ieq¿ Imc-°p-t∂¬ A∂ aØmbn aIƒ t{Xkym. c≠mw hnhm-l-Øn¬acnb F∂ s]¨Ip´n D≠v. acn-bsb FS-bm-Sn-bn¬ the-Øp-t»-cn-bn¬ (Xot°mbn) amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. Xot°m-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. sI.Fw.h¿°n-bpsS aqØ aIƒ tacn h¿°nsb tahnS amfn-tb-°¬ tPmk^v ˛ t{Xkym aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXvtahnSbn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Ip™m-Ωsb Bc-°pg amtX-°¬ Ipcym-t°mkv ˛ A∂ aI≥ amXyp hnhmlwsNbvXp Bc-°pgbn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn kn. A∂‰v `c-W-ßmw tacn-Kncn anj-n¬ tN¿∂p. aqØ-]p-{X≥ sI.hn.amXyp CS-a-dpIv Nocm-¶pgn amWn ˛ A∂aIƒ tdmk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]pc-bn-S-Øns‚ Ing-°p-h-iØv{]tXyI sI´n-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®n-cp∂p. Sn amXyp 13˛3˛98¬ acn®p. Sn amXyp-hnv Bdp-a-°ƒ c≠mWpw mep s]Æpw aqØ-a-Iƒ tamfn F∂p hnfn-°p∂ tacnsb hnhmlw Ign-®n√. ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. aqØ-a-I≥ s_∂n-sb∂p hnfn-°p-∂ sI.Fw.tPm¿÷v Ipf-amhv F.Sn.tPm¨ ˛tacn aIƒ tagvknsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. c≠p a°ƒ. HcmWpw Hcp s]Æpw. F√m-hcpwhnZym¿∞n-Iƒ 1. tdmkv acnb tPm¿÷v, 2. amXyqkv tPm¿÷v. c≠m-asØ aIƒ tUmfn (A∂) 18.09.1989¬ AIme arXyp{]m]n®p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk-Ωsb D∏p-Xd ISp-t¥mSv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 139. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 184tPmk^v ˛ tacn-°p´n aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXv D∏p-X-d-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ _ntmbn (amp-h¬)4˛6˛98¬ AIme arXyp {]m]n®p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn dmWn F∂phnfn-°p∂ sIm®p-t{Xky kntÃgvkv Hm^v sk‚ v tPmk^v Hm^vsk‚ v tacn (Fkv.sP.Fkv.Fw) kymk kaq-l-Ønse AwK-amWv. 5. Ggmw Xe-apd h¿°n-bpsS Cfb aI≥ tPm∏n-sb∂p hnfn-°p∂ sI.hn. tPmk^v Cf-ßpfw apdn-™m-e-°¬ aØmbn A∂aIƒ t{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Cfßp-fØv `mcym-Kr-l-Øn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. Sn tPm∏n°v mep a°ƒ. c≠mWpw c≠p s]Æpw.aqØ-]p-{X≥ km_p F∂p hnfn-°p∂ tPm¿÷v hmg-°pfw ]p∂-°-∏Shn¬ (Sp-°c) tPm¨ ˛ A∂-°p´n aIƒ euensb hnhmlw - -sNbvXv aqe-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Sn km_p-hnv mep Ip´n-IƒF√m-hcpw hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ. 1. sS€ 2. B≥ 3. tPmk^v 4. tPm¨kv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥kÆn-sb∂p hnfn-°p∂ tPmk^v aWn-b-©nd kvIdnbm eqknaIƒ sd‰nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Cf-ßp-fØv ]nXm-hns‚ IqsSXma-kn-°p∂p. aq∂p Ip´n-Iƒ. tPm∏n, dmWn, dqWn (hnZym¿Yn-Iƒ). aqØ-]p{Xn tacnsb ]b-∏m¿ HmS-°¬ ssa°nƒ ˛ sXømΩaI≥ tPmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tkmWnb F∂phnfn-°p∂ t{Xkymsb sNdp-tXm-´-Øn¬ (Ing-°≥ a‰w) t{Xkym˛ B‚Wn aI≥ Idn-bm-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXv Ing-°≥ a‰-Øn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 140. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 195 ]oSn-I-bn¬ IpSpw_w]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n sF∏v (memw Xe-ap-d) Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ C´n-bbv]ns‚ ZznXo-b]p-{X≥ C´n- - -bbv]v ImWn-tb-°m-´p-I-c-bn¬ ]mem-∏≈n CS-hI IpSp-ºp-Im-´n¬N¥n-c-°m-cs‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw Ign®v hS-s°-s°-Sp-º≥ ]pcn-bn-S-Øn¬ Ccn-°p∂ ]oSn-I-bn¬ Xma-kn®p. ]nXm-hmbaq∂mw Xe-apd Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ C´n-bbv]v 1029˛m-am≠v[p-am-k-Øn¬ acn®v ]mem hen-b-]-≈n-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p. ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n-bbv]v I®-hSw S-Øp∂ ImeØv Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dnse Znhm≥ t]jv°m¿ apX-emb {][m DtZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ao-®n¬ kµ¿in-°m≥ hcp-tºmƒ ]cn-N-c-W-Øn-mbpw a‰pw taep-Im-hn-ep≈ ae-b-c-b-∑msc hf-sc-b-[nIw ]oUn-∏n-®n-cp∂p. Ah¿So. C´n-bbv]ns‚ ]°¬ ]cm-Xn-s∏-´Xns‚ ^e-ambn At±lw tIm´- - -b-Øp-n∂pw ]≈-Øp-km-bv]ns hcp-Øp-Ibpw kmbv]v taep-Im-hn¬ Hcp N¿®p-an-j≥ ]≈n ÿm]n®v Ahsc kn.Fw.F€n¬tN¿Øv D≤-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu hnhcw taeq-Im-hp-]-≈n-bn¬Hcp {]am-W-tc-J-bmbn kq£n-®n-´p≠v. memw Xe-ap-d-°m-cpw ISp-ºp-Im-´n¬n∂p hnhmlw sNbvX-bm-fp-amb C´n-bbv]v 1052˛mam≠pacWw {]m]n®p. memw Xe-apd ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n-b-bv]np C´n-bbv]v, Nmt°m, sXmΩ≥ F∂p aq∂p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠mbn. Nmt°mAhn-hm-ln-X-m-bn-cp∂p; Imem-¥-c-Øn¬ k¿∏-Zw-i-ta‰p acn®p. ]oSn-I-bn¬ Xd-hmSv]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n- sF∏v (A©mw Xe-ap-d) ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n- sF-∏ns‚ aI≥ ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n- sFbv]vNß-m-ticn Xmeq-°n¬ Im¿Øn-I-∏≈n IpSpw-_-amb sh´nØp-cp-tج IÆp-ssh-Zys‚ aIƒ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn®p. Sn. C´n- sF∏np butk∏v, C´n- sF∏vF∂p c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw adnbw, A®mΩ, Gen, t{Xkym F∂p○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 141. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 196mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠mbn. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-b-Øns `c-W-ßmw ]≈n-bn-S-hI "B°n-am-∏nfbmb amdm-a-‰-Øn¬ Hutk∏phnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb hmg-°pfw Ic-bn¬ sNm≈m-a-T-Øn¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-b®p. Hcp sIm√w Ign™vk¥m-an-√msX hn[h-bm-bn-Øo-cp-Ibpw ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ Xma-kn®v - -1957˛ s^. 22˛mw XobXn acn®v Cfw-tXm-´w-]-≈n-bpsS ih-t°m-´-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn GensbIpd-hn-e-ßm-Sp-]-≈n-bn-S-hI ]I-tem-a‰w IpSpw-_-amb tIm´-bn¬Be-∏m´p hnhmlw sNbvX-b®p. mem-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xkysb]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ taS-bv°¬ C´n-b-hncm hnhmlwsNbvXp.dh. ^m. Hutk∏v IØ-m¿ (Bdmw Xe-ap-d) A©mw Xe-apd C´n- sF∏ns‚ ]p{X≥ Hutk-∏ns (dh.^m. tPmk^v) Xncp-h√m-bn¬ tImhq¿ IpSpw-_°m-cp-am-bp≈ _‘- - -Øm¬ Ah¿ "ssm≥ F∂pw kwt_m-[ sNbvXn-cp∂p. Sn.Hutk∏v memw Xe-apd Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ h¿°n-bpsS XrXo-b-]p-{X≥ tbml-∂m-p-sam-∂n®v fmew ]pØ≥∏-≈n-bn-S-hI IWn-bm-cm-IØp s]._.amWn-a-ev]ms‚ IqsS taeqkv sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS Iogn¬ sshZnI ]Tw XpSßn. s]._.Gen-bm-ta-eqkpsa{Xm-tmSp (_mt_¬ ]m{Xn-b¿°o-kns‚ Iogn¬) ]´hpw kzoI-cn®p. sIm√-h¿jw 1053˛mam≠v hr›n-I-amkw 8˛mw XobXn BWvCfw-tXm-´w-]≈n ÿm]w. taeqkp aev]m-mb IWn-bm-cm-IØpamWn aev]ms‚ t{]c-Wbm¬ memw Xe-apd Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ h¿°n- -bpsS ]cn-{i-a-^-e-ambn ÿm]n-®-Xm-WnXv. CS-a-‰Øp sXm≠-m´vAt¥m-n-b-®-mWv am¿ A_vZntim sa{Xm-t∏m-eoØm BbXv.At±lw 1069˛mam-≠n-Sbv°v Xr»n-h-t]-cq¿h®v Ncaw {]m]n®p. ]oSn-I-bn¬ Hutk∏p siΩm-»pw Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ tbml-∂m≥ siΩm-»pw am¿ A_vZotim sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bn¬ n∂pw ]´w kzoI-cn®p Ip¿_m sNm√p- I - b p- ≠ mbn. _. Hutk- ∏ - ® ≥ am¿A_vZotim sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Øm-bpsS ac-Wm-¥cw Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n- -bn¬ Xma-kn®v AXns‚ `cWw S-Øp-Ibpw ]n∂oSv ]≈nbpw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 142. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 197kzØp-°fpw tdma≥ ItØm-en-°m-k`bv°p hn´p-sIm-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v -B k`-bp-ambn sFIy-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. R≠p-]md, sh´n-ap-Iƒ, oeq¿, Ihn-°p∂p apX-emb ]≈n-I-fn¬ hnIm-cn-bm-bn-cp-∂n-´p-≠-t±lw. At±lw 1944 am¿®v amkw 17˛mw XobXn 79˛masØhb-€n¬ ncym-Xmbn. ]mem henb ]≈n-bn¬ kwkvIcn-°s∏´p. - - - Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n-bpsS ÿm]w Ign™ L´-Øn-emWp,]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ sh´p-Im-´n¬ _. Cu∏-®s‚ ]cn-{i-a-Øm¬ Ihn-°p-∂p-]-≈nbpw sIm´m-c-Øn¬ _. butk-∏-®s‚]cn-{i-a-Øm¬ ap≠m-¶¬∏-≈nbpw ]Wn Ign-°-s∏-´Xv.]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n- sF∏v (Bdmw Xe-ap-d) ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n- sF∏ns‚ ZznXob ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏vv "Fd-tIm∂n am∏nfbmb aptØmen Ic-bn¬ søqcp tImbn-∏p-d-ØmbIf-∏p-c-bv°¬ De-l-∂s‚ aIƒ t{Xkym (Nm®n)sb hnhmlwsNbv X v ]oSn- I - Ø - d - h m- ´ n¬ Xma- k n®p. Ct±- l - a mWp sIm.h.1087˛mam≠v Nnß-amkw H∂mw-Xo-bXn FgpXn 1088˛mam≠v Nnß-amkw H∂mw-Xo-bXn cPn-Ã-dm-°nb "Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e DS-ºSn"bpsS ImcW `qXpw, 1092˛mam≠v apX¬ S-Øn-t∏m-cp∂ Sn IpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ P-bn-Xmhpw sIm.h¿jw 1106 Ipw`-am- k - Ø n¬ Fgp- X nb "Fd- t Im∂n ]pØ≥]pc IpSpw- _ - N -cn{X"Øns‚ I¿Ømhpw At±-l-amWv. AXns‚ ssIsb-gp-Øp-{]-Xn-bn¬ n∂mWv Fd-tIm∂n ]pØ≥]pc IpSpw-_-Øns‚ Ncn-{X-te-J--Imew hsc-bp≈ ]q¿∆-N-cn-{X-sØ-∏-‰nbpw AtXm-S-p-_-‘n® kam-¥c kw`-h-ß-sf-∏-‰nbpw {]kvXmh tbmKy-amb hn[-Øn-ep≈ hnhcw e`n-®n-´p-≈Xv. A°m-c-W-Øm¬ A-¥c Xe-ap-d-°m¿ At±-l-tØmSv hf-sc-b-[nIw IS-s∏-´-h-cmWv. k`m-N-cn{Xkw_-‘-ambpw tImSXn hyh-lm-c-kw-_-‘-ambpw Ay km[m-c-W-amb ]mWvUnXyw kn≤n-®-hpw Hcp S--I-em-n-]p-W-p-am-bn-cp∂p At±lw. Hcp S-Iem-kanXn Xs∂ At±-lØns‚ amt- - - - -Pvsa‚n¬ {]h¿Øn-®n-cp∂p. At±-l-Ønp C´n-bbv]v, sXmΩ≥,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 143. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 198De-l-∂≥, h¿°n F∂ mep ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠mbn. {]i-kvX-mbBdmw-X-e-apd C´n-bbv]v 1961 G{]n¬ 27˛mw XobXn 88˛masØ hb-kn¬ acn®v Cfw-tXm-´w-]-≈n-bpsS ih-t°m-´-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p. At±-l-Øns‚ `mcy t{Xkym 1955 am¿®v amkw 9˛mw XobXnacn®v Sn.ih-t°m-´-bn¬ Xs∂ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p.sI.-sF. C´n- sF∏v (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) C´n-b-bv∏ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ Ggmw Xe-apd C´n-bbv∏v ]mem-bn¬ IpS-°-®n-d-°p-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ ]Xp-∏-≈n¬ Nmt°m-bpsSaIƒ Gensb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv oeq¿ ISphm A≈p-]p-cbn-SØn¬ - -Xma-k-am°n. Sn.C´n-b-bv∏np C´n-bbv∏v, sXmΩ≥ F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw t{Xkym, A∂, adnbw F∂ aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. aqØ-]p{Xn t{Xkymsb ]mem-∏-≈n-bn-S-hI "Xd-bn¬ am∏nf"bmb Rmh-≈n¬ ]tg-S-Øp-ho-´n¬n∂pw sXmSp-]pg ap´w-]-≈n-bn-S-h-I-bn¬Xma-kn-°p∂ Ipcp-hn-f-bpsS aI≥ h¿°n hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-a-Ø-hƒ A∂ (A®mΩ)sb ]mem CS-hI "hb-e-s°m-ºn¬am∏nf""bmb ]p√m-´p-n∂pw hmgq¿ Xma-kn-°p∂ amWn-bpsS aI≥tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-bsØ cma-]p-cØp hf-h-m´v IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ sImX-º-m-n-bn¬ ]pt≈m-en¬ Ipcym-t°m-bpsS aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp.C´n sF∏v aqØ-]p-{X≥ F´mw Xe-apd C´n- sF∏v IS-m-´n¬ ]me-Øpw-Xe IpSpw- _ - Ø n¬s∏´ ]qh- Ø p- ¶ ¬ tZh- k ym- b psS aIƒt{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXv oeqcv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. t{Xkym 2010sk]vXw-_¿ 30-˛p acWw {]m]n®v oeq¿ ]≈n-Ip-Spw-_-°-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. Ch¿°v k¥m--ß-fn-√.sI.-sF. tXmakv ZzoXn-b-]p-{X≥ sXmΩ≥ sNßfw ]≈n-bn-S-hI tIme-Sn-°p-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ `K-h-Xn-]-d-ºn¬ Ip´n-b-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.oeq¿ Xma-kn-°p∂p. sXmΩp am¿´n≥ (kmPp), tPmk^v (kn_n),kvIdnbm (kPn) F∂ aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen (s_‰n), jo_m○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 144. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 199F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠mbn. sXmΩs‚ BZy-`mcy Ip´n-bΩ acn-®p-t]m-b-Xn-m¬ c≠m-aXvIm™n-c-∏≈n A©n-en∏ ]p¬t]¬ tPmk^v aIƒ t{Xkysbhnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu hnhm-l-Øn¬ t{Xky (enkv) F∂ Hcp]p{Xn-bp≠v. enkv Fw.F hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. sXmΩs‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ am¿´n≥ (kmPp) Nnd-°-ShvIp∂-∏-≈n¬ kme-€ns‚ aIƒ kn€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw t_mws_-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v {InÃo, Ap({Sok) F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kn_n ]q™m¿ sNdp-h-≈n¬tPmkv aIƒ sSknsb hnhmlw sNbvXv neq¿ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v tPmk^v, tXmakv F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. Ccp-hcpw]Tn-°p∂p. sXmΩs‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ kvIdnb (kPn) Ad-°pfwssaem-Sq¿ A{_m-l-Øns‚ aIƒ tdmjs hnhmlw sNbvXp.oeq¿ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v tXmakv (sUn≥) F∂ ]p{XpwUom tacn F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. sXmΩs‚ aqØ-]p{Xn s_‰n ico-c-kp-J-an-√msX ]nXm-hns‚IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn jo_sb Ad-°p-fØv Ipf-Øn-m¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ jnPn hnhmlw Ign®p. Ch¿ Nme-°pSn sN´n-Ip-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p.sI.-sF. sXmΩ≥ (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n- sF∏ns‚ ZzoXnb ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ tIm´bwAb¿°p∂w Ic-bn¬ ""Fd-tIm∂n am∏nf""bmb IpS-I-t»-cn¬ ]Sn-™m-td-°c ^nen-t∏mkn(t]mØ≥)s‚ aIƒ A∂Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXp. s]mcp-t∂m-en-emb ]pXp-a aØmbn t]mØs‚ hI-bm-bn-cp-∂Xpw ]nXr-hn-ln-X-ambn In´n-b-Xp-amb ]ø-∏-Xn-°¬ ]pc-bn-S- Ø n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. A°m- e Øp Ing- t °- ° c IpSpw- _ -Øn¬n∂pw k¿-h-I-em-imem hnZym-`ymkw kn≤n® Npcp°w t]cn-sem-cm-fmWv At±lw. Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ kl-I-cW kwL-Øns‚ P-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 145. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 200bn-Xmhv At±-l-amWv. B kwL-Øns‚ BZysØ sk{I-´dn At±-l-am-bn-cp∂p. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmK sI´n-S-Øns‚ n¿Ωm-W-Øn-mbn D’m-ln-®-h-cn¬ {]ap-J-m-t±lw. sXmΩ≥ 1983 hw-_¿ amkw 14-˛mw XobXn acn®v 15-˛mw XobXn Cfw-tXm´w ]≈nskan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-I-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. sXmΩs‚`mcy A∂Ω 1984 Unkw-_¿ 21 v acn®v Cfw-tXm-´-]-≈n-bn-ep≈IpSpw-_-I-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. Sn. sXmΩv tPmk^v (Ip™v)tXmakv F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v.sI.‰n tPmk^v (Ip-™v) aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v Fw.F _ncp-Z-[m-cn-bmWv. sXmΩs‚aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v (Ip-™v) `c-W-ßmw Aºmd Ie-b-Øn-m¬ sI.-Fw. tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ kme-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv]nXr-{K-l-amb ]ø-]-Xn-°¬ ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. kmeΩFw.-F-kv.-kn. _ncp-Z-[m-cn-Wn-bm-Wv. tPmk-^nv B≥en, knØmc,aoc, tcmlnX F∂o mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn B≥ensb(Fw.-F-kv.-kn.) Fd-Wm-Ipfw Fkv.-B¿.-Fw. tdmUn¬ Cucm-‰p∏pgs{]m^. h¿Ko-kns‚ aI≥ tPm¨kv Fw.-_n.-F. hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿°v sPdn F∂ ]p{X-p-≠v. Ch¿ _l-dn-n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. tPmk-^ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn kn-Ømcsb (Fw.-F-kv.-kn.,Fw.-^n¬) IqØm-´p-Ipfw C©-°p-gn-bn¬ kJ-dnbmbpsS aI≥kndnƒ kvIdnb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v ¢n≥kv Fs∂mcp ]p{X-p-≠v. Ccp-hcpw KpP-dm-Øn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. tPmk-^ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn aoc Fw.-_n.-F. Ign™v _mw•q-cn¬ Fw.-^n-env ]Tn-°p-∂p. mem-asØ ]p{Xn tcmlnX sIm√w ‰n.-sI.-Fw. F©n-o-b-dnwKv tImtf-Pn¬ n∂v knhn¬ F©n-o-b-dnw-Kv ]m€m-bn.sI.-‰n. tXmakv sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (tXmam-®≥) `c-W-ßm-Øp-n∂pw ]q™m-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ ]me-a‰Øn-emb Bem- - - -n-°¬ A{_m-l-Øns‚ aIƒ tacn (s]ÆΩ)sb hnhmlwsNbvXp. sXmSp-]pg Ie-b-¥m-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 146. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 201 tXma- k np sP€n Fs∂mcp ]p{Xn am{X- a m- W p- ≈ Xv .sP€nsb tN¿∏p-¶¬ a‰-Øn-emb aW-ep-¶¬ sIm®p-a-‰-Øn¬ho-´n¬ Ipcy≥ ˛ Nn∂Ω Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ kÆn kndn-b°v hnhmlw -Ign®p Ie-b-¥m-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn Fw.F. Fw_nF_ncp-Z-[m-cn-bmWv. kÆn hnZypXv sa‰m-enIv enan-‰Uv Iº-n-bpsStIcf doPn-b-W¬ skbn¬kv amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp∂p.Ch¿°v sIhn≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw tmhnb, tdmWnb F∂o c≠p]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. tXmakv 2000 apX¬ IpSpw-_-tbmKw sk{I-´-dn-bmbn h¿°vsNøp∂p. 2001¬ IpSpw-_-tbmKw A{Ukv _p°v A®-Sn®p ]pd-Øn-d-°n-bXv tXma-kns‚ A{im¥ ]cn-{i-a-Øm-emWv. sXmSp-]pgsFFwF ªUv _m¶v 2004¬ XpS-ßp-hm≥ ]cn-{i-an-®-h-cn¬ apJy-]-¶p-h-ln-®n-´p≠v. Ct∏mgpw ªUv _m¶ns‚ amt-PnwKv IΩn‰nsaw_-dmWv. 2000¬ IpSpw-_-tbmK sI´n-S-Øns‚ Np‰p-a-Xn¬ sI´p-∂-Xnpw sI´nSw s]mfn-®p-ta-bp-∂-Xnpw ∂m-°p-∂-Xnpw A{im-¥-]-cn-{iaw S-Øn-bn-´p≠v. Ct∏mƒ IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw ]cn-jvI-cn®v]pd-Øn-d-°p-∂Xv tXma-kns‚ ta¬tm-´-Ønepw ]cn-{i-a-Øm-ep-amWv. Ie-b-¥m-n-bn¬ ]e kmaqly kmwkvIm-cnI kwL-S--I-fp-sSbpw ap≥]-¥n-bn¬ tXma-kp≠v.sI.-sF. tPm¨ (Ip-™n-tem) C´n- sF∏ns‚ XrXob ]p{X≥ De-l-∂≥ (Ip™ntem) IS-m-´n¬ ]mtd-Ωm-°¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ hmfn-πm-°¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhm-lw-sNbvXv sh≈n-bm-am-‰Øv ]∂n-a‰w CS-hIbn¬ Imcn-t°m´p tNcn-°en¬ Xma-kn-°p-Ibpw ]n∂oSv - - -AhnSw hn‰v Nme-°pSn sh≈n-°p-f-ßc Xma-kn®p. De-l∂p tPmk^v (sIm®v), sXmΩ≥, De-l∂≥ (t__n), - -tZhky (tPmbn), tPm¿Pv F∂o A©p ]p{X-∑mcpw adnbw (amΩn),A∂ (A®mΩ), t{Xkym, Ip´n-bΩ, s]ÆΩ, ^ntem-anm (h’Ω)F∂o Bdp ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. aqØ-]p{Xn adnbw (knÿ tacnsaemn) am¿Øm-WvUØv tUmt´gvkv Hm^v tacn F∂ aT-Øn¬tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂ (A®mΩ)sb○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 147. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 202ssae-s°mºp ]≈n-bn-S-hI Iocn-°m´v ho-´n¬ amWn-bpsS aI≥amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xkymsb Ipdhn-f-ßm-´p-]-≈n-bn-S-hI Ipcn-bmSv I-c-bn¬ ]I-tem-a‰w IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ a‰-Øn¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp.mem-asØ ]p{Xn Ip´n-bΩ sIm√w Xmeq-°n¬ sIm´n-bØp aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn s]ÆΩ(knÿ sa¿en) aqhm-‰p-]pg hmg-∏≈n-aTØn¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo- - - -bmbn. Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn ^ntem-an (h-’-Ω-sb) ]md-°m-t´¬h¿Kokv A∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ hn≥k‚ v hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ip©ntem 1997 Pp-hcn 18p acn®p, Aº-tmfn ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. De-l-∂ms‚ `mcy adnbw 1971 Pqsse menp acn®p ]∂n-a‰w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.tPmk^v(sIm-®v) Ip©n-tem-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v (sIm®v) ssae-s°mºvhdp-ß-e-°pSn Nmt°m ˛ A∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ A∂-°p-´nsbhnhmlw sNbvXv alm-cm-jv{S-bn¬ mkn-°n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v AtPjv F∂ Hcp ]p{X-p≠v. AtPjv _n.FkvkngvknwKv Ign™v _mwKvfq-cn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. tPmk^v 2004Unkw-_-dn¬ acWw {]m]n®p. Nme-°pSn Aº-tmfn ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-°-√-d-bn¬ arX-tZlw kwkvI-cn®p. tPmk-^ns‚ `mcy A∂-°p´n 2008 sabv 14p acn®v mkn-°n¬ kwkvI-cn®p.tXmakv (tXmam-®≥) De-l-∂ms‚ ]p{X-∑m-cn¬ c≠m-a≥ tXmakv sXmSp-]pg I√m-n-°¬ ]≈n CS-hI ap≠-bv°¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ tacn (t__n-°p´n)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nme-°pSn sh≈n-°p-f-ßc Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-knp tacn (sskv), nΩn F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpwssPp F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. aqØ ]p{Xn sskns Ccn-ßm-e-°pS]p√q¿ Nn‰n-e-∏n≈n tIm°m´v ss]e-∏≥ aI≥ sPbn≥ hnhmlw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 148. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 203Ign®p. sskns‚ hnhmlw Ign™v 37˛mw Znhkw s]s´-s∂mcpAkpJw h∂v 1997 Pqsse 31p acWw {]m]n®p. Aº-tmfn ]≈n-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. tXma-kns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn nΩnsb Ipdp-∏-¥d If-cn-∏-d-ºn¬ t]mƒ aI≥ kp_n≥ hnhmlw Ign®p. Ccp-hcpw hnb-∂-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. nΩn°p sUbnkv F∂ ]p{X-p≠v. tXma-kns‚ ]p{X≥ ssPp Bº-√q¿ aÆw-t]´ Nn‰n-e-∏≈ntIm°m´v d∏mbn aIƒ tjm^nsb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv ]nXm-hns‚IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v Ae≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw Akn≥ F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv.De-l-∂≥ (t_-_n) Ip™n-tem-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ De-l-∂m≥ (t__n)Ggm-t®cn sN´n-bm-Ip-t∂¬ AK-Ãn≥, A∂-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsSaIƒ sUbn-knsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Xncp-∏q-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.t__nbv°v tacn (Pn€v), Pnp (Bn), {Sok (Nn©p) F∂o aq∂p]p{Xn-am-cm-Wp-≈Xv. aqØ ]p{Xn Pn€ns hS-°m-t©cn N°m-e-°¬ tPm¿Pv, kmdmΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPm¿Pv (PnØp)hnhmlw Ign®p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Pnp-hns Ccn-´n-bn¬ ]md-bn¬ Gen-°p-´n-bpsS aI≥ kn≤p hnhmlw Ign®p. Pnp dnbm-Zn¬ gvkv Bbn tPmen sNøp∂p. kn≤p sslZ-cm-_m-Zn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. t__n-bpsS Cfb aIƒ Nn©p _n.Fkv.kn. gvknwKv]Tw Ign-™p-n¬°p∂p.tZhkym (tPmbn) Ip©n-tem-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tZhkym (tPmbn) sXmSp-]pg Be-t°mSv amfn-tb-°¬ ss]en-°p´n, t{Xky Zº-Xn-I-fpsSaIƒ tdmkn-ensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw kzn‰vk¿e≥Un¬tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v Zo]m, Zom F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpwZnn¬ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn Zo]m gvknwKv D]-cn-]-TwIgn™v kzn‰vk¿e≥Un¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. ]p{Xn Zombpw ]p{X≥Znnepw ]Tn-°p-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 149. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 204tPm¿÷v Ip©n-tem-bpsS A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿Pv s∑md Ip‰n-bd B‚-Wn-bpsS aIƒ en√nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nme-°pSnsh≈n-°p-f-ßc Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿Pnv tPm_n, tPman≥ F∂oc≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. tPm¿Pv 1995 Pp-hcn 14p AkpJw aqewacn®p. Aº-tmfn ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-°-√-d-bn¬kwkvI-cn®p. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPm_n _n.Fkv.kn. gvknwKv ]TwIgn™v tPmen sNøp∂p.sI.-sF. h¿°n (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) C´n- sF∏ns‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ h¿°n (sI.sF.h¿°n_n.Fkvkn, _n.FUv) `c-Wßmw CS-hI B°n-am-∏n-fbmb amdm- - -a-‰-Øn¬n∂pw scn-b-ßmw Ic-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ amWn-bpsSaIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXp Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-k-am°n.1935˛¬ A[ym- ] - I - h rØn Bcw- ` n®p. ]mem sk‚ v tXmakvF¬.]n.kvIqƒ, oeq¿ sk‚ v tPmk^vkv F¬.]n.kvIqƒ, Ad-°pfw sk‚ v tXmakv anUn¬ kvIqƒ, ]mem sk‚ v tXmakvsslkvIqƒ F∂o hnZym-e-b-ß-fn¬°qSn IS∂v {]hn-Ømwsk‚ v ssa°nƒ sslkvIq-fn¬ n∂pw dn´-b¿ sNbvXp. 1953˛¬_n.Fkvkn _ncp-Zhpw 1969¬ _n.FUv _ncp-Zhpw tSn. 1952˛57Ime-L-´-Øn¬ At±lw ]mem apn-kn-∏¬ Iu¨kn¬ AwK-am-bn-cp∂p. A°m-e-Øn¬ B¿.hn.tXmΩkv tdmUv, Cfw-tXm-´w-]≈ntdmUv, ]pen-a-e-°p∂p tdmUv apX-emb apn-kn-∏¬ tdmUp-Iƒs]mXp-P--k-l-I-c-W-tØmsS sh´n®v hml--K-Xm-K-X-tbm-Ky-am-°p-Ibpw ]pen-a-e-°∂p tdmUn¬ Ce-{Œn-kn‰n k¿hokv ssepwhgn-hn-f-°p-Ifpw AXXv Npa-X-e-°m¿ aptJ G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-IbpwsNbvXp. Sn. Ggmw Xe-apd ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n sF∏v h¿°n-bmWvkz]n-Xm-hn-m¬ enJn-X-amb Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw ho-I-cn®v Fd-tIm∂n ]pØ≥]pc IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ c≠mw-`mKw(Ing-t°-°c imJ-bpsS Ncn{Xw) Xbm-dm-°n-bXv. At±lw n¿∆-ln® tkhw Fd-tIm∂n ]pØ≥]pc IpSpw_w F°m-ehpw IrX-⁄-Xm-]q¿hw kvacn-°p-∂-XmWv. Sn. h¿°n°v tPmk^v tPm¿Pv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 150. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 205(Ip™q™v), amWn (amWn-®≥) F∂ c≠p ]p{X≥amcpw t{Xkym(eoemΩ), A∂ (A®mΩ), adnbw (tamfn), ^ntem-anm (t__n-°p´n) F∂ mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. sI.sF h¿°n 2010 am¿®v 15˛mw XobXn acWw {]m]n®p.16˛mw XobXn Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-°-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. h¿°n-bpsS `mcy adnbw (tacn) 2010 HIvtSm-_¿ 16p acn®v Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-°-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. h¿°n-bpsS aqØ-]p{Xn t{Xky (eoemΩ)sb aÆbv-°-mSv]≈n CS-h-I-bn¬ sImSI-mSn IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ ]me-bv°-Ø-d-∏n¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥ Pbnwkv hnhm-lw-sNbvXv Im™n-c-∏pgCcp-º-I-t®me CS-h-I-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. h¿°n-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂ (A®mΩ)sb ]≈n-°-tØm´v Bn-°mSv CS-h-I-bn¬ amS-∏-≈n-a-‰-Øn¬ Nmt°m-bpsSaI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xntacn (tamfn)sb ssh°w sImX-hd CS-h-I-bn¬ sIma-cIwIpSpw-_-amb kh-cymcp aµn-c-Øn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aI≥ tkhy¿hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn ^ntem-an (t__n-°p´n)sbam∂mw hn√q∂n CS-hI Xpcp-Øn-am-en-bn¬ A{_m-lØns‚ aI≥ -amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. t__n-°p´n A´-∏mSn kvIqfn¬ So®-dmWv. A´-∏m-Sn-bn-emWv Xmakw.tPmk^v (Ip-™q-™v) h¿°n-bpsS aqØ-a-I≥ tPmk^v tPm¿Pv (Ip™q™v)ssI-Icn ]me-a-‰-Øn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ tdmk-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-k-am°n. Ip™q-™nv tPm¿Pv (tPm¿Pp-Ip´n) F∂ Hcp aI-p≠v. tPm¿Pp-Ip´n Ce-t{Œm-WnIvkv F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv Ign™v Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv Hcp kzImcy Iº-n-bn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. Ip™q™v (tPmk^v) 2007 Pp-hcn 31p lrZ-bm-Lm-Xw-aqew acWw {]m]n®p Cfw-t¥m´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈IpSpw-_-°-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 151. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 206FΩm-p-h¬ (amWn-®≥) h¿°n-bpsS ]p{X-∑m-cn¬ c≠m-a-mb FΩm-p-h¬ (amWn-®≥) a™{] awKen ho´n¬ tPmk- ^ ns‚ aIƒ Geoiz(ssek)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]nXr-hn-ln-X-ambn In´nb Cfw-tXm´w aptØmen ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ amWn-®v B≥tdmkv (Ap) F∂ ]p{Xn-bp≠v. Ap Iw]yq-´¿ F≥Pn-o-b-dnw-Knp hmg-°p-fØv ]Tn-°p∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 152. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 227 ]oSn-I-ssI-X-h-b-en¬ sXmΩ≥ (A©mw Xe-ap-d) memw Xe-apd ]oSn-I-bn¬ C´n sF∏ns‚ XrXo-b-]p-{X≥sXmΩ≥ abn-em-Sq¿ am∏n-f-bmb Ggm-t®-cn¬ sSp-º-≈n¬n∂pwhnhmlw sNbvXv sXt°-ssI-X-h-b¬ ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p.At±lw Hcp tImS-Xn-n-b-a-]-WvUn-Xpw hm‹nbpw tImS-Xn-bn¬hyh-l-cn-°p∂ h°o-ep-am-bn-cp-∂p. sXmΩv BK-kvXn, C´n sF∏vsXmΩ≥, DWns®dn-bXv F∂n-ßs mep ]p{X-∑mcpw amΩn, A∂,Gen, tdmk F∂ mep ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠m-bn. aqØ ]p{Xn-bmbamΩnsb ]mem Aßm-Snbn ]-bv°¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-b-®p.hm¿≤-Iy-Im-eØn ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p-a-cn-®p. c≠m-a-sØ-]p-{Xn A∂sb amdn-bnSw Ic-bn¬ thß-∏≈n¬ sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw -sNbvXp. aq∂masØ-]p{Xn Gen ico-cm-kzmÿyw nanØw Ahn-hm-ln-X-bmbn ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p. mem-a-sØ-]p{Xntdmksb Ce™n Ic- b n¬ XS- Ø n¬ ]mXm- º pg Hutk∏phnhmlw sNbvXp.BKkvXn A©mw- X - e - a pd sXmΩs‚ aqØ- a - I ≥ BKkv X n c≠phnhmlw Ign-®p. BZy-ambn ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ sh´p-Im-´n¬ Nocmw-Ip-gn-bn¬n∂pw DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aIƒ tdmksbhnhmlw sNbvXv Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn ]pcn-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p.a°-fn-√msX `mcy acn-°-bm¬ c≠m-a-Xmbn tahnS Fd-tIm-∂n-°p-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ sF°-c-n∂pw Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. IS-_m-≤y-X-aqew GI-ÿm-h-c-am-bn-cp∂ sXs°-Cu-¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn]pc-bnSw Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbm-K-Ønv Xosd-gp-Xn-sIm-SpØvIpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ ta¬tm-´-Øn¬ IS-_m-≤yX Xo¿°p-Ibpwaq∂p-m-ep-h¿jw Ign™v Ah-sc-Øs∂ XncnsI Gev]n-°p-IbpwsNbvXp. BK-kvXn°v sXmΩ≥ Fs∂mcp ]p{Xpw A®mΩFs∂mcp ]p{Xnbpw Pn-®p. Pzc-∏n ]nSn-s]´v `mcybpw ]p{Xnbpwacn-®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 153. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 228sXmΩ≥ sXmΩ≥ am™q¿ Ic-bn¬ tNe-¶-cn-Ip-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ ap´-Øp-ho-´n¬ Ip™q-™ns‚ aIƒ t{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXv]nXm-hns‚ IqsS Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-k-am-°n.Sn. sXmΩv BK-kvXn, t__n, amXyp, tPm¿÷v F∂ mep ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen Fs∂mcp ]p{Xnbpw D≠m-bn. ]p{Xn Gensb (X-¶-Ω) Ing-t°-I-c-im-J-bn¬s∏´ Cfw-tXm´-Øn¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥a-bv°-°-≠-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp.BKkvXn (A-∏-®≥) sXmΩs‚ aqØ-a-I≥ BKkvXn (A-∏-®≥) ]q™m¿ aWn-bw-Ip∂v InS-ß-Ømsg tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ s]Æ-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv sXmSp-]pg Nne-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. BK-kvXn°v t{X€y(tUm¨kn) F∂ ]p{Xnbpw PÃn≥ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap-≠v. ]p{XntUm¨knsb Aºmd nc-t∏¬ Ip∂Øv (]p-fn-°¬) tPmkv tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ {]Imiv tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw _mw•q-cn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. ]p{X≥ PÃn≥ gvknwKv ]Tw Ign™vtKmh-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.tXmakv (t_-_n) sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (t_-_n) taep-Im-hn¬ h´-a-‰-Øn¬ Ip™q™v aIƒ t{K€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv]∂n-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. t__n°v PnΩn, Pn¬k¨ F∂o c≠p]p{X-∑mcpw [y F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. aqØ ]p{X≥ PnΩn sX°pw-`mKw h´-°p-t∂¬ h¿°n tPm¿÷ns‚ aIƒ tacn (n-kvan) sbhnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. ]p{Xn- [ygvknwKv Ign-™v _mw•q¿ sk‚ v a¿Ømkv tlmkv]n-‰en¬ tPmen -sNøp-∂p. Pn¬k¨ hnZym¿∞n-bm-Wv.amXyp (am-Øp-°p-´n) sXmΩs‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (am-Øp-°p-´n) I∏mSv]pXn-bm-]-d-ºn¬ sXmΩn-°p-™ns‚ aIƒ tacn-°p-´nsb hnhmlw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 154. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 229sNbvXv sXmSp-]pg Nmem-t»-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. amXyp-hnv tXma€v(a-p) Fs∂mcp ]p{X-p-≠v.tPm¿÷v sXmΩs‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v Non-°pgn hmfn-bw-πm-°¬ aØmbn aIƒ euensb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]mem-bn¬]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPm¿÷nv tXma€v (A-e≥),amXyp (sj-bn≥) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠v. c≠pt]cpw hnZym¿∞n-I-fm-Wv. 2010 HIvtSm-_¿ 17-˛mw XobXn sXmΩs‚ `mcy t{XkymΩacn®v Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-I-√-d-bn¬kwkvI-cn-®p.C´n sF∏v (Bdmw Xe-ap-d) A©mw Xe-apd sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v""Xd-bn¬ am∏nfbmb hmbva-‰-Øn¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ tZh-€ym-bpsSaIƒ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXv ssIX-h-b-en¬ Ipt∂¬]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p. Ipt∂¬ C´n sF∏nv sXmΩ≥, tZh-kym, Hutk-∏v, aØm-bn, h¿°n, C´n sF∏v F∂o Bdp ]p{X-∑mcpw amΩn, adn-bw, A∂-°p-´n, Gen F∂ mep ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. aqØ ]p{XnamΩnsb ao-®n¬ Ic-bn¬ ""hb-e-s°m-ºn¬ am∏nf bmb ]p√m´vh¿°n-bpsS aI≥ sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnadnbw (kn-ÿ tImte-Øp-`m-bn) BPvao-cn¬ `qZmkn B{i-a-Øn¬tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xn-bm-bn. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂-°p-´nsb ss]I-bn¬ Ip‰n-°m´v ho´n¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp.mem-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-°p-´nsb ]mem-bn¬ s]mcp-t∂m-en¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ ]pXp-a t]mØs‚ aI≥ aWn-ae Xma-kw Nmt°m(Im-°q) hnhmlw sNbvXp.sXmΩ≥ C´n sF∏v (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) C´n sF∏ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ Ggmw Xe-apd sXmΩ≥ ]memCS-hI I´-°-bØv amØs‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXvAd-°p-fØv Xma-kn-®p. sXmΩv C´n-°p-™v, tPm¿÷v, t__n,tPmWn F∂o mep ]p{X- ∑ m- c pw, tacn, en√n, Gen- b mΩ,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 155. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 230A¬t^m≥k F∂o mep ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. aqØ ]p{Xn tacnsb]mem ]pØ≥]≈n CS-hIbn¬ n∂pw Ad-°p-fØp Xma-kn-°p∂ - -Ipcn-ipw-aq-´n¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥ a-Ømbn hnhmlw sNbvXp.c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn en√n A€mw anj-n¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xn-bm-bp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-bmΩ (Sr. Gaincarla) tImgn-t°m´v aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂p Iym- k v{Xo- b m- b n. mem- a sØ ]p{XnA¬t^m≥km (kn-kn-en)sb sXmSp-]pg Hf-a‰w ]men-bØv tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw Ign®p.C´n°p™v (F´mw Xe-ap-d) sXmΩs‚ aqØ ]p{X≥ C´n-°p™v hmg-°p-fØv ºym]d-ºn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ adn-bsØ hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™m¿Rc-fw-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. C´p-°p™v 1978 Unkw-_¿ amkw11-˛mw XobXn acn®v Ad-°pfw ]g-b-]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. C´n-°p-™nv _m_p, jn_p, _nPp F∂o aq∂v ]p{X-∑mcpwP€n, hn≥kn, kn≥kn F∂o aq∂v ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. C´n-°p-™ns‚ aqØ ]p{X≥ _m_p Bc°pg s]ßm-∏n-≈n¬ dmWnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p._m_p-hnv om, oXm, nΩnb F∂o aq∂v ]p{Xn-am-cp-≠v. ]p{Xnom _n.-sSIv Ign-™p-n¬°p-∂p. ]p{Xn oXm _mw•q-cn¬ _n.-F-kv.kn. gvknw-Knv ]Tn-°p-∂p. nΩnb H∂mw ¢m€n¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p. - C´p-°p-™ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ jn_p tXm{]mw-IpSn ]pfn-b-∑m-°¬ kvIdn-bm-bpsS aIƒ tagvknsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw e≠-n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. jn_p-hnv tPmhn≥, Pn_n≥F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fp-≠v. Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿∞n-I-fm-Wv. C´n- ° p- ™ ns‚ aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ _nPp IpS- b - Ø q¿Im≠mhw ho´n¬ n∂pw B≥knsb hnhm-lw -sNbvXv Im-Um-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. Ch¿°v A≥{Un F∂ ]p{Xpw A∂F∂ ]p{Xnbp-ap-≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. C´n-°p-™ns‚ aqØ-]{Xn sP€nsb ]mem-bn¬ ]¥-∏-≈n¬h°®≥ aI≥ A{_mlw (t_-_n-®≥) hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn hn≥knsb sSp-¶p∂w ]pXn-bm-]-d-ºn¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 156. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 231tPm¿÷ns‚ aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw A[ym-]-I-cm-Wv. tImgn-t°mSv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn kn≥knsb ]mem-bn¬ n∂pw sNdp-]pgXma-kn-°p∂ Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ sNdn-bm≥ aI≥ kPnhnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw knwK-∏q-cn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.tPm¿÷v sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v C≥Uy≥ anen-´dnk¿∆o-kn¬ Fb¿t^m¿kn¬ tPmen sNbvXp hnc-an-®-tijwCt∏mƒ Ata-cn-°-bn¬ sSIvkm-kn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. tPm¿÷v]∂n-a‰w nen-b-d-bn¬ Ip´n-bpsS aIƒ t{Xkym (s]-Æ-Ω) sbhnhmlw sNbv X p. s]Æ- Ω bpw Ata- c n- ° - b n- e m- W v . Ch¿°vt_m_≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw sa¿en≥ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. Ccp-hcpwAta-cn-°-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.t__n sXmΩs‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ t__n tImX-aw-KeØv aßm´v -Ipcym-t°mkns‚ aIƒ h’-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xmakn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°v sXmΩ≥ (jm-Pp) Ipcym-t°mkv(tjm-_n) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw sSkven, ssj_n F∂o c≠p]p{Xn-am-cp-am-Wv. t__n-bpsS aqØ aI≥ jmPp FSXzm ap´m¿ Bdp-]-d-bn¬kvIdn-bm-®≥, X¶Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tkmWnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv ad-bq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. jmPp-hnv sÃ√, sU√ F∂oc≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw Atemjn F∂ ]p{X-p-ap-≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p-∂p. t__n-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tjm_n ao¶p∂w ]mtd-°p-Sn-bn¬ tPmk-^v-˛-G-eΩ aIƒ knPnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tjm_n°v B≥a-cnb F∂ ]p{XnbpwB¬hn≥ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap-≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p-∂p. t__n-bpsS aqØ-]p{Xn ssj_nsb Fen-hmen hS-t°´vPbnwkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn sSkvensb Nme-°pSn sh‰n-e-∏md ]≈Øv tXma-€v, adn-b-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 157. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 232tdm_n≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. t__n 1998 Pq¨ 22-˛v Im¿ A]-I-S-Øn¬ ac-W-a-S™p.Ad-°pfw ]gb ]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p.tPmWn sXmΩs‚ Cfb ]p{X≥ tPmWn ]pfn-¶p∂v {]mbn-°fw hen-b-X-d-bn¬ aØm-bn, adn-b-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ knknen (tN-®-Ω)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™m-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmWn°vAn¬ (tXm-a-€v) aØmbn (A-o-jv) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw adn-bmΩ (A-p-tamƒ) F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. tPmWn-bpsS aqØ ]p{X≥ An¬ Ggp-ap´w Ad-°-tØm-´-Øn¬ ]tc-X-mb tPmkns‚ aIƒ tacn ({]o-Xn) sb hnhmlwIgn®v Im™m-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. An-env tXmΩkv ({In-tÃm)F∂ ]p{X-p-≠v. inip-hm-Wv. tPmWn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Aojv h≠-a‰w ]≈n-bn-S-hI ]¥-bv°¬ tPmkns‚ aIƒ {_nPn‰v (kuay) s hnhmlwIgn-®p. Ch¿ A_p-Zm-_n-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. ]p{Xn Ap-tamƒgvknwKv ]Tw Ign-™p-n¬°p-∂p. tPmWn 1988/94 h¿jw Im¥-√q¿ ]©m-bØv {]kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂p.tZhkym (Ggmw Xe-apd) Bdmw Xe-apd C´n sF∏ns‚ c≠masØ ]p{X≥ tZhkymc≠p hnhmlw Ign-®p. ]mem-bn¬ ""Xd-bn¬ am∏nfbmb ]Sn-™m-td-X-øn¬ h¿°nbpsS aIƒ Gensb BZy-hn-hmlw sNbvXp Ad-°p-fØv Xma-k-am-°n. tZh-kym°v BZy hnhm-l-Øn-¬ tPmkvF∂ ]p{Xpw A®mΩ, A∂-Ω, s]Æ-Ω, tacn F∂o mep]p{Xnamcpw D≠m-bn. BZy `mcy acn-®-Xn-m¬ c≠m-aXv ]q™m-‰n¬ hb-en¬ tZh-kym-bpsS aIƒ Gensb c≠mw hnhmlw Ign-®p. c≠mw hnhm-l-Øn¬ tXma€v (Ip-™v), t__n, amXyp F∂oaq∂v ]p{X-∑mcpw t{X€ym, A¬t^m≥km F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpwPn-®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 158. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 233 tZh-kym-bpsS aqØ ]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb `c-W-ßm-Øv Ie-b- Ø n- m¬ IpSpw- _ - Ø n¬s]´ aT- Ø n¬ ]d- º n¬ ]m∏- ® ≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂Ω BPvao¿ anjy-n¬tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xobmbn.tPmkv tZhkym-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmkv Ipcp-hn-m¬ ]≈n-bn-S-hI am∏-e-I-bn¬ t]mØs‚ aIƒ A∂-Ωsb hnhm-lw -sNbvXvBZyw ad-bq-cpw, ]n∂oSv B ÿew hn‰v NnØn-c-]pcw sN¶p-fØvXma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmknv Bn, tagv-kn, Pn≥kn, ]pjv], o F∂o A©p]p{Xn-amcpw jnPp F∂ ]p{Xpw Pn-®p. jnPp Ieq¿ Xøn¬ ho´n¬ h¿§o-kv, tacn aIƒ kosbhnhmlw sNbvXv NnØn-c-]pcw sN¶p-fØp Xma-kn-°p-∂p. jnPp-hnv A¬m Fs∂mcp ]p{Xn-bp-≠v. tPmkns‚ aqØ ]p{Xn Bnsb sN¶p-fØv If-∏p-c-°¬tPmk^v aI≥ t__n hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tagvknsb Ad-°pfw πm°q-´Øn¬ NpΩm¿ -tZh€ym aI≥tPmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Pn≥knAkp- J - a mbn Xd- h m- ´ n¬ Xma- k n- ° p- ∂ p. mem- a sØ ]p{Xn]pjv]sb Icn-¶p∂w sh´n-°m-´n¬ t__n-bpsS aI≥ tm_nƒhnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn kosb tImgn-t°mSv aÆ-m¬ tkmP≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. tPmkv 1996 hw-_-dn¬ acn®vIpØp-]md ]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p.tXmakv (Ip™v) tZh-kym-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXma€v (Ip-™v) Imfn-bm¿ Xmg-sØ-°p-Sn-bn¬ ]utem-kv˛a¿Ø Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ tacn -(s]-Æ-Ω)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv ad-bq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ip™nvam≥k¨, aojv F∂o c≠m¨ a°-fm-Wv. c≠p-t]cpw tZhn-Ip-fØv AUz-tI-‰vkmbn {]mIvSokv sNøp-∂p. ]p{X≥ am≥k¨_mw•q-cn¬ n∂pw tacn (tl-a) sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. am≥k¨○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 159. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 234tXma€v (Nn-WvUp) sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂o c≠m¨ a°-fp-≠v. Ch¿Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. c≠m-a≥ aojv cmP-Ip-amcn IpØ-m-∏-≈n-bn¬t__n-bpsS aIƒ sado (Pn-p) hns hnhmlw sNbvXp.tZhkym (t_-_n) tZh-kym-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tZhkym (t_-_n) ]ocp-ta-´n¬ `mcXv Kymkv GP≥kn S-Øp-∂p. ]ocp-ta-´n¬ n∂pwtacnsb (sU_n eX) hnhmlw sNbvXp. t__n°v sk_m-Ãy≥(Umd¨) F∂ Hcm¨ Ip´n-bp-≠v. hnZym¿∞n-bm-Wv. t__n 2002-˛¬ lrZ-bm-LmXw aqew ac-W-a-S-™p. Ad-°pfw ]g-b-]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p.amXyp sI. sk_m-Ãy≥ tZh-kym-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tUm. amXyp sI.-sk-_m-Ãy≥ tImb-º-Øq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. amXyp Nß-m-t»cn ]mbn-∏m´v tXm´m-bn-°-S-hn¬ A{_mlw tacn aIƒ en€nsb hnhmlwsNbvXp. amXyp-hnv aco-€m, saeo F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fm-Wv.Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p-∂p. amXyp tImb-º-Øq-cn¬ Hcp tI{µ Kh. Kth-jW ÿm]--Øn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. tZh-kym-bpsS ]p{Xn tPmfnsb Bc-°pg X´m-cp-Ip-t∂¬]utem-kv, tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tP°_v hnhmlw Ign-®p.aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmfn Fkv.-_n.-‰n.-bnepw tP°_vFkv.-_n.-sF.-bnepw tPmen sNøp-∂p. tZh-kym-bpsS Cfb ]p{XnPm≥knsb hmg-°p-fØv hS-tImSv an‰-Øm-n-°¬ amXyp (tUm-bn¬) hnhmlw sNbvXp. tZhkym 1995 ¬ acWw {]m]n-®p. Ad-°pfw ]gb]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkv°-cn-®p.tPmk^v (Ip-™v) (Ggmw Xe-apd) Bdmw Xe-apd C´n sF∏ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v(Ip-™v) c≠p hnhmlw Ign-®p. ]mem-bn¬ Xd-bn¬ am∏n-f-bmbRmh-≈n¬ Xo°pgn hb-en¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ A®m-ΩsbBZyw hnhmlw sNbvXp. {]kvXpX `mcy acn-®-t∏mƒ tImX--√q¿○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 160. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 235]≈n-bn-S-hI It®m-en-Ip-Spw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Xøn¬ tPmk-^ns‚aIƒ tacnsb ]p¿hnhmlw sNbvXv ]m-em-bn¬ sRm≠n-am-°¬Ih-ebn-ep≈ hcn-°am-°¬ ]pc-bnSw hmßn Xma-kn-®p. BZy hnhm- - -l-Øn¬ Nn∂Ω Fs∂mcp ]p{Xnbpw c≠mw hnhm-lØn¬ km_p, -B‚Wn F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw Pn-®p. ]p{Xn Nn∂-Ωsb ao-®¬ Ing-]-d-bm¿ Ic-bn¬ n∂pw Fen-°p-fØv Xma-kn-°p-∂p.s]ms∂-Sp-Øp-I-t√¬ tZh-kym-bpsS aI≥ aØmbn hnhmlwsNbvXp. tPmk^v (Ip-™v)s‚ c≠mw hnhm-l-Ønse aqØ-]p-{X≥km_p Ing-]-d-bm¿ s]cp-hm®nd tPmk^v Ipcp-hnf t{X€ymΩ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ s_≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ing-XSn-bq¿ Im¿Ω¬ - -tlmkv]n-‰-env kao]w Xma-kn-°p-∂p. km_p, Ct∏mƒ tIm˛-Hm-∏-td-‰ohv Un∏m¿´p-sa‚n¬ tPmen tm°p-∂p. km_p-hnv tPml≥F∂ ]p{Xpw l∂ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. tPmk-^ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ B‚Wn (t_-_n-®≥)]mem-bn¬ CS-tbmSn ]d-ºn¬ {^m≥kokv˛Nn∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsSaIƒ knnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-{K-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.B‚-Wn°v tl, nJnX F∂o c≠p-]p-{Xn-am-cp-≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. B‚Wn ]mem-bn¬ {Smh¬ GP≥kn S-Øp-∂p. `mcyknn Xncp-h--¥-]pcw sk{I-´-dn-tb-‰n¬ tem°¬ ^≠v HmUn‰vUn∏m¿´p-sa‚n¬ Iºyq-´¿ Hm∏-td-‰-dmbn tPmen-tm-°p-∂p.sI.-sF. aØmbn C´n sF∏ns‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ aØmbn s{]m^. sI.-sF. aØmbn (Fw.-Fkv.kn.) aWn-ae Ipf-Øq¿ IpSpw-_Øn¬s∏´ - - -sNΩ-c-∏≈n¬ amXyp-hns‚ aIƒ A®m-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp]mem-bn¬ Xma-kam°n. sI.-sF. aØmbn°v tPmk^v (jm-Pn),amXyp (k-Pn) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen (en-€n), sS€n F∂oc≠p ]p{Xnamcpw D≠v. sI.-sF. aØmbn ]mem sk‚ v tXmakvtImtf-Pn¬ s{]m^-kdmbn-cp-∂p. 1975-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn. sI.-sF. aØmbn-bpsS aqØ ]p{X≥ jmPn sI. amXyqkvISp-Øp-cpØn ap≠-I-∏-d-ºn¬ Fw.-kn. sNdn-bm≥, Gen-bmΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ sseksb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]mem-bn¬ Xma-kn-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 161. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 236°p-∂p. jmPn kuØv C≥Uy≥ _m¶v tN¿∏p-¶¬ imJm amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. jmPn°v Acp¨, sPdn≥, hnth-Iv, tXP€vF∂o mev B¨a-°-fm-Wv. aqØ-a-I≥ Acp¨ ^cn-Zm-_m-Zn¬F¬ & ‰n. Iº-n-bn¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sPdn≥ ]q-bn¬ Fw.-_n.-_n.-F-kv. v ]Tn-°p-∂p.aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ hnthIpw mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tXP€pw ]Tn-°p-∂p. sI.-sF. aØmbn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kPn sI. amXyqkvtImSn-°pfw tXm´p-]m´v ]n.-hn. tPmk-^v-˛-F-en-bmΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsSaIƒ Beo-kns hnhmlw sNbvXp. kPn tIme-t©cn knss¥‰vC≥U-kv{Sokv enan-‰-Uns‚ P-d¬ amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p.`mcy Beokv Xpcp-Øn-∏≈n sk‚ v tacokv kvIqfn¬ A≤ym-]n-I-bmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. Ch¿°v Xcp¨ F∂ ]p{Xpw tkmWpF∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v. ]p{X≥ Xcp¨ Im°-m´v cmP-Kncn F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKnv ]Tn-°p-∂p. ]p{Xn tkmp kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p. sI.-sF. aØmbn-bpsS aqØ-]p{Xn en€nsb sXmSp-]pg sN´n-∏-dºn¬ AK-Ãn≥, en√n-°p´n Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ tPmWn hnhmlw - -sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn sS€nsb ]mem aq∂mn sNº-I-Øn-m¬amXyp tdmkΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ t_mkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. C´n sF∏ns‚ A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ h¿°n ico-c-kp-J-an-√msX sNdp-∏-Ønse ac-W-a-S-™p.C´n sF∏v (Hu-tk-∏-®≥) C´n sF∏ns‚ Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v ]mem-bn¬hS-°≥ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ en√n-°p-´nsb hnhmlwsNbvXv ]mem-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. C´n sF∏nv tPmk^v (km-_p) sk_m-Ãy≥ (kn-_n) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂ (ip-`),ko_m F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-am-Wv. aqØ-]p-{X≥ km_p sImcw-Ip-Øn-am-°¬ Ipcym-t°m-kns‚ aIƒ euensb hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿°v tPmk-^v, Ipcy≥ F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠v. c≠p-t]cpw]Tn-°p-∂p. km_p 47-˛masØ hb-€n¬ ncym-X-m-bn.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 162. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 237 Hutk- ∏ - ® s‚ c≠m- a sØ ]p{X≥ kn_n {]hn- Ø mwsXt°-°q‰v Nmt°m˛^ntem Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ kpasb hnhmlwsNbvXv a{Zm-kn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°v tacn, ^ntem-anm F∂oc≠p s]¨a-°-fm-Wv. Ccp-hcpw kvIqƒ hnZym¿∞n-I-fm-Wv. Hutk-∏®s‚ aqØ-]p{Xn ip`sb sXt°-°q‰v sk_m-Ãy≥, -tdmkΩ aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn ko_sb Icn-°n-tem-´n¬ tZh-€ym, tacnaI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw Ign-®p. Ccp-hcpw Zp_m-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. Hutk-∏-®≥ ncym-X-m-bn.sXmΩ≥ (B-dmw- X-e-ap-d) ]oSn-I-ssI-X-h-b-en¬ (A©mw Xe-apd) sXmΩs‚ XrXo-b-]p-{X≥ sXmΩ≥ Nn‰m¿I-c-bn¬ sh≈cn-ßm-´p-am-∏n-f-bmb ImSp-n-eØv Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlw sNbvXv hS-s°-s°-Sp-º≥ ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ (Ip-Sn-en-∏-d-ºn¬) Xma-kn-®p. At±lwBbp¿t∆Z sshZy-imkv{Xw ]Tn-®n-cp-∂p. At±lw acn-®p-t]m-bn.sXmΩv tPmk-^v, tXmakv F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cpw, amΩn, t{Xkym,adn-bw, {_nPo-Øm, A∂, A®mΩ F∂ Ggp ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠m-bn. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn amΩnsb Acp-hn-Øpd hen-bho-´n¬s∏´ h≈n- -°m-∏n¬ Idp-h-®s‚ aI≥ h¿°n hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ]p{Xn, t{Xkym-sb, ]mem-bn¬ “Xd-bn¬ am∏nf” bmb Rmh-≈n¬a™-°p-t∂¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ Ip™u-tk∏p hnhmlwsNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ aIƒ adn-b-Øns `c-W-ßm-Øp sIm√≥]d-ºn¬ sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. A[n-I-Imew Ign-bpw-aptºk¥m--an-√msX Ahƒ acn-®p. mem-asØ ]p{Xn {_nPo-ØmsbIS-mSv ]≈n-bn-S-hI Ip∂-Øq¿ Nm≠nbpsS aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂-°p-´nsb am∂m-ØpXS-Øn¬ eq°m-bpsS aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-°p-´nsb Nß-m-t»-cn¬ IØo-{Z¬ ]≈n CS-hI Be-∏p-d-Øp-Im-´n¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥ tXmakv hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ggm-asØ ]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb ac-ßm-´p-]-≈n-bn-S-hI Xmg-tج Ipcym-t°m-kns‚ aI≥ h¿°n hnhmlw sNbvXp.tPmk^v (Ip-t™-∏v)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 163. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 238 {]Ya ]p{X≥ tPmk^v D≈-mSp ]≈n CS-hI shf-f-cn-ßm-´p-Ip-Spw-_-amb ]-¥m-Øp tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ t{Xkysbhnhmlw sNbvXv ZØhIm-i-ambn `mcym-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmk-^nv tXma-kv, tPmk-^v, sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂ aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw, tdmk, A∂-°p´n F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠v. ]p{X≥tXmakv t]Wm´p-I-c-bn¬ Dgp-h-m¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ tPmk-^ns‚aIƒ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. tXma-knp tPmk^v F∂ Hcp]p{Xpw emen F∂ ]p{Xnbpw Pn-®p. tPmk-^ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v _n.-F-kv.-kn.ho´p-Im-cy-Øn¬ G¿s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. aq∂m-a≥ sk_m-Ãy≥. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk-Ωsb sXmSp-]pg A©n-cn-°-c-bn¬ ]mW-¶m-´p-ho-´n¬ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂ Iym-kv{Xo-bm-bn.tXmakv Bdmw-X-e-apd sXmΩs‚ ZznXob ]p{X≥ tXmakv Nß-m-t»-cn¬ IØo-{U¬ CS-hI Ifn-°¬ A{_m-l-Øns‚ aIƒ tacn-sb- hnhmlw sNbvXv ssae-s°m-ºn¬ Xm-a-kn-°p-∂p. tXma-knvtPmk^v (s_∂n) F∂ Hcp ]p{X-pw, (tj¿en) A∂-Ω, tacn(Pm≥kn), skeo≥ (tPm-fn), F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. tXmakv 2008 hw-_-¿ 6 v acWw {]m]n-®p. ssae-s°mºv]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. aqØ ]p{Xn A∂Ω (tj¿en)sb Nß-m-t»-cn-bn¬ Nº-°pfw ]pØ≥]-d-ºn¬ ]n.-sP. B‚WnI{Xn-°p´n Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ tPmk^v B‚Wn hnhmlw Ign-®p. Ccp-hcpw sNs∂-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmk^v B‚Wn s^U-d¬ _m¶v amt-P-cmbn tPmen tm°p-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tacn(-Pm≥kn) sb Icn-a-Æq¿ Ac-b-°p-t∂¬ amXyp, {_nPn‰v Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPmfn amXyp hnhmlwsNbvXp sXmSp-]pg Im™n-c-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Pm≥kn sXmSp-]pg Xmeq-°v Hm^okn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. tPmfn CSp°n If-Ivt{S-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tPmfn tImgn-t°mSvap°Øv {]m°p-gn-bn¬ Hutk-∏v, Gen-°p´n aI≥ amXyp (am-Øp-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 164. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 239°p-´n) hnhmlw sNbvXv tImgn-t°mSv saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pn¬ slUvtgv k v Bbn tPmen sNøp- ∂ p. tam≥kns‚ aI≥ s_∂nhmg°pfw Imcyma-Tw, t]mƒ, tXykym-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ_osb hnhmlw sNbvXv ssae-s°m-ºn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.s_∂n°v Bcym F∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp-≠v. Bcy tgvknw-Knv]Tn-°p-∂p.-DWn-s®-dn-bXv ]oSnI ssIX-h-b-en¬ sXmΩs‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ DWn-s®-dn-bXv c≠p hnhmlw Ign-®p. BZyw `c-W-ßm-Øp CS-∏m-Sn-°-c-bn¬ hmfn-πm-°¬ IWn-bmw-]-Sn-°¬ kvIdn-bm-bpsS aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXp. ssIX-h-b-en¬ Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-k-am-°n. B hnhm-l-Øn¬ sXmΩ≥, sNdn-bm≥, C´n-sF∏v F∂ aq∂p]p{X-∑m-cpw, A®mΩ F∂ Hcp ]p{Xnbpw Pn-®p. `mcy acn-®-t∏mƒDWn-s®-dn-bXv Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ Ic-bn¬ Ing-t°-S-Øp-ho-´n¬ n∂v Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ sNºn-fm-bn¬ ho´n¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-Xpw, hn[-h-bm-bn-Øo¿∂-Xp-amb tdmksb hnhmlw sNbvXp. tdmk a°-fn-√msXacn-®p. DWn-s®-dn-bXv hmIm-n-bn¬ imJ-bn¬s∏´ s√n-ae C´n-sF∏ns‚ ]pc-bnSw hmßn Ahn-tSbv°p Xmakw am‰n. ]p{Xn A®mΩ ico-ckp-Jan-√msX Ahn-hm-ln-Xbmbn ]nXr- - - -Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. aqØ ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥, cma-]p-c-Øp-n∂pw sXmSp-]pg ap´Øp Xma-kn-°p∂ Xd-bn¬ am∏nf bmb ]≈n-hm-Xp-°¬ n∂pw hnhmlw sNbvXp. a°-fn-√msX sXmΩ≥ acn-°-bm¬ `mcy ]p¿ hnhmlw Ign-®p.sI.-bp. sNdn-bm≥ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ ]b-∏m¿ Ic-bn¬ abn-em-Sq¿Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ adnbØns hnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bmvtdmbn, kÆn, Pbnw-kv, sk_m-Ãy≥, kPn, sdPn F∂n-ßsBdp-]p-{X-∑m-cpw, tagvkn, emen, eqkn, eom F∂o mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠v. sNdn-bms‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tdmbn tImX-aw-Kew aßm´v amXyp,s]ÆΩ aIƒ F¬k-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp tdmbn°v tcJ,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 165. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 240dnb F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠v. ]p{Xn -tc-Jsb Im™-ßm´v ]c-∏-hm-g-Nm-cn-°¬ amp-h¬, A∂Ω ZºXnIfpsS aI≥ kPohv hn.amp-h¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn dnb ]Tn-°p-∂p. sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kÆn ]mem sh≈-cn-ßm´ps{]m. kÆn,- X-¶Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ An-Xsb hnhmlwsNbvXp. kÆn kuØv C¥y≥ _m¶v _mw•q-cn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. AnXm _mw•q¿ sF.-F-kv.-B¿.H bn¬ kb‚n-Ãm-Wv.Ch¿°p AJn¬, nJn¬, F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠v. Ccp-hcpw]Tn-°p-∂p. sNdn- b ms‚ aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ Pbnwkv ae- _ m¿Bet°m´v H‰ssØ If-∏pc Nmt°m, Gen aIƒ AUz. Nn∂-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°vkm{µ, kma F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-≠v. Ccp-hcpw kn.F bv°v]Tn-°p-∂p. Pbnwkv Ct∏mƒ IÆq¿ tIcfm tIm¨{K€v Pn√msk{I-´-dn-bm-Wv. sNdn-bms‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ (tZ-hkym-®≥) -Nn‰m-cn-°m¬ _oa-Sn- a-Sp-°-°p-gn-bn¬ tPmk-^v, t{Xkym Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ B≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. an¥p≈n tIm-gn-®m-en¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°p nJn-X, taLv F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fm-Wv. nJnX kn.-F. °p ]Tn-°p-∂p. taLv kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p. sNdn-bms‚ A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ kPn Ing-t°-°-c-bmbssIsXm- e n¬ C´n- ° p- ™ v , adn- b - ° p´n Zº- X n- I - f psS aIƒkn≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw kn¶-∏q-cn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. Ch¿°v sIhn≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw kvtl F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠v.Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fm-Wv. sNdn-bms‚ Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ sdPn ]mem-cn-h´w apf-°¬sk_m-Ãy≥, Fen-k-_Øv Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ sPns hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Ipssh-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. Ch¿°v sa¬hn≥,am¿´n≥ F∂o c≠p Ip´n-I-fp-≠v. sNdn-bms‚ aqØ-]p{Xn tagvknsb aÆm¿°m´v Im™n-c-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 166. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 241Øp-¶¬ {^©p-Ip´n sXømΩ aI≥ Ahn-cm-®≥ hnhmlw Ign-®p. sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn emensb Icn-¶p∂w Nº-∏≈n BKkvXn Gen aI≥ AUz. tUm. sk_m-Ãy≥ Nº∏≈nhnhmlw Ign-®p Im°-m´v Xma-kn-°p-∂p. AUz. sk_m-Ãy≥ssltIm¿´n¬ {]mIvSokv sNøp-∂p. emen F^v.-F. kn.-‰n-bn¬F©n-o-b¿ Bbn-cp-∂p. Ch¿°p AJn¬ (Akhil), nJn¬ (Nikhil)F∂n-ßs c≠m¨a°-fp-≠v. sNdn-bms‚ aq∂masØ ]p{Xn eqknsb Ip‰n-bmSn ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ tXma-kv, Nn∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tSmw tXma-kvhnhmlw Ign-®p. Ch¿°v tSmWn F∂ B¨Ip-´nbpw B≥tacnF∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bp-ap-≠v. sNdn-bms‚ mem-asØ ]p{Xn eosb s]cp-ºm-hq¿ hncp-∂n-mØv ss]en, X¶Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ jmPn hnhmlw Ign-®p. Ch¿°v a¿en≥, adn≥, F∂o c≠p-Ip-´n-I-fp-≠v.sI.-bp. C´n sF∏v aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v (sI.-bp. C´n-bbv∏v _n.-F-kv.-kn) tN¿∏p-¶¬ tIme-Sn-bn¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Imcm-a-bn¬Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ X¶Ω _n.-F-kv.knsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ aÆm¿Im´p Xma-kn®p Irjn S-Øp-∂p. C´n- sF∏npkm_p F∂ Hcp ]p{Xpw tPmfn, sP€n, Pm≥kn, PnPn, PbF∂o A©p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. C´n- sF∏ns‚ aI≥ km_p Nß-m-t»cnbn¬ ]mem°p-t∂¬ tPm_ns‚ aIƒ _oasb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ -Xma-kn-°p-∂p. km_p Ct∏mƒ aÆm¿°m´v I√Sn (Fw.-C.-F-kv)tImtf-Pn¬ ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂p. km_p-hnv c≠m¨a-°fpw Hcp s]Æp-am-Wv. sF∏v km_p, tPmkv km_p F∂n-ßs ]p{X-∑mcpw nZnbkm_p F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-am-Wv. sF∏v km_p Fw.-Un.-Fkv v Fd-Wm-Ipfw AarXmµ-abn tImtf-Pn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p. sF∏v km_p Xriq-cn¬ s]√n-t»cnhn≥sk‚ v aIƒ hnn-Xsb hnhmlw Ign-®p. sF∏v km_p-hnvsIhn≥ sF∏v F∂ Hcm¨Ip-´n-bp-≠v.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 167. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 242 tPm_v km_p ^nkn-Ivkn¬ a{Zm-kn¬ sNss∂ bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n¬ ]n.-F-®v.Un sNøp-∂p. nZnb km_p awK-em-]p-cØvtkm^v‰vshb¿ F©n-o-b¿ Bbn tPmen tm°p-∂p. C´n sF∏ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn tPmfn Nß-m-t»cn ]mem-°p-t∂¬ ]tc-X-mb sk_m-Ãy≥ kvIdnb (kn-_n) hnhmlw Ign®p_m•qcn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn P€nsb ae-∏p-dØvIpgn-°m´v tP°-∫ns‚ aI≥ kÆn hnhmlw sNbvXp Ata-cn-°-bn¬ ÿnc-Xm-a-k-am-Wv. c≠p-t]cpw F©n-o-b¿ BWv. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Pm≥knsb ]mem Ac-b-Øn-m¬ tUm.ssa°nƒ aI≥ hnP-b≥ hnhmlw sNbvNp. c≠p-t]cpw U¬ln-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Pm≥kn sk≥{S¬ hm´¿ AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬Ub-d-IvS¿ Bbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. mem-asØ ]p{Xn PnPnsbNß-m-t»cn hen-b]dºn¬ amXyp aI≥ tPm¿÷v amXyp hnhmlw - - -Ign®v Ata-cn-°-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. PnPn Ata-cn-°-bn¬ sIan-Ãmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn Pbsb sXmSp-]pgXpSn-bw-πm-°¬ s{]m^. Sn.-F-kv. Nmt°mbpsS aI≥ •mUntP°∫v hnhmlw Ign®v _mw•q-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. c≠p-t]cpw_mw•q-cn¬ ss{IÃv tImtf-Pn¬ h¿°v sNøp-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 168. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 247 Be-bv°¬ IpSpw_w Be-bv°¬ C´n-s®-dnb (memw Xe-apd) aq∂mw Xe-apd Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ C´n-b-bv∏ns‚XrXo-b]p-{X≥ C´n-s®-dnb ]mem Aßm-Sn-bn¬ I´-°bØn¬ sNdn- - - -bm≥ apX¬ ]nSn-°m-cs‚ ]p{Xnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Be-bv°¬Xma-kn®p. C´n-s®-dnb Ic-{]-[m-nbpw ]mem hen-b-]-≈n-bnse HcptbmK {][m-n-bp-am-bn-cp∂p. kao-]-Øp≈ I≠-ß-fnse s√p-W-°p-∂-Xn-mbn sI´n-bp-≠m-°nb Be-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xn-m-emWv""Be-bv°¬ F∂ t]cp-≠m-bXv. C´n-s®-dn-bbv°v sNdn-bm≥, C´n-s®-dnb, aØmbn F∂ aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A©p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠mbn.BZy ]p{Xnsb aptØmen sIgp-h≥Ip-f-Øp-I-c-bn¬ Ibn-∏≥πm-°¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-bbv®p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb Bc-°p-g-I-c-bn¬ C´n-Ø-t´¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xnsb hmg-°p-fØv t]mtf-Ip-t∂¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-b-b®p. mem-asØ]p{Xnsb ]mem-I-c-bn¬ R≈-°m´p hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xnsb aptØm-e]pcw Ic-bn¬ ]≈n-°m-∏dºn¬ hnhmlw - - -sNbvXp. {]Y-a-]p-{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ Be-∏pg sN∂-°m-´p-n∂pwhnhmlw Ign®v hmIm-n-bn¬ Xma-kn®p. Sn. sNdn-bm≥ sXmΩ≥,C´n-s®-dnb, h¿°n, C´n-bbn∏v, sNdn-bm≥ F∂o A©p ]p{X-∑mcpw -Hcp ]p{Xnbpw D≠mbn. ]p{Xnsb hmg-°p-fØv sNm≈m-a-T-Øn¬hnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bms‚ {]Ya ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ ]≈n-hm-Xp-°¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ apf-b-∂q¿n∂pw {_nPo-Ømsb hnhmlwsNbvXv hmImn Ing-t°-]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn®p. sXmΩp sNdn-bm≥, C´n-s®-dnb F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw amΩn, I{Xn F∂ ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. ]p{Xn amΩnsb ]mem-bn¬ hS-°≥ IpSpw-_-Øn¬sh≈m-∏m´p ]m∏≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn I{XnsbtN¿∏p-¶¬ Ipf-∏p-d-Ømsg Xpcp-Øn-°m-hn¬ Nmt°m hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ingt° Be-bv°¬ hmI-bm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bm≥ ]mem hS-°-bn¬n∂pw hnhmlw sNbvXp. k¥m-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 169. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 248-an-√msX `mcy acn-°bm¬ Nnd-°Shp-Icbn¬ aÆ≥πm-°¬ IpSpw- - - - - -_-Øn¬ G¿Ø-bn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlwsNbvXp. sNdn-bmp sXmΩ≥, Hutk∏v, aØmbn, Nmt°m F∂mep ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠mbn.sXmΩ≥ {]Ya ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ ]mem CS-hI ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ sXt°-°-≠-Øn¬n∂pw taep-Im-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ Gensb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv sh≈n-bm-a‰Øv Xma- -kn-°p∂p. Sn. sXmΩp sNdn-bm≥, Pbnwkv, tXmakv F∂ aq∂p]p{X-∑mcpw A∂, Gen, adnbw, tdmk F∂ mep ]p{Xn-amcpwD≠v.sNdn-bm≥ (tPm-kv) aqØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (tPmkv) s]m≥Ip-∂Øv Iqcn-°m´vtXmakv aIƒ eoem-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Cfw-tZ-iØv Xma-kn®p. 2002¬ sNdn-bm≥ acn®p. sNdn-bmv c≠m¨a-°-fmWv.tPmtam≥, tPmPn. tPmPn Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv tPmen sNøp∂p. c≠m-a≥ Pbnwkv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. hnhmlw Ign-®n-´n√.tXma€v (tPmbn-®≥) taep-Imhv ]pØ≥]p-c-bn¬ Ipcys‚ aIƒkpk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma- -knp aq∂p s]¨a-°-fm-Wp-≈Xv. aqØ-]p{Xn tPm^n-bmsb Ipd-hn-e-ßm´v henb t]ßm´v amWn-bpsS aI≥ tPm¿Pv IeymWwIgn®p. c≠p-t]cpw Ipssh-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnacnb kuZn-bn¬ gvkmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{XnA¬t^m≥kv gv k nwKv hnZym- ¿ ∞n- b mWv . aqØ- ] p{Xn A∂(en√n)sb t]cm{º ]mº-°¬ aØ-®s‚ aI≥ Ão^≥ IeymWwIgn®p. Ch¿°v aq∂p B¨a-°-fp≠v. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tacnsbsNdp-]pg Nne-ºn-°p-t∂¬ kn.-‰n. amXyp IeymWw Ign®p. Ch¿°vc≠mWpw Hcp s]Æp-ap≠v. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen (h’Ω)sbGgp-ap´w ]´-cp-aTw tPmk^v aI≥ Nmt°m-®≥ IeymWw Ign®p.Ch¿°v c≠p s]Æpw Hcm-Wp-ap≠v.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 170. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 249 mem-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk (tPmknen)sb Im™n-c∏≈n Imcp- -then tP°_v aI≥ Ipcp-hnf (tPmkv) IeymWw Ign®p Ad-°p-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknen XpS-ß-mSv sslkvIqƒ slUvan-kv{S-kmbn tPmen tm°p∂p. tPmkn-en°p c≠v s]¨Ip-´n-Ifp≠v. -Hutk∏v Ggmw Xe-ap-d-bnse sNdn-bms‚ ZznZob ]p{X≥ Hutk∏v]mem CS-hI ap≠-a-‰-Øn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ t{Xkymsbhnhmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Hutk-∏np sNdn-bm≥(tPmbn), tXmakv (tSmwk¨), tPmk^v (tPmjn) F∂o aq∂p]p{X-∑mcpw A∂ (eoemΩ), adnbw (h’Ω), t{Xky (Ip´n-bΩ),tdmk (tdmknen) F∂o mep ]{Xnam-cp-amWv. aqØ-]p{Xn A∂ (eoemΩ)sb taep-Im-hn¬ IÆw-Ip-fØvtZh-kym-bpsS aI≥ Ipcy≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Hutk-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn adnb (h’Ω)Øns ]qh-tØmSv Ing-I-t°-Øp-cp-Øn-bn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ ap∂n-e-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. t^m¨:04822 ˛ 286620. Hutk-∏ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xkym(Ip´n-bΩ)sb `c-W-ßmw Ie-b-Øn-m¬ h¿°n-bpsS aI≥ tPm¿÷v hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ G¥-bm-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 04828 -˛ 286753. Hutk-∏ns‚ mem-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk (tdmknen)sb IpafnXqß≥]-d-ºn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aI≥ h¿Kokv hnhmlw sNbvXp.t^m¨: 04869 ˛ 223470. Hutk-∏ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (tPmbn) Ipd-hn-e-ßmSvht√ym-fn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ Gensb (eoeΩ) hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ct∏mƒ ap≠-°-bØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmbn°v civan, caym F∂oc≠p s]¨a-°fmWv. Ccp-hcpw gvknwKv ]Tw Ign™v {]mIvSokv -sNøp∂p. t^m¨: 9744641339.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 171. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 250 Hutk-∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (tSmwk¨) Af-mSv πmen-°¬ tPmWns‚ aIƒ adn-bsØ (h’Ω) hnhmlwsNbvXp. tSmwk¨ Ct∏mƒ D≈-m-´n-emWv Xmakw. tSmwk¨Pnp F∂ ]p{Xpw dq_n F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ Pnptlm´¬am-t-Pvsa‚ v ]T-Øn-p-tijw {]mIvSokv sNøp∂p. dq_n -_n.Fkvkn gvknwKv ]Tn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 04822 ˛ 224217. Hutk-∏ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (tPmjn) ]bkvau≠v Ip∂Øv C´n-b-hncm tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ A∂ (knknen)sbhnhmlw sNbvXp. Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmjn°v kntPm,entPm F∂o c≠p a°-fmWv. kntPm Ggmw-¢m-kn¬ ]Tn-°p∂p.entPm Ip™mWv. t^m¨: 04822 ˛ 201146, samss_¬ 9744987731.aØmbn sNdn-bms‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ aØmbn XpS-ß-mSv tImX-º-m-n-bn¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ tdmksb hnhmlw sNbvXpXd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°th 1983¬ ac-W-a-S™p. Cu hnhm-l-Øn¬k¥m--ß-fn√.Nmt°m sNdn-bms‚ memasØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m ap´w amS-°¬sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ h’-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ap´Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Nmt°mbv°v tdm_n≥kv F∂ ]p{Xpw dq_n acnb F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ dq_n≥kv F≥Pn-o-bdmWv.]p{Xn dq_n acnb -_n.Fkvkn gvkmWv. Nmt°m C¥y≥ anen-´dn k¿ho-kn¬n∂pwdn´-b¿sN-bvXbm-fmWv. t^m¨: 04862 255054, samss_¬: 9744277992. - Bdmw Xe-apd hmIm-n-bn¬ sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥C´n- s ®- d nb (dh. ^m. Xm¿kn€v knFwsF) I¿Ω- e oØmk`-bn¬ tN¿∂p sshZn-I-mbn. At±lw Ct∏mƒ C√.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 172. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 257 hmIm-n-bn¬ Ipºp-°¬ imJ hmIm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bms‚ ZznXob ]p{X≥ C´n-s®-dnb s]mcp-t∂m-en¬ ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ Itcm´p adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXvZØ-h-Im-i-ambn Xma-kn®p. C´n-s®-dn-b-Xnp BKkvXn, aØmbnF∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠mbn. aqØ-]p-{X≥ BKkvXn `c-W-ßm-Øv Bcw-]p-fn-°-emb Ipf-∏p-c-bn¬ sNdn-b-Xns‚ aIƒ A∂sbhnhmlw sNbvXv Du∂p-I√pw-]p-cbn-SØn¬ Xma-kn®p. BK-kvXn°v - - -aØmbn, C´n-bbv]v F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw, adnbw, A∂, t{Xkym,Gen F∂o ]p{Xnamcpw Pn®p. aqØ-]p{Xn adn-b-Øns Ggm-t®-cn¬ thc-m-n-°¬ sNdn-bms‚ aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlw sNbvXp.c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂sb `c-W-ßm-Øp amdm-a-‰-Øn¬n∂pcn-b-ßm-Øp Xma-kn-°p∂ amWn-bpsS aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlwsNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn- t{X-kysb A¥o-m´v Im™n-c-Øp-¶¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ]p{Xn Gen (knÿ tacn _o™m) am¿ØmWvUw tUmt´gvkvHm^v tacn hI aT-Øn¬t®¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn.aØmbn BK-kvXn-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ aØmbn {]hn-Øm-Øv Imcym-¶¬ {_nPo-Ømsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ Be-t°m´p Xma-kn-°p∂p. aØm-bn°v BKkvXn, Hutk∏v F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpwA∂, Nn∂ F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠v. ]p{Xn A∂sb ]mem]pØ≥]≈n CS-hI ]pXn-bm-]-d-ºn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥ Ip´-∏≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Nn∂sb ap´p-Nnd ocm-°¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp.BKkvXn aØm-bn-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ BKkvXn (]m∏-®≥) Cf-ßfØp- - -n∂p ae-_m-dn¬ sNtº-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ ISq°p-t∂¬ ho´n¬CØm-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. BKkvXn (]m∏-®≥) Imk¿tKmUp Xmeq-°n¬ _¥-Sp-°-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 173. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 258°-SpØv ]Sp-∏n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. ]m∏-®p tUmfn, _om, _nµpF∂ aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw hntmZv F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. CXn¬_ombpw _nµphpw Cc-´-I-fmWv. aqØ-]p{Xn tUmfnsb Xma-c-t»cn ASpØv I´n-∏md C´n-tb-∏md {^m≥knkv, Gen Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ jmPp hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn _osbhb-mSv S-h-b-en¬ ]ncn-bw-am-°¬ ^nen∏v, Gen-°p´n aI≥Ip™p-tam≥ (amXyp) hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn _nµpsNdp-]pg ]pfntßmw sNm∆m-‰p-Ip-t∂¬ kvIdnb, AΩnWn aI≥_Pn hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{X≥ hntmZv tImf-bmSv IpS-°-®nd^nen∏v, tacn aIƒ kvanXsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXm-hns‚ IqsS]Sp-∏n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. hntm-Znp A£bv, A`n-bv, F∂o c≠p]p{X-∑mcpw B¬an F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv.tPmk^v (Hu-tk-∏-®≥) aØm-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (Hutk-∏-®≥)ac-ßm-´p-]≈n-bn¬n∂pw Be-t°mSv s√n-∏m-dbn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ - -IpS-I-m-Sn-bn¬ tPmk^v ˛ A∂-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ Gen-bm-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Be-t°mSv aoº-‰n-bn-ep≈ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Hutk-∏-®≥ √ Hcp πm‚dpw Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ Hcp kmaq-ly-{]-h¿Ø-I-p-amWv. Hutk-∏-®p atmPv F∂Hcp ]p{Xpw ann-sb∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ atmPv Ad-°p-f-Øp-n∂pw Icp-h-©m-en¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ tahnS ]tc-X-mbtPm¨, t{Kkn-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ SnPnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv]nXm-hns‚ IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p. atmPv sjb¿ _nkn--kn¬{]h¿Øn-°p∂p. atm-Pnp Fen-k-_Øv F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpwtPmk^v (tPmjz) F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fmWvHutk-∏-®s‚ ]p{Xn annsb neq¿n∂pw ]pfntßmw tImgn-®m-en¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ Im≠m-h--Øn¬ ssa°nƒ, tamn°m aI≥km_p hnhmlw sNbvXp.C´n sF∏v Ipºp-°¬ BK-kvXn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n-sF∏vD≈-m´v Acn-°m´p h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ A®m-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 174. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 259]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. C´n-sF-∏np k¥m--ß-fn√.aØmbn BK- k v X n- b psS Ap- P ≥ aØmbn ]q™m¿ tXm´- ° camØ≥Ip-t∂¬ Ipcys‚ aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ Xma-kn®p. At±-lØnp C´n-s®-dnb, aØmbn (sIm®v) - -sNdn-bm≥ F∂ aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen, amΩn, A®mΩ, t{Xky,tdmk, {_nPoØv, tacn F∂o Ggp ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠mbn. ]nXm-hmb aØmbn acn®v Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gensb nc-b-ßm-Øv ss]I-S-bn¬sXmΩs‚ aI≥ h¿°n hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn acn-®p-t]mbn. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn A®m-Ωsb Icq¿ CS-hI abn-em-Sq¿sXmΩs‚ aI≥ sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xnt{Xkysb `c-W-ßm-Øv Xpcp-Øn-bn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥aØmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmksb tacnem‚n¬ Imcym-¶¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aI≥ tPm¨ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn {_nPoØ (knÿ Atπm-nbm) tImX-aw-KeØv Bcm-[m-aTØn¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ggm-asØ - - - -]p{Xn tacnsb `c-W-ßm-Øv Xmg-tج IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ hcn-°-bm-n-°¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ A{_mlw hnhmlw sNbvXp.C´n-s®-dnb aØm-bn-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ C´n-s®-dnb ]mem CS-hI aWn-ae am∏n-fbmb s]mSn-a‰Øn¬n∂pw Nn‰m-‰n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ sh´p- - - -I-t√¬ sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv Af-m-Sp-I-c-bn¬ hcn-°-am-°¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ At±-l-Ønp aØmbn(amØ≥) sNdn-bm≥ F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂, Gen, adnbw,sIm®p-t{Xky F∂ mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂ en‰n¬ kntÃgvkv Hm^v Zn ]qh¿F∂ aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 175. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 260(eoemΩ)sb Acp-hn-Øpd ]≈n CS-hI BgmØv tXmakv aI≥tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 04822 272674. aq∂m-asØ]p{Xn adnb (knknen)Øns IS-mSv ]≈n CS-hI tX°pw-Im-´n¬ Cmkv aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ sN∏p-Ip-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 04862 ˛ 271812. mem-asØ ]p{Xn sIm®p-t{Xkym AtUm-td-j≥ aT-Øn¬tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ct∏mƒ I√p-]mew aT-Øn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. t^m¨: 9747395834. C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ amØ≥ ]qh-tØmSv ]≈n CS-hI amS-∏≈n IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ InW-‰p-Ic ho´n¬ Hutk-∏ns‚aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. amØp tSmWn, sNdn-bm≥ F∂v c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw en€n,s‰kn F∂v c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥_me-m-bn-cns° ac-W-a-S™p. amØs‚ ]p{X≥ tSmWn (tPmk^v) cmPm-°mSv CS-hI ]me-°m-tXm-´-Øn¬ ]n.hn.tXma€v aIƒ BXn-csb hnhmlw sNbvXvsXmSp-]pg Be-t°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tSmWn°p Ao‰ Fs∂mcp]p{Xn-bp≠v. inip-hmWv. amØs‚ aqØ-]p{Xn en€n (tacn)sb A©ncn ]≈n CS-hI sXt° aWm-¶-Ø-S-Øn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ tdmbn hnhmlwsNbvXp. t^m¨: 9745807301. amØs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn s‰kn (A∂)sb Sp-°c ]≈nCS-hI Ipºm´v IWn-bm-]-d-ºn¬ tPmk^v aI≥ s_∂n hnhmlwsNbvXp. t^m¨: 04852 ˛ 261259. amØ≥ 2000 am¿®v 25˛mw XobXn ac-W-a-S™p. Cfw-tXm´w]≈n knan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ Xd-hm-Smb]me-bn-ep≈ hcn-°-am-°¬ ]pc-bnSw hn‰v sXmSp-]pg Be-t°mSvXma-kn-°p∂p. sNdn-bm≥ Ahn-hm-ln-X-mWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 176. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 261aØmbn Ipºp-°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ aI≥ aØmbn (sIm®v)πmi-m¬ ]pfn-°Ømsg Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ adn-bØns hnhmlw - -sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ ae-_m-dn¬ sh≈-cn-°p≠v Xma-kn-°p∂p.aØmbn (sIm®v) 1997 G{]n¬ H∂np acWw {]m]n®p. Np≈n-]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvIcn®p. sIm®np aØmbn (aØ-®≥), -tPmkv, BKkvXn (kmPp) F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂, Gen,{_nPnØ, tdmk, A¬t^m≥km, {_nPn‰v F∂o Bdp ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. sIm®ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ aØmbn (aØ-®≥) tN∂mSv ]pfn-°¬ tXma€v A∂-°p´n aIƒ adn-bmΩ (tagvkn)sb hnhmlwsNbvXp. aØ-®p j¿an, jnPn F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw sjdn≥F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. ]p{Xn j¿ansb Im™-ßmSv Aojv hnhmlw sNbvXp.c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn jnPnsb hfm-∏mSn sIm®n-bn¬ kt¥mjvhnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{X≥ sjdn≥ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. aØ-®≥ 2011 Pq¨ Bdmw XobXn ac-W-a-S™p. Imen-®m--Sp°w ]≈n-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. sIm®ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv IS-mSv X®p-Ip-t∂¬h’-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp ae-_m-dn¬ sh≈-cn-°p≠v Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknp amXyp (Sn‚p) F∂ ]p{Xpw adnbw (aWn-°p´n),t{Xkym (kuay) F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ Sn‚p FIvkvtd tImgvkv ]mkmbn _mwKvfq-cn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. tPmkns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn adnbw (aWn-°p´n) `c-W-ßmwUnFkvSn k`-bn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Cf-b-]p{Xn kuaygvknwKv ]mkmbn t_mws_-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. sIm®ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ kmPp sIm∂-°mSv oew-]-d-ºn¬ ]t{Xmkv, tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ A∂Ω (_nµp)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kmPp-hnv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 177. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 262B‚Wn (B¬hn≥), amXyp (Ae≥) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v.Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p. aqØ-]p{Xn A∂ (en√n)sb Im°-S-hp-Nn-d-bn¬ A{_mlw,A∂Ω ˛ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ _m_p-hns hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m- -asØ ]p{Xn adnbw (kmen)sb ]p∂-°p∂v ]mº-°¬ Ip™q™v(Ipcp-hnf) hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk (sS€nsb)]pfn-¶p∂v (Nß-m-t»-cn¬) Ing-t°-°p‰v Ipcy-∏≥ aI≥ tPm€nhnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn Pb ({_nPo‰v)sb `oa-Sn(Ip∂pwssI) ]®-∏Xn-bn¬ hn’≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ -]p{Xn {_Po‰ (]pjv]-dmWn), `c-W-ßmw UnFkvSn k`-bn¬tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn U¬ln-bn¬ kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-∏n°p∂p.Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn A¬t^m≥km (Zo]vXn) IÆq¿ hna-em-eb k`-bn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ct∏mƒ sNtº-cn¬ kvIqfn¬ ]Tn-∏n-°p∂p.sNdn-bm≥ Ipºp-°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ `c-W-ßm-Øv hmfn-πm-°¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ If-cn-°¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ Nn∂-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn®p. B hnhm-l-Øn¬ A∂ (B≥kΩ) F∂ ]p{Xnbpw amXypF∂ ]p{Xpw Pn®p. AXn-p-tijw B `mcy ac-W-a-S™p.]n∂oSv nc-t∏¬ ]≈n-bn-ShI Np¶-∏md ho´n¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ -{_nPo-Øsb ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bm≥ Ct∏mƒ CS-a-dp-In-emWv Xmakw. c≠mw hnhm-l-Øn¬ adnbw (Pn≥kn) F∂]p{Xnbpw Hutk∏v (tPmkv), tkmP≥ F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-amWv. ]p{Xn Pn≥knsb CS-a-dpIv ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Hutk∏v, tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥tPmkv taep-Imhv hS-t°-ap-f-™-m¬ ]m∏-®s‚ aIƒ en‰nsbhnhmlw sNbvXv hmI-°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknp taL (A∂),acnb, A¬t^m≥km F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xnam-cp≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tkmP≥ aqe-a‰w Iq-ºm-d-bn¬tPmk^v, tacn Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ ann (tacn)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 178. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 263]nXm-hns‚ IqsS CS-a-dp-In¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tkmPv A∂mΩF∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp≠v. BZy hnhm-lØnse ]p{Xn B≥k-Ωsb AXn-cºpg Im™n- - -c-°m-em-bn¬ Hutk∏v tacn aI≥ tPmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp.B≥kΩ anen-‰dn k¿ho-kn¬ tIW¬ Bbn KpP-dm-Øn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. ]p{X≥ amXyp (amØ-®≥) neq¿ s]m´w-πm-°¬ B¬k-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv hÆ-∏p-dØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v imcn,imanen F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. imcn _tbm-sS-Ivtm-fPnFw.Fkvkn°v Nß-m-ti-cn-bn¬ ]Tn-°p∂p. ]Sn-™msd Be-°¬ hmIm-n-bn¬ imJ hmIm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bms‚ XrXob ]p{X≥ h¿°n ]mem-bn¬hS-°≥ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlw sNbvXvhmIm-n-bn¬ ]Sn-™m-td-Xn¬ Xma-kn®p. Ah¿°v A∂ Fs∂mcp]p{Xn am{Xw Pn®p. ]p{Xn A∂sb Ing-t°-°c Xmg-Øp-n∂pwaq∂p-am-°¬ Xma-kam-°nb Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ sNdn-bm≥ (Ips©- -dnb) hnhmlw sNbvXp. ZØm-h-Im-i-ambn Xma-kn®p. Sn sNdn-bmph¿°n (tN´mbn), Hutk∏v (A∏- ® ≥), Nmt°m, sNdn- b m≥,sXmΩ≥ F∂ A©p ]p{X≥amcpw, I{Xn, A∂, adnbw, Gen-°p´n F∂ mep ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. sNdn-bms‚ aqØ ]p{Xn I{Xo-sb Icq¿ ]-a‰Øn¬ h¿°n- - -bpsS aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠masØ ]p{Xn A∂sb]Sn-™m-sd-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ sISp-º≥]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ sXmΩs‚aI≥ Ipcp-hnf hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-bsØ aptØm-en¬ mK-q-en¬ sImbn-∏p-dØv sXmΩs‚ aI≥ sI.Sn.tXmakv _nF._nF¬ hnhmlwsNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn Gen-°p-´nsb Ipd-hn-e-ßmSv Imcmw-th-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 179. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 264en¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ amWn hnhmlw sNbvXp. Gen-°p´n Kh.kvIqƒ A[ym-]n-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. sNdn-bms‚ ]p{X-∑m-cn¬ h¿°n, Nmt°m, sNdn-bm≥ F∂n-h¿ 1950 Ime-L-´Øn¬ ]mem-bn¬n∂pw ae-_m-dn¬ s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ IpSn-tbdn tZl-WvU-߃ ]nSn-∏n®p. h¿°n (tN-´m-bn) sNdn-bms‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ h¿°n (tN´mbn) Ipdp-∏pw-Xd ]I-tem-a‰w IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ hgp-X--∏-≈n¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒGensb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. h¿°n°v tPmk^v, sNdn-bm≥ (A∏-®≥) h¿°n(tPm¿÷v) F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂, h’Ω, tacn F∂oaq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. h¿°n-bpsS aqØ ]p{Xn A∂sb s]cp-am-en¬ A∏-®≥ hnhm-lw-sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn h’-Ωsb I√m-tmSv ISp-Ip-am-°¬ ]m∏-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xntacnsb ]Sp-Øp-I-Shv ]p√m´v Ipcym-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v (Ip™v) s√-cn-ho-´n¬ s]Æ-Ωsbhnhmlw sNbvXv s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°vPbn≥, tPmbvkn, Pm≥kn, sP€n, tPm¬k (emen) F∂o A©p]p{Xn-amcpw tPm¨k¨ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ip™ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn Pbns ]me-°mSv I√-Sn-t°mSv ]pXp-th-en¬ Nmt°m tdmkΩ aI≥ h¿§okv (Ip™q™v) hnhmlwsNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tPmbvknsb Iqcm-®p≠v ]¥-πm-°¬ kndn-b°v (t__n) hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m- a sØ ]p{Xn Pm≥knsb sNdp- ] pg Nn‰m- c n- ° m¬Ip∂Øv amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ tPm¿Pv hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn P€nsb sNtºcn Igp-∂-Sn-ho-´n¬ amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{XntPm¬k-sb N°n-´-]md aqte-°m´v tImc ˛ tacn aI≥ tPm¨hnhmlw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 180. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 265 ]p{X≥ tPm¨k¨ ]me-°mSv s]m∂-t¶m´v am{]mWwtPm¨, tacn aIƒ {]n≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXp Nh-dw-ap-gn-bn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¨kv tdmj≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw tdmkvan F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. tPm¨k¨ Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ Hcp Kmb-I-mWv. ]e {Sq∏p-I-fn¬ ]mSp-Ibpw Imk‰v Cd-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-´p≠v. tN´m-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (A∏-®≥) awK-e-Øn¬ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-ap-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. A∏-®v (sNdn-bm≥) jmP≥, ssj≥ F∂o ]p{X-∑mcpwjnPn, {]n≥kn F∂o c≠p ]p{X-nam-cp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p-{X≥ jmP≥ B-°mw-s]m-bn¬ h´-∏md amXyp-hns‚aIƒ ]ufnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. jmPv Aa¬, BZn≥ F∂oc≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fmWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ ssj≥ sNtºcn IpSn-bm-ae Im∏n¬tPmkns‚ aIƒ hno-Xsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v kn≤m¿Yv,dn®m¿Uv F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. aqØ-]p{Xn jnPnsb ]ip-°-Shv s√-cn-bn¬ amΩ-®≥,t{Xkym aI≥ _ntmbv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnjn≥knsb IqS-c™n Xd-∏n¬ B‚Wn˛tamfn aI≥ kPn hnhmlwsNbvXp. h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v Iqcm-®p≠v sIm√w-Ip-t∂¬ tZhkym tacn aIƒ F¬k-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿Pv (Ip™p)p tPm_n≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw Sn‚p F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ tPm_n≥ ss]k-°cn N°m-Wn-Ip-t∂¬ Hm-®≥, s]ÆΩ aIƒ kn‘p-hns hnhm-lw-sNbvXp. Nh-dw-ap-gn-bn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm_nv A¬° F∂ ]p{Xnbpw AtUm¨ F∂]p{X-p-ap≠v.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 181. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 266 tPm¿Pns‚ ]p{Xn Sn‚p-hns Iqcm-®p≠v sSn-b-]me Ah-dm-®≥ tdmkΩ aI≥ jntPm hnhm-lw-sNbvXp.Hutk∏v (A-∏-®≥) sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Hutk∏v (A∏-®≥) ]mem]pØ≥]-≈n-bn-S-hI ]pXn-bm-]-d-ºn¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ Be-t°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v tPmk^v (t__n), sNdn-bm≥ (kÆn), amXyp (X¶-®≥),h¿°n (tPmjn) F∂o mep ]p{X-∑mcpw tacn A∂ (eoe), Gen(Pb) F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. A∏-®s‚ aqØ ]p{Xn tacnsb hmbm-´p-]-dºv ssItØm-´p-¶¬ tPmk^v (HuX) hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn eoem-Ωsb Icp-h≥Nm¬ Is√m-Sn-bn¬IÆmw-]-S-Øn¬ amXyp (Ip´n-b-®≥) hnhmlw sNbvXp. eoemΩdn´. Kh. gvkmWv. amXyp kn_nsF Hm^o-k¿ Bbn IÆqcvtPmen sNøp∂p. A∏-®s‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Pbsb {ioI-WvTm-]pcw aS-ºØv IWn-bmw-]-d-ºn¬ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. amXyp Fkv_n-sF-bn¬ amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Pb Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ Kh.FbvUUv kvIqƒ So®-dmWv. A∏-®s‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v (t__n) ]q™m-‰n¬n∂pwae-_m¿ Be-t°mSv XSn-°-S-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ taeq-°p-t∂¬tPmk^v, A∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.Be-t°mSv s√n-∏md Xma-kn-°p∂p. t__n°p tPmk^v (PnØp),sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fmWv. aqØ ]p{X≥ PnØpkpPsb hnhmlw Ign®p. PnØp Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ sdUn-sabvUv _nkn-kv S-Øp∂p. c≠m-a≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ Xfn-∏-d-ºn¬ Hcp ÿm]--Øn¬ A°u-≠‚mbn tPmen sNøp∂p. A∏-®s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kÆn Xriq¿ Aø-t¥mƒ{_lva-Ipfw Hutk∏v adnbw aIƒ A∂ (tdmkn)sb hnhmlw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 182. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 267sNbvXv Be-t°mSv Ac-ßØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn°v tdmjv F∂]p{Xpw tdmjvn F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. tdmjv Im∏n-ae ]pc-∏p-g-°¬ tPmkv, Pbn-kΩ aIƒ kuaysb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXrKr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tdmjvnsb ]ø-∂q¿ hb-en¬ tPm¿Pvh’Ω aI≥ APn-k¨ hnhmlw sNbvXp. A∏-®s‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ X¶-®≥ ]øm-hq¿ the-mØvNmt°m, adnbw aIƒ B≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Be-t°mSvs√n-∏md Xma-kn-°p∂p. X¶-®v Inc¨, Acp¨ F∂o c≠p]p{X-∑m-cmWv. Inc¨ F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv ]mkmbn _mwKvfq-cn¬tPmen sNøp∂p. Acp¨ F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. A∏-®s‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmjn aW-°-Shv ]pen-bp-dp-ºn¬ A{_mlw, tacn aIƒ tkm^n-bm-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXvBe-t°mSv Ac-ßØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmjn°v B{Unb, A¿jF∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw AeIvkv F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ip´n-Iƒaq∂p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p-∂p. tkm^n-bmΩ Kh. bp.]n.kvIqƒ sdbtdmw-an¬ A[ym-]n-I-bmWv. tPmjn sIF-kv-C_n Be-t°mSv Hmh¿ko-b-dmbn tPmen sNøp∂p.Nmt°m Ips©-dn-bm-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m ]mem-bn¬I´-°bw IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Ce-™n-°p-t∂¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒtacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Nmt°mbv°v sNdn-bm≥, tXmakv, tPmkv, Nmt°m,h¿°n, t]mƒk¨, kPn, km_p, tkmP≥ F∂o HºXv]p{X≥amcpw A∂, tacn F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. Nmt°m-bpsS H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (tPmbn) s]cp-h-Æm-aqgn Xq¶p-gnbn¬ ]m∏®≥, tacn aIƒ A∂ (AΩnWn)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmbn°vNmt°m ({]n≥kv), sNdn-bm≥ ({]ho¨) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpwtdmk ({]nb) F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. tPmbn-bpsS aqØ ]p{X≥ {]n≥kv IqS-c™n s]Æmw-]-d-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 183. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 268ºn¬ nj (t{_mWnb)sb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw _l-dn-n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. tPmbn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ {]ho¨Ahn-hm-ln-X-mWv. ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. aqØ-]p{Xn{]nbsb tImgn-t°m´v Ipcn-ip-¶¬ tPmkns‚ aI≥ ssjPphnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw kuZn-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Nmt°m-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (kÆn) ]Sp-Ø-I-Shv Cf-∏p-¶¬ amXyp, t{XkymΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ euensbhnhmlw sNbvXv ]S-Øp-I-Shv Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn°p AarXF∂ aIfpw tSman≥ F∂ aI-p-ap≠v. AarX t_mws_-bn¬gvkmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. tSman≥ hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv Iqcm-®p≠v XI-Sn-∏p-dØv tPmk^v, Gen aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. s]cp-h-Æm- a qgn Iqh- s ∏m- ø n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. tPmknp Pn¬k¨,tPm^n≥ F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fp≠v. Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m (s_∂n) N°n-´-]md ap≈-¶p-gn-bn¬ tPmk^v, Za-b¥n aIƒ kn¬hn (ann)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv N°n-´]mdbn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. s_∂n°p Aho‰ -F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpw Ae≥ F∂ B¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpwhnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. s_∂n ]´m-f-Øn¬ tPmen sNøp-Ibpw Ct∏mƒtPmen-bn¬n∂pw hnc-an-®v _nkn-kv sNøp∂p. ann Ipf-Øp-h-b¬ kvIqfn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Nmt°m-bpsS A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿Pv (Xºn) ]p√q-cmw-]md apcn-ß-bn¬ tPmk^v, {_nPn‰v, aIƒ ann (A∂Ω)sbhnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-aq-gn-bn¬ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Xºn°v APnØv F∂ ]p{Xpw Ap F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v.Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ t]mƒ ]qgn-tØmSv ]pI-ae tXmakv ˛ Gen aIƒ tamfnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. t]mfnv sPdn≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw Pnp acnb,Pnkv acnb F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. aqhcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 184. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 269 Nmt°m-bpsS Ggm-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (kPn) U¬ln-bn¬Nnd-bØv AØm-Wn-°¬ tP°_v, Nn∂Ω aIƒ Smnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv OmWvUn-K-Un¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kPn OWvUn-K-Un¬kvIqfns‚ {]n≥kn-∏¬ Bbn tPmen tm°p∂p. Smn AUz-t°‰vBbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v Bcy≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw tacn-bm≥F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS F´m-asØ ]p{X≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ (km_p) hne-ßm´v Nqc-s∏m-bvI-bn¬ skens hnhmlw sNbvXp. km_p amen-Zzo-]n¬ A[ym-]-I-mbn tPmen sNøp∂p. sken≥ ]©m-_n¬kvIqƒ So®-dmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v Alm≥j F∂s]¨Ip-´n-bp≠v. Nmt°m-bpsS Hº-Xm-asØ ]p{X≥ tkmP≥ tImS-t©-cn-bn¬I∏-ep-am-°¬ tZhky, tacn aIƒ ann-tamsf hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿ ]©m-_n¬ OWvUn-K-Un¬ kvIqfn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.tkmP≥ kvIqƒ {]n≥kn-∏emWv. ann-tamƒ AtX kvIqfn¬ A[ym- -]n-IbmWv. tkmPp ktemWn, Aoj F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. -Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv. Nmt°m-bpsS H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tPmfnsb hb-mSv hmfm-´n¬ shºm-e-bn¬ tPmk^v A∂Ω aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ (Ip´∏n)hnhmlw sNbvXp. Nmt°m-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Pm≥knsb s]cp-h-Æm-aqgnapXp-Im´v Ioc-©nd tXmakv A∂Ω aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlwsNbvXp.sNdn-bm≥ Ips©-dn-b-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ `c-W-ßm-Øv tX°n≥Im-´n¬ IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ ]p∂-a-‰-Øn¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhm-lw-sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ s]cp-h-Æm-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v X¶-®≥, amXyp, tPmk^v F∂oaq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw Nn∂Ω, tacn-°p´n, jm‚n, ssjn, ann F∂A©v ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠mbn. sNdn-bm≥ 2010 sk]vXw-_¿ A©mw-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 185. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 270Xo-bXn acWw {]m]n®v ]S-Øp-°-Shv Xncp-Ip-Spw_ tZhm-eb skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. sNdn-bms‚ a°-fn¬ X¶-®≥, tPmk^v,ssjn F∂o a°ƒ acn®p t]mbn. aqØ aIƒ Nn∂-Ωsb Iqcm-®p≠v Im‰p-≈-ae aW-te¬tPmk^v, adn-bmΩ aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ F∂ A∏-®≥ hnhmlwsNbvXv Nn∂-Ω-bpsS ]nXmhv sNdn-bms‚ IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v Zo]m F∂ ]p{Xnbpw Zneo]v F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. ]p{XnZo]sb Ip∏m-b-t°mSv sagp-I-m¬ tPm¿Pv Nn∂Ω aI≥ jntPmhnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tacn-°p-´nsbhne-ßmSv ]qh-Øpw-aq-´n¬ tXmakv, X¶Ω Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ tSman -hnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bms‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn jm‚nsbt]cm{º aW-∏m´v a[p hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xnannsb ne- º q¿ hmg- ∏ - ≈ n¬ sFk- ° ns‚ aI≥ h¿Kokvhnhmlw sNbvXp. sNdn-bms‚ ]p{X≥ amXyp KqV-√q¿ aqtØ-SØv d∏m-bn-tb¬aIƒ t__nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Nh-dw-aq-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v _n≥kn F∂ ]p{Xnbpw _nt‚m F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p.tXmakv (-sXm-Ω-®≥) Ips©-dn-b-bpsS A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (sXmΩ-®≥)Xot°m-bn¬ ]tc-cmØv IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ Aßm-Sn-bn¬ho-´n¬h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ {_nPn-Ømsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿ Ct∏mƒ]nXr-kz-Ømb hmIm-n-]-dºv hn‰v ]mem-bn¬ ap≠p-]m-eØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-knp ]mem SuWn¬ Ão¬, sNºv _nkn--kp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. tXma-knv tamfn, _o, joe, P€n, kqk≥ F∂oA©p ]p{Xn-amcpw kn_n F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. sXmΩ-®s‚ aqØ-a-Iƒ tamfnsb aqhm-‰p-]pg tXm´-Øn¬tUman-n-°ns‚ aI≥ tPmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 04852834471. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn _omsb aptØm-e-]p-cØv sIm‰-m´v○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 186. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 271t]mƒ aI≥ FΩm-p-h¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 0485 2257369.aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn joesb CS-∏mSn Xpcp-Øn-°m´v aØmbn aI≥tPm¿Pp-Ip´n hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨ 04822 237004. mem-asØ]p{Xn sP€nsb tImX-aw-Kew sNdm-bn¬ tPmk^v aI≥ B‚Wnhnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 0485 2570647. A©m-asØ ]p{Xnkqks Beph Ce- ™ n- a - ‰ - Ø n¬ tPmk^v aI≥ am¿´n≥hnhmlw sNbvXp. t^m¨: 9447006696. sXmΩ-®s‚ ]p{X≥ kn_n thg-º-t»-cn¬ tPmk^v aIƒtPmtamsf hnhmlw Ign-®n-cn-°p∂p. sU∂n, tUmW F∂o c≠pa°-fp≠v. Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p. t^m¨: 9447313049. hmIm-n-bn¬ s√n-ae imJ s√n-ae C´n-b-bn∏v (Bdmw Xe-apd) A©mw Xe-apd hmIm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bms‚ mem-asØ]p{X≥ Bdmw Xe-apd C´n-b-b∏v CS-∏m-Sn-bn¬ hmfn-πm-°¬ A∂-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ZØ-h-Im-i-ambn Xma-kn®p. Hcp ]p{Xpw,amΩn, adnbw, Gen F∂ aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. ]p{X≥ acn-®p-t]mbn. At±lw ]p{Xn-am-tcm-sSm-∂n®v Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ s√n-a-e-∏p-c-bn-SØn¬ Xma-kam°n. aqØ ]p{Xn amΩnsb ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ- - -bn¬s∏´ Nocmw-Ip-gn-bn¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Abv]v hnhmlwsNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb `c-W-ßm-Øv πmtØm´w IpSpw-_-Øn¬s∏´ tXm´-Øn¬ aØmbn hnhmlw sNbvXv ZØ-h-Im-i-ambn Xma-kn®p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Gensb `c-W-ßm-Øv]d-ap-≠-bn¬ tZh-kym-bpsS aI≥ aØmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. ZØ-hIm-in-bmb aØmbn, C´n-bbv]ns‚ ac-Wtijw hkvXp- - - -h-I-Iƒ hn‰v ae-_m-dn¬ t]mbn Xma-k-am°n. A[nIw Xma-kn-bmsX aØm-bnbpw adn-bhpw acn®p. Ah¿°v ]m∏-®≥, Hutk∏v,sNdn-bm≥, C´n-bbv]v F∂o mep ]p{X-∑mcpw D≠m-bn-cp∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 187. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 272]m∏-®≥ aqØ-]p-{X≥ ]m∏-®≥ oeq¿ ]Sn-™m-td¬ Ip™ns‚ aIsfhnhmlw sNbvXp. Hcp s]¨Ip´n Pn-®p-I-gn™v AΩ acn-°-bm¬]mem-bn¬ Ce-™n-bn¬ tdmk-Ωsb ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp. ae-_m-dn¬ Nn‰m-cn-°m-en--SpØv Imhpw-Xe Xma-kn-°p∂p.BZy hnhm-lØnse ]p{Xn tacn UnFkvSn k`-bn¬ tN¿∂p. Iym- -kv{Xo-bmbn Ct∏mƒ ]q™m-dn--SpØv tNme-ØSw aT-Øn¬ Ign-bp∂p. c≠mw hnhm-l-Øn¬ t__n, kÆn, s_∂n F∂o aq∂p]p{X∑mcpw tPmbnΩ, h’ F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p-{X≥ t__n ISp-ta-n-bn¬ ]≈n-tbm-´n¬ F’-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Imhpw-Xe Xma-kn-°p∂p. t__n°v Ap F∂ ]p{XnbpwAq]v F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. c≠m-asØ]p{X≥ kÆn sNdp-]pg ]pd-∏q-°-c-ho-´n¬ ^nen-t∏mkv Gen-bmΩZº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tdmk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Imhpw-Xe Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn°v k¬ F∂ ]p{Xpw km{µ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ s_∂namtemw ]gp-°m-°pfw ho´n¬ Nmt°m, eoemΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒsP€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Imhpw-Xe Irjnbpw ]e-N-c°v _nkn--kp-ambn Ign-bp∂ s_∂n°v Pqh¬ Fs∂mcp s]¨Ip-´n-bp≠v.Chƒ hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. ]m∏- ® s‚ c≠m- a sØ ]p{Xn tPmb- Ω sb ]mem- h - b ¬sR´≥ Hgp-I-bn¬ A∏-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xnh’sb ISp-tan Bep-¶¬ tPmkp-Ip´n hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]m∏-®≥ 2006 HIvtSm-_-dn¬ F´mw XobXn acWw {]m]n®v Imhpw-Xe]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.Hutk-∏-®≥ aØm-bn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Hutk-∏-®≥ IS-mSv]m≠n-bmw-am-°¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ Gen-bm-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv IpSIp kn≤m-]p-cØv AΩØn F∂ ÿeØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Hutk-∏®p tacn, t{Kkn F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°fpw amXyp -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 188. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 273(Ip´n-®≥), tPm¿÷v (h°-®≥), tPmkv, B‚Wn (tSman) F∂mep ]p{X-∑m-cp-ap-≠mbn. aqØ- ] p{Xn tacn (h’Ω)sb Ccn- ´ n- b n¬ Xma- c - ° m´ptPmk^v aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnt{Kknsb Ccn´n ]me-Øpw-I-Shv N°mw-Ip-t∂¬ ]m∏-®≥ aI≥tPmkv hnhmlw Ign®p. Hutk-∏-®s‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ amXyp (Ip´n-®≥) ap°Øv Nnd-∏m´v h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ A®m-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv kn≤m-]p-cØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. amXyp-hnp c≠p s]¨a-°fpw tPmk^v F∂]p{X-p-ap≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn tkmWnsb t]cm-hq¿ sXt°-ae ]m∏-®≥ aI≥kPn hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Pq_nensb It®-cn-°Shv C√n-°°p-t∂¬ - -amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ kp[ojv hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{X≥ tPmk^vJØ-dn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Hutk-∏-®s‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v (h°-®≥) Nn‰m-cn-°m¬ sIm´m-c-Øn¬ tPmk^v aIƒ t{Xkym-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv AΩ-Øn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷np tJ tPm¿÷vF∂ Hcp ]p{Xn-bp≠v. Chƒ ]Tn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv ap´p-Nn-dbn¬n∂pw IpS-In¬ Xma- -kn-°p∂ aT-Øn¬ tPmk^v aIƒ Pqen-b‰v Fen-k-_-Ønshnhmlw sNbvXv IpSIv AΩ-Øn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmkvtdj≥ hym]mcw S-Øp∂p. tPmknp taL F∂ aIfpwnJn¬ tPmkv F∂ aI-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ Cc´ k¥m--ß-emWv.c≠p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p∂p. mem-asØ ]p{X≥ B‚Wn (tSman) CSp°n sSp-¶≠w ]pfn-°-sØm-≠n¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ annsb hnhmlw Ign®p.B‚Wn IpSIv Pn√m kl-I-cW _m¶n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. B‚-Wn°p Aa¬ tPmk^v, Ae≥ tPmk^v F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fmWv.sIm®p-Ip-´n-I-fmWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 189. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 274-sNdn-bm≥ aØm-bn-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ Im™n-c-∏≈nCe-hp-¶¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ sUbvknsb hnhmlw sNbvXvIm™n-c∏pg s]m‰-t»cn Xma-kn-°p-∂p. sNdn-bmv c≠m¨ a°fpw -c≠v s]¨a-°-fp-am-Wv. tPmkv, tPmbn F∂o B¨a-°fpw Dj,enj F∂o s]¨a-°-fp-am-Wv. tPmkv Xriq¿ ]pXp-°m´v amS-ºn-tZ-h-€n-˛-tdm-kΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tagvknsb hnhmlw sNbvXvaÆm¿Im´v Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmknv HcmWpw Hcp s]Æpw a°fp-≠v. jmtcm¨ F∂ B¨Ip-´nbpw kndn≥ F∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bp-am-Wv. c≠p a°fpw F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv Ign-™p. tPmkv F¬.-sF.-kn.GP‚mbn h¿°v sNøp-∂p. c≠masØ ]p{X≥ tPmbn Xriq¿Nnd-tΩ¬ dmt^¬˛tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tkm^nsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Im™n-c-∏pg ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmbn°vc≠v s]¨Ip-´n-Ifm-Wv. tPm^n, sP^n F∂o s]¨a-°fm-Wv. Ch¿ - -hnZym¿∞n-I-fm-Wv. aqØ ]p{Xn Djsb aÆm¿°m´v Cc-´-∏-d-ºn¬sIm®v-˛-tdm-kΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPm¿÷v hnhmlw sNbvXvaÆm¿°m´p Xma-kn-°p-∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn enjsb aÆm¿°mSv Xe-®n-d-°p-gn-bn¬t]mƒ ˛ Gen-bmΩ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ sNdn-bm≥ hnhmlw sNbvXv -aÆm¿°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p.C´n- sF∏v aØm-bn-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v ae-_m-dn¬Ccn-´n-b-SpØv ]me-Øn≥I-S-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 190. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 285 hmIm-n-bn¬ sIm®p-a-‰-Øn¬ imJ sIm®p-a-‰-Øn¬ sNdn-bm≥ (Bdmw Xe-apd) A©mw Xe-apd hmIm-n-bn¬ sNdn-bms‚ A©m-asØ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ tN¿∏p-¶¬ If-∏p-c-Ømsg Xpcp-Øn-°m-hn¬A∂sb hnhmlw sNbvXv ssXtØm´w F∂p-]-d-bp∂ sIm®p-a-‰-Øn¬ Xma-kn®p. Sn. sNdn-bmv sNdn-bm≥, sXmΩ≥, t]mØ≥F∂ aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw amΩn, tdmk, adnbw, Gen F∂ mep]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. BZy ]p{Xn amΩnsb Nocmw-¶p-gn-bn¬ amWn-bpsS aI≥ CS-a-dp-In¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ Ips©-dp-°≥ hnhmlwsNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmksb Iog-X-Sn-bq¿ s]cp-t∂m-en¬C´n-b-hn-cm-bpsS aI≥ Ip™m-∏≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ]p{Xn adn-bØns {]hn-Øm-Øv Imcym-¶¬ C´n-bhn-cm-bpsS aI≥ - -C´n-b-hncm hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn Gensb Icq¿Rmh-≈n¬ Iq¥m-Øv Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ Hutk∏v hnhmlwsNbvXp.sNdn-bm≥ (Ip-™v) aqØ-]p-{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ cma-]p-cØv I®n-d-a-‰-amb No¶-t√¬n∂pw t{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXv a-bv°¬°-≠-Øn¬Xma-k-am°n. Sn. sNdn-bmv sNdn-bm≥, Hutk∏v, sXmΩ≥ F∂aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A∂ F∂ Hcp ]p{Xnbpw Pn®p. ]p{Xn A∂sb]q™m-‰n¬ sIm®p-hm-em-n-°¬ kvIdn-bm-bpsS aI≥ kvIdnbhnhmlw sNbvXp.sNdn-bm≥ aqØ aI≥ sNdn-bm≥ `c-Wßm-Øv If-cn-∏dºn¬ Gensb - - -hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ IpSn-bm-∑e Xma-kn-°p∂p. sNdn-bmv sNdn-bm≥, amp-h¬, tXmakv, amXyp, tPmkv,t__n F∂ Bdv B¨a-°fpw t{XkymΩ, tagvkn, en€n F∂n-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 191. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 286ßs aq∂p s]¨a-°fp-amWv. H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ ]mem- -bn¬n∂pw Icp-h≥Nm-en¬h∂v Xma-kn-°p∂ sNØn-∏pg Ipt™-´s‚ aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv IpSn-bm-∑e Xma-kn-°p∂p. sNdn-bmv (sIm®v) tPm_n, sP^n≥, F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpwsPkvm F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ tPm_n sIm´n-bq¿ ]pfn-th-en¬ tPmk^v, tdmkΩ aIƒ Pnjsb hnhmlw sNbvXv IpSn-bm-∑e Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm_n°v Ae≥ F∂ Hcm¨Ip-´n-bp≠v.P^n≥ sNtº-en¬ samss_¬ tjm∏v S-Øp∂p. Ahn-hm-ln-X-mWv. ]p{Xn tPmkvm Acp-hn-Øpd F^vknkn aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂pIym-kv{Xo-bmbn. sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ amp-h¬ ]pen-°p-cp-º-Ip-t∂¬ tPmk^v, A∂ aIƒ eqkn-bm-Ωsb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv IpSn-bm-∑e Xma-kn-°p∂p. amp-henp Ubm, Un F∂n- -ßs c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cmWv. ]p{Xn Ubm-sb Ccn´n shfn-am-ØvIZ-fn-°p-t∂¬ _m_p hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{XnUosb t]cm-hq¿ sSp-ºp-dw-Nm¬ I√p-¶¬ tPm¨k¨ hnhmlwsNbvXp. tPm¨k¨ IqØp-]-dºv n¿a-e-Kncn tImfPv eIvN-d-dmWv. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv tdbtdmw ]pXp-∏≈n¬ h¿§okv, -A∂Ω aIƒ eoem-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv IpSn-bm-∑e Xma-kn-°p∂p. sjbnkv F∂ B¨Ip´n sabn¬ tgvkmbn e≠-n¬tPmen sNøp∂p. s^an, B¬^n F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. s^anAcp-hn-Øpd F^vknkn aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn.B¬^n πkv h¨ hnZym¿Yn-n-bmWv. mem-asØ ]p{X≥ amXypss]k-°cn apf-b-m´v ]m∏-®≥ aIƒ enk-Ωsb hnhm-lw-sNbvXvIpSn-bm-∑e Xma-kn-°p∂p. amXyp-hnv {]nb, imep F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cmWv. {]nb `c-W-ßmw tacn-Kncn kntÃ-gvkn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmWv. imephS-Ic tlmkv]n-‰¬ tgvkmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. A©m-asØ]p{X≥ tPmkv hnf-°-∂q¿ πm°m´v Ipcym-t°mkv A®mΩ aIƒPmIz-ens hnhmlw sNbvXv IpSn-bm-∑e Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknpoXp F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpw kn_n F∂ B¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v. oXpcma-]p-cØv F^vknkn aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bm-Im≥ ]Tn-°p∂p. kn_n Un{Kn°v ]Tn-°p∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 192. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 287 Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ t__n ]pen-°p-cpº InS-ß-Øm-gsb]tc-Xmb sk_m-Ãy≥ ˛ A∂Ω aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv -IpSn-bm-∑e ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. sadn≥, B≥a-cnbF∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw Ae≥ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. aq∂p-t]cpwhnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. sNdn-bms‚ H∂m-asØ aIƒ {Xtb-kym-Ωsbs√n-°p‰n ssIX-]-d-ºn¬ kÆn hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ]p{Xn tag-bvknsb Ccn´n Np¶-°p∂v Sp-°p-Sn-bn¬ tPmk^v, tacnZº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ t]mƒ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw hnim-J-]-´-WØv kvIqƒ S-Øp∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn en€nsb s√n-°p-‰n-bn¬ Imcm-a-bn¬ tPm¿Pv hnhmlw sNbvXp. tPm¿Pv sNtºcnk¿hokv tIm˛Hm∏-td-‰ohv _m¶n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.tPmk^v (Ip-t™-∏v) sNdn- b ms‚ (Ip™v ) c≠m- a sØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v(Ipt™∏v) IS-mSv Dcp-ºp-Im´v tPmk^v ˛ tdmk aIƒ tacnbhnhmlw sNbvXv Ie-b-¥m-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-p. Ch¿°v jm‚nF∂ ]p{Xnbpw jnt‚m F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. ]p{Xn jm‚nsb sIm√-∏≈n tXmWn-°p-gn-bn¬ tPmk^v ˛ tamn° Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥tkman hnhmlw sNbvXp. jnt‚m hnhmlw Ign-®n-´n√.sXmΩ≥ sNdn-bms‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ tImX-√q¿ Xøn¬ -Hutk∏v ˛ adnbw aIƒ t{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. a-°-°-≠-Øn¬ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. knknen F∂ ]p{XnbpwkÆn, tPmbn, km_p, t__n, kn_n, tPm_n, Zo]p F∂o Ggp]p{X-∑m-cp-amWv. ]p{Xn knkn-ensb Ab¿°p-∂Øv Ip∂-∏-≈n¬A{_mlw Gen-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ Pbnwkv hnhmlwsNbvXp. H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ kÆn IS-m-´n¬ Sp-hn-te-°p‰vtPmk^v ˛ tdmk aIƒ annsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Xriq¿ Xmfn-°p-≠n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kÆn°v Ap, ARvPp, Aaep F∂oaq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. Ah¿ hnZym¿Yn-nI-fmWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥tPmbn IS-πm-a‰w ]d-tº-´vaym-en¬ ]m∏-®≥ ˛ A∂-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ ssjnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ae-_m-dn¬ sh≈-cn-°p-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 193. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 288≠n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmbn°v F_n F∂ Hcp ]p{X-p≠v. ]Tn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ km_p ]b-kvau≠v ]mºm-d-bn¬A{_mlw, Gen-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tPm¿ensb hnhmlwsNbvXv tacn-em‚n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. km{µ F∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bp≠v. mem-asØ ]p{X≥ t__n hmcn-bm-n-°mSv hcn-°bm-n-°¬ -tPmk^v ˛ A∂ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tkmWn-bsb hnhmlwsNbvXv tacn-em‚n¬ Xma-kn-°p-p. B≥ sXtck F∂ s]¨Ip-´nbpw A¬t^m≥kv F∂ B¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ sIm®p-Ip-´n-I-fmWv. A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ kn_n Im™n-c-a‰w Icn-bn-e-°pfwamXyp ˛ tdmkΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ A¬t^m≥kmsb hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ch¿ Ccp-hcpw Ipssh-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°vA∂ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp≠v. Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm_n tXm{]mw-IpSnCu‰-°m´v tXmakv ˛ t{Xkym Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ tkmWn-bsbhnhmlw sNbvXv Ccp-hcpw Ipssh-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Ggm-asØ ]p{X≥ Zo]p ao-®n¬ ]me-°mSv ASn-®n-emw-am-°¬ tPm¿Pv˛Beokv Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tPmkvansb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Zp_m-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.sXmΩ≥ (Ip-™-Ω≥) sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ (Ip™-Ω≥) ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ ]men-tb-°p-t∂¬ Ahn-cm-bpsS aIƒadn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXp sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p.At±-lØnp sNdn-bm≥ (]m∏-®≥) A{_mlw (Ip™p-Ip´n) F∂ -c≠p ]p{X≥amcpw A∂, tdmk, en√n, tacn (tPmbnΩ) F∂ mep]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn A∂sb ]mem-bn¬n∂pw sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Idp-I-∏-≈n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ hcn-°-am-°¬ sIm®p hnhmlw sNbvXvCcp-hcpw ac-W-a-S™p. sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmksb hmg-°p-fØv tXt°-°c tPmk^v aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂msØ ]p{Xnen√n kpJ-an-√msX 1999¬ ac-W-a-S™p sh≈n-bm-a‰w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 194. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 289 mem-asØ ]p{Xn tacn (tPmbn_)sb aptØm-e-]pdw aqe-bn¬ aWm-t»-cn¬ amXyp aI≥ tPmWn hnhmlw sNbvXv tImgn-t°mSv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ccp-hcpw tImfPv A[ym-]-I-cm-bn-cp∂p. dn´-b¿ sNbvXp.sNdn-bm≥ ]m∏-®≥ sXmΩs‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (]m∏-®≥) Icq¿ Rmh-≈n-bn¬ ]tg-SØv A∂-bpsS aIƒ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXvsh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. sNdn-bmp tSman, tPmkv, tdmbn,kn_n, tPm¿Pp-Ip´n F∂o A©p ]p{X-∑mcpw enkn, sS€n, sIm®p-dmWn, kmen-tamƒ, kpn, ann-°p´n F∂o Bdp ]p{Xn-amcpwPn®p. sNdn-bms‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tSman sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv ]pXn-bn-SØv tPmk^v˛A∂-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ h’-Ωsbhnhmlw sNbvXp. h’Ω Ct∏mƒ e≠-n¬ gvkmbn tPmensNøp∂p. tSman°v Poh≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw Znhy, [y F∂o c≠p]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. Ip´n-Iƒ ]Tn-°p∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv aS-°-Ømw Xe-®nd tPmk^vaIƒ sSknsb hnhmlw sNbv X v Imh- ° mSv Xma- k n- ° p∂p.tPmknp nJn¬ F∂ ]p{Xpw oXp F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tdmbn tacn-em‚ v ImØn-c-Øp-¶¬tPmk^v ˛ Nn∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ annsb hnhmlw sNbvXvsh≈n-bm-a‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v tXmwk¨, tPmk≥ F∂o -c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p∂p. mem- a sØ ]p{X≥ kn_n Gg- √ q¿ X®p- I p- t ∂¬A{_mlw˛tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ euensb hnhmlw sNbvXvsh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v sk_n≥ F∂ ]p{XpwkntbmW F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ sIm®p-Ip-´n-I-fmWv. A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿Pp-Ip´n Non-°pgn aqem-t»cnsk_m-Ãy≥ ˛ s]ÆΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ knansb hnhmlw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 195. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 290sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. sNdn-bms‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn en€nsb ]bkv au≠v H‰-sØ-ßp-¶¬ Ip™p-Ip´n ˛ A∂-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPmbn-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn sS€nsb hmg-°pfw hS-tImSv am¶p-Sn-bn¬A∏-®≥ ˛ tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tSman hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn sIm®p-dm-Wnsb sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv XS-h-m¬ tPmk^v ˛ adn-b-°p´n aI≥ _m_p hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn kmensb Ie-b-¥mn ]oSn-tI-bv°¬amWn ˛ tacn aI≥ s_∂n hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw e≠-n¬tPmen sNøp∂p. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn kpnsb sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Iq´p-¶¬ C´n-b-hnc˛ A∂-°p´n aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. kpn akvI-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn annsb s]m≥Ip∂w ]¥n-cp-th-en¬A{_mlw ˛ en√n-°p´n aI≥ tkmWn hnhmlw sNbvXp. annIpssh-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.A{_mlw (Ip-™p-Ip-´n) sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ A{_mlw (Ip™p-Ip´n) Ad-°pfw abn-em-Sq¿ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ tdmk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. A{_m-l-Ønp tUmWn, UnPpF∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw tUmW, Un‚m, Uo F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tUmWn sIm√-∏≈n sNº-fm-bn¬ ]tc-X-mbtSman ˛ t__n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ ssksb hnhmlw sNbvXp.Ch¿ Ccp- h cpw Im- U m- b n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. tUmWn°vtdmkvtamƒ Fs∂mcp s]¨Ip-´n-bp≠v. Ip™p-Ip-´n-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ UnPp D≈-mSv tam-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 196. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 291t®-cn¬ Fw.Un.De-l-∂≥ ˛ A®mΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ Ap-hns hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXm-hns‚ IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p. aqØ-]p{Xn tUmWsb tacn-em‚ v mbv°w-]dºn¬ ssa°nƒ - -aI≥ _m_p hnhm-lw-sNbvXp. _m_p ac-W-a-S™p. Uosb I√m-n-°¬ s]cp-a-‰-Øn¬ Ahn-cm-®≥, Fen-k-_Øv Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ kn_n hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn Un‚msb ImeSn ote-izcw tIme-t©-cn¬ CØm-∏n-Øncn t{XkymΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tSman hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw e≠-n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.t]mØ≥ (sIm-®v) sNdn-bms‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ t]mØ≥ (sIm®v) ao-®n¬]p√m´v amWn-bpsS aIƒ t{Xkymsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Xhm-´n¬Xma-kn®p. t]mØp sNdn-bm≥ (Ip™p-Ip´n), amWn, tXmakvF∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw A®mΩ, Gen, tacn F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. ]p{Xn A®mΩ ]mem s√n-bmn aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂pknÿ Im_-dom F∂ t]cn¬ Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. ]p{X≥ tXmakv, ]p{Xn-am-cn¬ Gen, tacn F∂n-h¿ tcsØacn-®p-t]mbn.sNdn-bm≥ (Ip-™p-Ip-´n) t]mØs‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (Ip™p-Ip´n) Im™m¿sh´Øv aØm-bn-bpsS aIƒ tacn-°p-´nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ie-b-¥m-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v ]o‰¿ (tPmjn), amXyp(jn_p), A{_mlw (tjm_n) F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw t{Xky(sj√n), Gen (jo_m) F∂o ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. sNdn-bms‚ (Ip™p-Ip´n), aqØ-]p-{X≥ ]o‰¿ (tPmjn), Cfw-tZ-iØv Xe-®nd Ipcym-t°m-kns‚ aIƒ Gen (ann)sb hnhmlwsNbvXv Ie-b-¥m-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmjn°v sNdn-bm≥(Binjv) F∂ ]p{Xpw B≥a-cnbm, BKvkv acnb F∂o c≠p]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 197. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 292 c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (jn_p) apX-e-t°m-SØv Ad-°¬A{_mlw, t{XkymΩ aIƒ AK-Ão (ann)sb hnhmlw Ign®vIe-b-¥m-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. amXyp (jn_p)hnv FΩm-p-h¬(F-an≥) F∂ Hcp ]p{X-p≠v. ]Tn-°p∂p. Ip™p-Ip-´n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ A{_mlw (tjm_n)sX∂-Øq¿ ]pfn-°-am-en-bn¬ ]tc-X-mb h¿§o-kns‚ aIƒ acnb(jom)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ie-b¥m-n-bn-ep≈ ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ - -Xma-kn-°p∂p. tjm_n°v B¬_n F∂ ]p{Xpw B¬an F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fmWv. Ip™p-Ip-´n-bpsS aqØ-]p{Xn t{Xkym (sj√n) tacn-em‚ v]pXn-b-SØv amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ amXyp (kmPp) hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen (jo_)sb IS-hq¿ Rh-c-°m´vIpcy≥, t{Xkym-°p´n aI≥ km_p hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ip™p-Ip´n 2003 HmKÃv 2˛mw XobXn ac-W-a-S-™p. Ie-b-¥mn ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p.amWn (am-p-h¬) t]mØs‚ (sIm®v) c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ amWn (amp-h¬)cma-]p-cØv ]-®n-b-∏-≈n¬ BK-kvXn-bpsS aIƒ A®m-Ωsbhnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v ^nen∏v (km_p) F∂ ]p{Xpw jm‚nF∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{Xn jm‚nsb cma-]pcw X´m-d-bn¬ AK-Ãns‚ aI≥ tPm¿Pv hnhmlw sNbvXp. amWn-bpsS ]p{X≥ km_pI´-∏--bn¬ ssI∏-bn¬ tXmakv ˛ t{Kkn aIƒ sdnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ (]mem) Xma-kn-°p∂p. km_p-hnp Acp¨F∂ ]p{Xpw Aeo F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ sIm®p-Ip-´n-I-fmWv. amWn-bpsS BZy `mcy A®mΩ acn-®p-t]m-b-Xn-m¬ c≠m-aXv πmi-m¬ aWvU-]-Øn¬ sXmΩ-®s‚ aIƒ tdmk-Ωsbhnhmlw sNbvXv sImSp-ºn-Sn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Cu hnhm-lØn¬ -k¥m--ß-fn√.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 198. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 307 Be-bv°¬ imJBe-bv°¬ C´n-s®-dnb aq∂mw Xe-apd Be-bv°¬ C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS ZznXo-b-]p-{X≥memw Xe-apd C´n-s®-dnb ]q™m-‰n¬ sX≈n-bn¬n∂pw hnhmlwsNbvXp. a°-fn-√msX `mcy acn®p. AXn-m¬ h≠-a-‰w-I-c-bn¬h≠-m-°-sc-bn¬n∂pw t{Xkym-Ωsb ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp.Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. (CXmWv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-ØnseBZysØ ]p¿hn- h mlw). At±- l - Ø np C´n sF∏v F∂]p{Xpw Gen F∂ ]p{Xnbpw Pn®p. ]p{Xn Gensb IpS-am-fq¿s]cp-am-en-emb tXm∏n¬ tZhkym km¿ hnhmlw Ign®p.]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v `c-W-ßm-Øv hmfn-πm-°¬ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. C´nsF∏np C´n-s®-dnb, aØmbn F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw t{Xkym,Gen, adnbw F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. C´n sF∏v Be-bv ° ¬ Xd- h m- S p- h n‰v Ad- ° p- f Øv Xma- k - a m°n. aqØ- ] p{Xnt{Xkysb oeq¿ ]qh-Øn-¶¬ tZhky hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Gensb IS-m-´n¬ ]m≠n-bm-Ωm-°¬ Nmt°mhnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-b-Øns Ing-°-º-eØvtImbn-°c hcm-∏p-g-°m-c≥ A¥-∏≥ hnhmlw Ign®p.C´n-s®-dnb C´n sF∏ns‚ {]Ya ]p{X≥ C´n-s®-dnb `c-Wßm-Øv Bcw- -]p-fn-bv°-emb If-∏p-c-bn¬ aØ≥ aIƒ A∂-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXp Im™m-‰n¬ Xma-kn®p. B hnhm-l-Øn¬ C´n sF∏v ,amWn F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-≠m-b-t∏mƒ `mcy acn-®-Xn-m¬ c≠m-a-Xmbn am-Øq¿ Xma-kn-°p∂ sh≈-cn-ßm´v Cu∏s‚ aIƒ Gen-bm-Ωsb hnhmlw Ign®p. B hnhm-l-Øn¬ Bdp ]p{Xn-amcpwaq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw Pn®p. BZy-hn-hm-l-Øn-ep-≠mb {]Y-a-]p-{X≥ C´n sF∏v ae-_m-dn¬ Be-t°m´v AXn-c-ºpg ho´n¬ Ge-Ωsb hnhmlw Ign®p.B hnhm-l-Øn¬ Ip´n-I-fn√.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 199. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 308sI.-kn. amWn c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sI.kn.amWn _n.Fkvkn A{Kn-Iƒ®¿]nd-hØv ssX°m-´n¬ Sn.sP.X¶-Ωsb _n.Fkvkn _n.FUvhnhmlw Ign®v sslZ-cm-_m-Zn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. amWn°v dmWn,Dj, ssee, tim`, sNdn-bm≥, _nµp F∂ Bdp Ip´n-Iƒ Pn®p.dmWnsb dmWn-s∏´ kp[m-I¿ FwF Fw^n¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp.dmWn Ct∏mƒ ^nen-ss∏≥kn¬ yq C¥ym Ajz-d≥kv Iº-n-bpsS I¨{Sn amt-P-cmbn tPmen tm°p∂p. dmWn°v in¬∏,hcp¨ F∂ c≠p Ip´n- I - f p≠v . c≠m- a sØ ]p{Xn Djsb_n.Fkvkn A{Kn, Fw._n.F, knwKm-sdÕn Pb-{]-Imiv sdÕnsF.sF.Fw (F.F-®v.Un.) hnhmlw sNbvXv Ata-cn-°-bn¬ an®n-K¨ tÉn¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. Dj Uu sIan- ° ¬kn¬F®v.B¿.Ub-dIvSdmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. Djbv°v nInXm, Smi - -F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v (]Tn-°p∂p). aq∂m-asØ aIƒ sseeico-cm-kzm-ÿyw-aqew Ahn-hm-ln-X-bmbn ]nXm-hn-tm-sSm∏w Xma-kn-°p∂p. mem-asØ aIƒ tim` Ata-cn-°-bn¬ (lèsSIvkmkv)n∂v kn]n-F¬ (tImta-gvky¬ ss]e‰v ssek≥kv)FSpØv Ata-cn-°≥ Fb¿sse≥kn¬ tPmen sNbvXp. ho≠pwGhn-tb-j≥ sabn‚-≥kv sSIvtm-fPn (Fb¿s{^bnw) {^wFw_kn dnÕn¬ bqWn-th-gvkn‰n C≥ bpF-kvF ]mkmbn t∏m-fn¬ tPmen sNbvXp. Ct∏mƒ tm¿Øv Cutè j´n¬kv F∂t]cn¬ hS-°p-In-g-°≥ C¥y-bn¬ hnam k¿hokv S-Øp∂p.aq∂p hnam--ß-fp≠v. 2011se hna≥ F‚¿{]-z¿ Hm^v Zn Cb¿Ahm¿Uv Kh¨sa‚ v Hm^v C¥y ¬In. N¥≥ _m¿Pn-bmWv`¿Ømhv. Hcp Ip´n-bp≠v. t]cv BImiv. Um¿Pn-enw-Kn¬ ]Tn-°p∂p.]p{X≥ sI.Fw.sNdn-bm≥ _n.C. Fw_nF ap≠-bv°¬ amXyp-hns‚ aIƒ Fen-k-_-Øns (ann) hnhmlw Ign®v sslZ-cm-_m-Zn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. antj¬, ssa°nƒ F∂ c≠p Ip´n-I-fp≠v.sNdn-bm≥ PnC-bn¬ sshkv {]kn-U‚ v (sslZ-cm-_mZv) BbntPmen sNøp∂p. Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn _nµp Fw_nF ]mkm-b-tijw sImUmIv alo{µ sslZ-cm-_mZv {_m©v amt-P¿ BbntPmen sNøp∂p. N{µ-ti-J¿ kn.F, sI.Uªyp.F, I√ymWw Ign®v○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 200. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 309Ct∏mƒ t_mws_-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ah¿°v k÷, kvtlF∂ c≠p s]¨Ip-´n-I-fp≠v. Ip´n-I-fp-≠m-b-tijw _nµp tPmenn¿Øn. N{µ-ti-J¿ kn‰n _m¶n¬ sshkv {]kn-U‚mbn tPmentm°p∂p. Ad-°pfw ]g-b-]≈n ]Wn-bp-∂-Xn-mbn C´n sF∏v aq∂pG°¿ ÿew Zm-ambn ¬In-b-Xnp B≠p-tXmdpw Hcp hnip≤Ip¿_m At±-l-Øns‚ t]cn¬ sNm√n hcp∂p. Im™m-‰n¬]≈n-hI ss{]adn kvIqƒ XpS-ßp-∂-Xn-mbn ÿew Zm-ambn¬In. C´n sF∏ns‚ Hm¿Ω-bv°mbn kvIqfns‚ t]cv sk‚ vtPmk^vkv ss{]adn kvIqƒ F∂v t]cn´v ]≈n-°m¿ At±-lsØ_lp-am-n®p. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_ ]cn-]m-e tbmKw XpS-ßp-∂-Xnp Bflm¿∞-ambn kl-I-cn-®-h-cn¬ Hcm-fmWv {io C´n sF∏v.1911¬ cPn-ÿ sNbvX Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmKI-Ωn-‰n-bn¬At±lw BZysØ Xmt°m¬ ]nSp-Ø-°m-c≥ (Imjy¿) Bbn-cp∂p. XpS¿∂v 1927¬ ]WnX tI{µm-ebw (Hm^okv _n¬UnwKv)n¿Ωn-°p-∂Xnpw {io C´n sF∏v ap≥]-¥n-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂p. 1946¬ -Im™m-‰nse ÿew hn‰v Ing-°-º-eØv Cf-b-a-Iƒ adn-bm-Ω-bpsSIqsS Xma-k-am°n. 1974 hw-_¿ 30˛mw XobXn ac-W-a-S™p. C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS c≠mw hnhm-l-Ønse apØ-a-Iƒ Ip´n-b-Ωsb ae-_m-dn¬ IpSn-bm-∑e s]m´≥πm-hn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ ImWn-bm-°m´p sXmΩ≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. enkn, emen, knknen, tamfn,_nµp F∂ A©p ]p{Xn-amcpw tdmbv, tdmP¿ F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cp-ap-≠mbn. F√m s]¨a-°-fp-tSbpw tdmbn-bp-tSbpw IeymWwIgn™p. c≠m-asØ aIƒ Ip™-∂-Ωsb ]d-ap-≠-bn¬ ]m∏-®≥hnhmlw Ign®v ae-_m-dn¬ am-¥hm-Sn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ip™- -∂-Ωbv°v tPmkv, s_∂n F∂o c≠m¨ a°fpw dmWn, tamfn,emen F∂ aq∂p s]¨a-°fpw Pn®p. F√m-h-cp-tSbpw IeymWwIgn™p. aq∂m-asØ aI≥ C´n sF∏v (A∏-®≥) ap´Øp Xma-kn-°p∂Nq≠-bm-n-°¬ eoem-Ωsb sI´n ae-_m-dn¬ amtemØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. A∏-®v ken‰v, An‰v F∂ c≠p s]¨a-°fpw sNdn-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 201. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 310bm≥ (F_n≥) F∂o Hcm¨ Ip´n- b p- a p≠v . s]¨a- ° - f psShnhmlw Ign™p. F_n≥ 11˛mw ¢mkn¬ ]Tn-°p∂p. mem-asØ aI≥ Ipcy≥ sXmSp-]pg sNdn-b-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ Iøm-n-°p-t∂¬ tdmk-ens hnhmlw sNbvXv ]pXp-∏-cn-bm-cØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ipcys‚ aI-fmb ann-bpsS Ieym-WhpwIgn™p. GI aI-fmb ann-bpsS Ieym-Whpw Ign™p. A©m-asØ aIƒ tacnsb ae-_m-dn¬ ]pXp-t»-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ tImSn-°p-fØv tPman hnhmlw Ign-®-Xn¬ PnΩn F∂aIpw sP€n Hcp aI-fp-ap-≠mbn. c≠p-t]-cp-tSbpw hnhmlwIgn™p. Bdm-asØ aIƒ sXøm-Ωsb ]pXp-t»-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂sN´n-t»-cn-bn¬ ^nen∏v hnhmlw Ign®p. sXøm-Ωbv°v {]nb, {]oX,kvanX, o F∂ mep s]¨Ip-´n-I-fp-≠mbn. mep-t]-cp-tSbpwhnhmlw Ign™p. Ggm-asØ aIƒ tdmk-Ωsb ae-_m-dn¬ IpdnØn s√n-∏m-d-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ D∏q-´n¬ Nmt°m hnhmlw sNbvXp. PnPn,_nPp, tPmtam≥ F∂ aq∂m¨a-°fpw k‘y F∂ Hcp s]¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v. F√m-h-cp-tSbpw IeymWw Ign™p. F´m-asØ aI≥ tPmbn ae-_m-dn¬ am-¥-hm-Sn-°-SpØv]pXp-t»-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ ]d-∏bv°¬ sXøm-Ωsb IeymWw - -Ign®v ]pXp-t»-cn-bn¬ Xma-k-am°n. tPmbn°v Sn‚p F∂ Hcp aI-fp≠v. Ah-fpsS Ieym-Whpw Ign™p. Hº-Xm-asØ aIƒ Nn∂-Ωsb ae-_m-dn¬ amtemØv Xma-k-am-°nb h´-°p-t∂¬ tXmakv IeymWw Ign®p. Nn∂-Ωbv°vZo], ssj_, jo_, tim`, kz]v F∂ A©p s]¨Ip-´n-I-fp-≠mbn. Zo], jo_, tim` F∂n-hcpsS IeymWw Ign™p. ssj_ -sk‚ v {^m≥knkv Ako-kn-bpsS Bep-hm-bn¬ ssX°m-´p-I-c-bn-ep≈ aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. Ct∏mƒ C‰-en-bn¬ ]n€-bn-emWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 202. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 311amXyp C´n sF∏v Be-°¬ C´n sF∏ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X-mb amXyp `c-W-ßm-Øv aom-´q¿ IpSpw-_-Øn¬ tPmk^v aIƒ Gen-°p-´nsbhnhmlw Ign®v Ad-°p-fØv Xma-kn®v, Irjn Imcy-߃ tm°n-I-gn-™p-t]mWp. amXyp-hnv Gen-°p´n, tacn, t{XkymΩ, A∂Ω,¢mcΩ (imenn) F∂o A©p ]p{Xn-amcpw tPmk^v, tXmakv,amXyp, FΩm-p-h¬ F∂o mep ]p{X-∑mcpw Pn®p. amXyp,2003˛mam≠v sk]vXw-_¿ 26˛ mw XobXn acWw {]m]n®p. sXmSp-]pg sXw-Ip∂v ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-I-√-d-bn¬kwkvI-cn®p. `mcy Gen-°p´n 2005 sk]vXw-_¿ amkw F´mwXobXn acWw {]m]n®p. sXw-Ip∂v ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈IpSpw-_-I-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. amXyp-hns‚ aqØ aIƒ Gen-°p´n 16˛mw hb-€n¬ (1955)tm´¿Umw tIm¨sh‚n¬ tN¿∂p. knÿ Bna F∂ t]cn¬Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn _olm-dn¬ tkh--a-p-jvTn-®p-h-cp∂p. _mwKvfq¿sk‚ v B≥kv kvIqƒ {]n≥kn-∏¬, _olm-dn¬ _n.FUv tImfPv{]n≥kn-∏¬, tm´¿Umw tIm¨sh‚ v s{]mhn≥jymƒ, tm´¿UmwtIm¨sh‚ v sU]yq´n aZ¿ P-dmƒ F∂o ÿm-߃ hln-®n-´p≠v. Ct∏mƒ _olm-dn¬ hn{i-a-Po-hnXw bn-°p∂p. c≠m- a sØ ]p{Xn tacn knÿ HUo¬ F∂ t]cn¬tIm¨sh‚ v Hm^v Pokkv B‚ v tacn F∂ aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂vIym-kv{Xo-bmbn. gvknwKv ]mkmb Ch¿ ]n∂oSv tUmIvS¿Bbpw {]mIvSokv sNbvXp-h∂p. Ct∏mƒ KpP-dm-Øn¬ Hcp Am-Ym-embw S-Øn-h-cp∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xky knÿ APb F∂ t]cn¬tm´¿Umw tIm¨sh‚ n¬ tN¿∂p. Ata- c n- ° - b n¬n∂pwUn{Knbpw tdman¬n∂p Fw.Unbpw ]mkm-b-tijw _olm-dn¬aS-ßn-sbØn k{µmw F∂ ÿeØv tlmkv]n-‰¬ S-Øn-h-cp∂p. mem-asØ ]p{Xn A∂Ω (Nn∂Ω) tdman¬n∂p Fw.Un.]mkm-b-tijw yqtbm¿°n¬n∂pw inip-tcmK hn`m-K-Øn¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 203. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 312t]mÃv t{KtPz-j≥ ]oUn-bm-{SnIv ntbm-sa-t{Sm-f-Pn-bn¬ kq∏¿kvs]j-enÃv Bb tijw yqtbm¿°n¬ {]mIvSokv sNøp∂p.AeIvkv hntm-Km¿Uv ]oUn-bm-{SnIv Kmkvt{Sm F≥t{Sm-f-PnÃvBWv `¿Ømhv sPbnwkv ˛ AUz-°‰v, ssa°nƒ ˛ saUn-°¬ÃpU‚ v F∂n-h-cmWv a°ƒ. A©m-a-sØ-]p{Xn ¢mcΩ (imenn) U¬ln B¿.sI.tImf-Pn¬n∂pw _n.Fkvkn tlmtWgvkv gvknwKv ]mkmbn. Icn-¶p∂w XpSn-bw-πm-°¬ Ão^≥ aI≥ kJ-dn-bmkv (t__n)hnhmlw Ign®p. Ct∏mƒ imenn sXmSp-]pg kl-I-cW Bip-]{Xn gvknwKv kvIqƒ {]n≥kn-∏-embn tPmen sNøp∂p. KoXp ˛Fw.Fkvkn gvknwKv ÃpU‚ v, sk‚ v tPm¨kv saUn-°¬tImfPv, _mwKvfq¿, _noX Fw_n-_n-Fkv ÃpU‚ v, saUn-°¬tImfPv, XqØp-IpSn F∂n-h¿ a°-fmWv.dh. ^m. tPmk^v amXyp-hns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmk^v Cutim k`-bn¬ tN¿∂vsshZn-I-mbn. Xr»n-m-∏-≈n-bn¬n∂pw Fw.Fkvkn ^nknIvkvc≠mw dmt¶msS ]mkm-bXn-p-tijw _olm-dn¬ kmaq-ly-tk-hw -S-Øn-h∂p. sk‚ v tkthygvkv tImf-Pn¬ eIvN-d-dmbpw tkh--a-p-jvTn-®n-´p≠v. ]n∂oSv F¬-F¬_n ]mkm-b-tijw ]m‰vsslt°m-S-Xn-bnepw kp{]ow-tIm¿´nepw {]mIvSokv sNbvXp-h-cp∂p.tXmakv (t_-_n) c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (t__n) πmi-m¬ s´≥ Hgp-I-bn¬ tPmk^v aIƒ tamfnsb hnhmlw Ign®p. Ccp-hcpw Ct∏mƒAta-cn-°-bn¬ yq tPgvkn-bn¬ tPmen sNbvXp-h-cp∂p. Ch¿°vaRvPp, cRvPp F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fmWv. aqØ-]p{Xn aRvPp-hns Be-t°mSv amfn-tb-°¬ tPmk^v aI≥ sPbnwkv hnhmlwIgn®p. Ccp-hcpw gvkp-am-cmbn Ata-cn-°-bn¬ tPmen sNbvXp-h-cp∂p. Cfb aIƒ cRvPp-hns Xriq¿ SuWn¬ cRvPojv hnhmlwIgn®p. Ccp-hcpw Iw]yq-´¿ F≥Pn-o-tb-gvkmbn Ata-cn-°-bn¬tPmen sNøp∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 204. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 313amXyp (am-Ø-®≥) aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp tImX-aw-Kew am¿ AØm-m-kn-tbmkv tImf-Pn¬n∂pw F≥Pn-o-bdnw-Kn¬ _ncpZw tSnb tijw -`q´m-n¬ c≠p-h¿jw tkh--a-p-jvTn®p. XpS¿∂p tIcf ]nU-ªyp-Un-bn¬ ]me-°mSv, CSp°n F∂n-hn-Sßfn¬ tkh-ap-jvTn®p. - - - -amXyp ss_k¨hmen tImgn-∏q-m-n-°¬ Nmt°m aIƒ Bnsbhnhmlw Ign®v sXmSp-]pg shß-√q-cn¬ Xma-kn-®p-h-cp∂p. 1995Pp-hcn c≠mw XobXn Hcp hml-m-]-I-S-Øn¬ ac-W-a-S™p.sXmSp]pg sXw-Ip∂v ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-°-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. Ch¿°v ap, PnXp F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cmWv.]p{X≥ ap Ce-t{Œm-WnIvkv F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv ]mkm-b-tijw_mwKvfq-cn¬ a°m^n F∂ Iº-n-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. aptImX-aw-Kew Ipdp-∏pw-]Sn sSp-ºp-dØv F≥.hn.amXyp aIƒPn≥kn (_n.sSIv)sb hnhmlw Ign®v _mwKvfq-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. ]p{X≥ PnØp tImgn-t°mSv doP-W¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv tImf-Pn¬n∂pw _n.sSIv ]mkm-b-tijw _mwKvfq¿ knkvtIm F∂Iº-n-bn¬ tPmen sNbvXp-hcp∂p. PnØp _mwKvfq¿ ]p¬]-dºn¬ - -tPmfn sk_m-Ãy≥ aIƒ oXp (_n.sSIv) s hnhmlw Ign®p.-FΩm-p-h¬ (am-Wn-®≥) amXyp-hns‚ Cfb ]p{X-mb FΩm-p-h¬ (amWn-®≥) sXmSp-]pg yqam≥ tImf-Pn¬n∂pw _n.Fkvknbpw tIm´bw saUn-°¬tImf-Pn¬n∂p Fw_n-_n-Fkpw Fw.Fkv. k¿P-dnbpw ]mkm-b-tijw sXmSp-]pg kl-I-cW Bip-]-{Xn-bnepw sXmSp-]pg Xmeq°vBip-]-{Xn-bnepw k¿P-mbn tkh--a-p-jvTn-®p-h-cp∂p. sXmSp-]pgtdm´dn ¢_v {]kn-U‚ v, sFFwF sXmSp-]pg {_m©v {]kn-U‚ v,sFFwF kwÿm sshkv {]kn-U‚ v, sFFwF ªUv _m¶vÿm]I sk{I-´dn, Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmKw {]kn-U‚ v F∂one-I-fn¬ tkh--a-p-jvTn-®n-´p≠v. FΩm-p-h¬ hmg-°pfw Xøn¬aØmbn aIƒ tUm. kpansb hnhmlw sNbvXp. tUm. kpan aqhm-‰p-]pg Xmeq-°m-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ A-kvtXjy hn`mKw tUmIvS-dmbn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 205. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 314tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v PnXn≥, ho≥ F∂o c≠p ]p{X∑m-cmWv . PnXn≥ Xr°m°c F≥Pn- o- b - d nwKv tImf- P n¬n∂pw_n.sSIv ]mkm-b-tijw _mwKvfq-cn¬ bmlq Iº-n-bn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. Cfb aI≥ ho≥ Xr°m-°c tamU¬ F≥Pn-o-b-dnwKv tImf-Pn¬ Ah-km--h¿j hnZym¿Yn-bmWv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 206. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 331 Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ IpSpw_w Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ imJ (memw Xe-apd) aq∂mw Xe-apd Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ C´n-b-bv]ns‚ A©m-asØ]p{X≥ h¿°n mI-q-en¬ Ip∂p-ºp-d-Øp-n∂pw hnhm-lw-sNbvXvXd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. At±-l-Ønp C´n-bbv]v, sXmΩ≥, De-l-∂≥, h¿°n F∂n-ßs mep ]p{X-∑mcpw, Gen, adnbw F∂c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. Gensb ]mem-bn¬ ]Sn-™msd Xønepw,adn-b-Øns ]mem-bn¬ ]pXp-∏-≈nepw hnhmlw sNbvX-b®p. {]Y-a-]p-{X≥ C´n-bbv]v Im™n-c-∏-≈n¬ Ing-t°-Ø-e-bv°¬n∂p hnhmlw sNbvXp-sh-¶nepw a°-fn-√msX acn®p. ZznXo-b- ] p- { X≥ sXmΩ≥ (sshZy≥) Ab¿°p- ∂ Øv IpSp- I p- t »-cn¬n∂pw hnhmlw sNbvXv ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ Xmsg Xma-kn®p.sXmΩv h¿°n, sXmΩ≥ F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw adnbw, A∂,tdmk F∂ aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. ]p{Xn adn-b-Øns Ing-Ø-Sn-bq¿ Ic-bn¬ C√n-aq-´n¬ ]m∏≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. tIcf tÉvAkwªn sk{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp∂ {io. sI.Ipcp-hnf _n.F, Ah-cpsSGI ]p{X-mWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂sb BZyw taho-S-I-c-bn¬ amX-h-∏-≈n¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp. `¿Ømhv acn-°-bm¬ Ce-™n-bn¬ ]≈n-°m-∏dºn¬ sIm‰-m´p amØpw aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn - -tdmksb `c-W-ßm-Øp πmtØm-´-Øn¬ amWnbpw hnhmlwsNbvXp.Cf-t¥m-´-Øn¬ h¿°n (Bdmw Xe-ap-d) A©mw Xe-apd ˛ ]pen-ae°p-t∂¬ sXmΩ≥ sshZys‚ {]Y- - -a-]p-{X≥ h¿°n Icq¿ ]-a-‰Øp Iq¥m-Øv h¿°n-bpsS aIƒadn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv Cf-t¥m´w ao-tج aqe-]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-k-am°n. At±-lhpw a‰p Nnecpw tN¿∂v Cf-∏p-I-√p-¶¬ Iptd-°mew ssIØ-dn-ØpWn sbvØp SØn. h¿°n°v○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 207. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 332sXmΩ≥, h¿°n, C´n-bbv]v, De-l-∂≥, aØm-bn, sNdn-bm≥ F∂Bdp ]p{X-∑mcpw tdmk, adnbw, A∂Ω F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpwPn®p. ]p{Xn tdmksb ]mem-bn¬ Xpº-t»-cn¬ tPmk-^ns‚aI≥ tPmk^pw adn-b-Øns ]mem-bn¬ amtXmØp At¥m-n-bpsS aI≥ amWnbpw A∂-Ωsb ]Sn-™m-td-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´If-∏p-c-bv°¬ sXmΩs‚ aI≥ tPmk^pw hnhmlw sNbvXp.sXmΩ≥ (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) {]Ya ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ {]hn-Øm-Øv Imcym-¶¬ A{_m-l-Øns‚ aIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv a-bv°-°-≠-Øn¬Xma-kn®p. At±-l-Ønp h¿°n, C´n-s®-dnb, sXmΩ≥, tPmk^vamXyp, tPm¨ F∂ Bdp ]p{X≥amcpw adnbw Fs∂mcp ]p{XnbpwPn®p. ]p{Xn adnbw (knÿ eqkn acnb) s√n-bmn Bcm-[aT-Øn¬t®¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. sXmΩ≥ 10.12.1995 ¬ 92-˛masØhb-€n¬ ac-W-a-S-™p. Ipdp-aÆv sk‚ v tPm¨kv ]≈n-bn¬kwkvI-cn-®p.tPm¿÷v (F´mw Xe-ap-d) sXmΩs‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿÷v (sIm®v) ]qh-cWnNne-ºn¬ {_nPo-Øsb hnhmlw sNbvXv CSp-°n-bn¬ Xma-kn®p.F∂m¬ Ct∏mƒ CSp-°n-bnse ÿew hn‰v Cfw-tXm-´-Øn-ep≈Xd-hmSv ho´n-emWv Xmakw. Ch¿°p tXmakv F∂ Hcp ]p{Xpwtacn, A∂, {_nPoØv F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠v. tPm¿÷ns‚ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (tXmwk¨) Fgp-Ipw-h-b¬I√p-]p-c-bv°-IØv sI.F¬.tPm¨, en√n-°p´n aIƒ en≥knsbhnhmlw sNbvXv Cfw-tXm-´Øn¬ ]nXm-hns‚ IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p. -Ch¿°v {_nPoØv (So), acnb, Aeo (¢mc), B≥a-cnb F∂omep ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. ]p{Xn So _mwKvfq¿ sF.Sn.Iº-n-bn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. _m°n aq∂p a°fpw ]Tn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷ns‚ (sIm®v) aqØv ]p{Xn tacnsb ]Sn-™mtd tImSn-°pfw Im´mw-tIm-´n¬ ss]en-bpsS aI≥ tPm¨ hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂-Ωsb sNßfw ]pc-bn-SØn¬ Ip™- -hpX ˛ A∂ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aI≥ tPmk^v ]n.sP. (tPmbn) hnhmlw -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 208. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 333sNbvXv sXmSp-]pg a™-°-S-ºn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn {_nPn‰v (h’-Ω) sb DSp-º-∂q¿ Ing-°-ºmSw ]pen- X q- ° n¬ sXmΩ≥ ˛ Gen Zº- X n- I - f psS aI≥]n.Sn.tPmk^v (tPmkv) hnhmlw sNbvXp.C´n-s®-dn-b sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n-s®-dnb ap´p-Nnd ocm-°¬Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ adn-b-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]mem tN¿∏p-¶¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. C´n-s®-dn-b°v Zo]p, AeIvkv F∂o c≠vB¨a-°fp Zn¬, Znp F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ Zo]p ap´m¿I-c-bn¬ ]d-ºØvho´n¬ sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ Pqensb hnhmlw sNbvXv bp.sIbn¬tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v tUm¨ F∂ B¨Ip-´n-bp≠v. c≠m- a sØ ]p{X≥ AeIv k v hmg- t Øm∏v h´- b v ° ¬tPm¿Pns‚ aIƒ sdPnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. AeIvkv Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv samss_¬ sSIvo-jy-mbn tPmen sNøp∂p. aqØ aIƒ Zn¬s aqe-a-‰Øv a-bm-n-°¬ Ipcp-hn-f-bpsSaI≥ tdmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v c≠m¨a-°-fp≠v. c≠m- a sØ aIƒ Znp- h ns ]p- e q¿ apcn- ° ≥ho- ´ n¬tPmk^v (t{]w) hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿ c≠p-t]cpw A_p-Zm-_n-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v c≠m¨a-°fpw Hcp ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v.tXmakv sXmΩs‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (Ip™-Ω≥) ]memIcq¿ Rmh≈n ]pØ≥]pc C´n-b-hncm ˛ adn-b-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsSaIƒ A∂ (Ip´n-bΩ) sb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ipdp-a-Æn-ep≈ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v tXmakv (dnt‚m), {]n≥kv (C´n-b- h nc), tacn ({]o- ), A∂ ({]nb), A¬t^m≥km, tdmk(tdmknen), Gen ({]n≥kn) F∂o A©p ]p{Xn-amcp≠v. aqØ ]p{Xn {]osb ac-tßmen Ipco-°m-´p-]md tPm¿Pns‚aI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 209. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 334 c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn {]nbsb πmi-m¬ Be-∏m´v Ipt∂¬tPmkns‚ aI≥ tkm_n≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. {]nb kuZn-bn¬gvkmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. tXma-kns‚ _m°n a°ƒ ]Tn-°p∂p.dh. ^m. sI.-Sn. tPmk^v sXmΩs‚ mem- a sØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (dh. ^m.sI.Sn.tPmk^v) P_¬]q¿ anjy-n¬ tN¿∂v sshZn-I-mbn.amXyp (aØ-®≥) sXmΩs‚ A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp Ing-t°-°c imJ-bn¬s∏´ ]oSnI ssItXm-en¬ sXmΩs‚ aIƒ Gensb (X¶Ω)hnhmlw sNbvXv tX∑m-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v ssjn,ann, B¬^n≥ F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cm-Wp-≈Xv. amXyp-hns‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{Xn ssjnsb h≠-a‰w Ic-bn¬h≠-m-°c ho´n¬ sNdn-bm≥ aI≥ sPbnwkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn annsb mK-∏pg Ipgn-I-Æn-bn¬ ho´n¬tPmk^v aI≥ ]bkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Cw•-≠n¬tPmen sNøp∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn B¬^ns A¶-amen Ipf-ßm-´n¬ ho´n¬tbml-∂m≥ aI≥ F¬tZm hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Kƒ^n¬tPmen sNøp∂p.sI.-‰n. tPm¨ sXmΩs‚ Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¨ _nFkvkn _n.FUvaqe-a‰w hcn-°-am-°¬ Ipcys‚ aIƒ tacn-°p-´nsb hnhmlwsNbvXv CSp°n IpXn-c-°-√n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¨ A[ym-]-I-mbn dn´-b¿ sNbvXp. tPmWnp tSmWn F∂ ]p{Xpw ap acnb,Ap A∂ F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°fp-amWv. ]p{X≥ tSmWn gvknwKv -]mkmbn. ap acnb bpF-kv-F-bn¬ _nFkvkn gvknw-Knp ]Tn-°p∂p. Ap A∂ _n.Fkvkn gvknwKv Ign™v _mwKvfq-cn¬tPmen sNøp∂p.h¿°n (Ggmw Xe-ap-d)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 210. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 335 Cfw-tXm-´-Øn¬ h¿°n-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ h¿°nImWn-b-°m-´p-I-c-bn¬ ISp-ºp-Im-´n¬ hmIy-Ø-m¬ HuX-bpsSaIƒ adn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv sXt° Cfw-tXm´w ]pc-bn-S-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ sbvØm-^okv ]pXp°n Xma-kn®p. h¿°n°vh¿Kokv (h°-®≥), tPmk^v (Ip´n-®≥), tXmakv F∂o aq∂p]p{X-∑mcpw adn-bmΩ, A∂, Nn∂Ω, eoemΩ F∂o mep ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. h¿°n 02.03.1993 ¬ 91-˛-m-asØ hb-€n¬ ac-W-a-S-™p. Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. aqØ-]p{Xn adn-b-Øns CS-a-dp-In¬ Nocmw-Ip-gn-bn¬ amWn-bpsS aI≥ sNdn-bm≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. A∂bpw (knÿ sÃ√m acnb), Nn∂-Ωbpw (knÿ {Sokm)eoemΩ (knÿ sSkn) bpw Nß-m-ticn hmg-∏≈n Bcm-[ aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-I-fmbn.h¿Kokv (F´mw Xe-ap-d) h¿°n-bpsS aqØ ]p{X≥ h¿Kokv (h°-®≥) tIm´m-߬Np¶-∏md ]-t¥m-´Øn¬ t{Xkysb (en√n-°p´n) hnhmlw sNbvXv -Acp-Wm-]p-cØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. h¿Ko-knp h¿Kokv ({]n≥kv),Pb≥ h¿Kokv F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw ss{_‰n F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. h¿Kokv 2009 HIvtSm-_¿ 24p ac-W-a-S™p. Acp-Wm-]pcw]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn-ep≈ IpSpw-_-°-√-d-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. h¿Ko-kns‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ {]n≥kv IS-πm-a‰w ]∂n-°m-t´¬ h¿°n, ¢mcΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ jm‚nsb hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ch¿°v FkvtX¿, Fen-k-_Øv F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fmWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Pb≥ I´-∏ ssX∏-d-ºn¬ tPmkv,F¬k Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ Ap-hns hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°vFbvU≥ F∂ ]p{X-p≠v. Ccp-hcpw Xncp-h--¥-]pcw sSIvtm]m¿°n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. h¿Ko-kns‚ ]p{Xn ss{_‰nsb Aºm-d-n-c-t∏¬ Ce-hp-¶¬tXmakv- ˛---- tacn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPm¿÷v hnhmlw Ign-®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 211. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 336-tPmk^v (Ip´n-®≥) h¿°n-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (Ip´n-®≥) ]qh-c-Wn-bn¬ ]p√m´v sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ t{Xkysb hnhmlw sNbvXvCSp°n acn- b m- ] p- c Øv Xma- k n- ° p∂p. tPmk- ^ np h¿°n(tkmP≥), Hutk∏v (tPmWn), tXmakv (dn®m¿Uv), sNdn-bm≥(tPmtam≥) F∂o mep ]p{X-∑mcpw adnbw, A∂, t{Xky F∂oaq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. tPmk^ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tkmP≥ (h¿°n) D∏p-tXmSvπmtØm-´-Øn¬ ]m∏-®s‚ aIƒ kPnsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.CSp°n Icn- º - n- ¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. Ch¿°v FUv h n≥ F∂B¨Ip-´nbpw Fanen F∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p∂p.tkmP≥ Icn-º-n¬ apØq‰v _m¶v amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Hutk∏v (tPmWn) s]cp-h-¥m-ØvhmWn-b-∏p-c-°¬ Bnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Im™n-c-∏-≈n-bn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. Bn Im™n-c-∏≈n kvIqfn¬ So®-dmbn tPmensNøp∂p. tPmWn°v tUm¨ F∂ ]p{Xpw Unbm, taL F∂oc≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. aq∂p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p∂p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (dn®m¿Uv) sh´n-a-‰Øv aT-Øn¬amXyp-hns‚ aIƒ en‚sb hnhmlw sNbvXv sXmSp-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. dn®m¿Uv knhn¬ kssπ-kn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. `mcyen‚m sXmSp-]pg PbvdmWn kvIqfn¬ A[ym-]n-I-bmWv. Ch¿°vtembnUv, enbm≥ F∂o c≠v B¨a-°-fp≠v Ccp-hcpw sIm®p-Ip-´n-I-fmWv. mem-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥ (tPmtam≥) Ahn-hm-ln-X-mWv. tPmtam≥ Icn-a-Æq-cn¬ d∫¿ _nkn-kv sNøp∂p. ]nXm-hns‚ IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmk-^ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn adn-b-Øns(euen) DSp-º-∂q¿ ]g-bn-SØv tXma-kns‚ aI≥ Pbnwkv hnhmlwsNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂sb (ssek) CS-sh´n Rmfq¿ h¿Ko-kns‚ aI≥ jmPn hnhmlw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 212. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 337 aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xky (_nPn)sb sImSp-then aT-Øn¬Nmt°m-bpsS aI≥ tPmk^v ({]Imiv) hnhmlw sNbvXp.tXmakv (tXmam-®≥) h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv (tXmam-®≥) oeq¿X®m-ºp-dØv tdmk (Ip´n-bΩ) sb hnhmlw sNbvXp Xd-hm-´n¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-knp h¿°n (Pbn-k¨) F∂ ]p{Xpwadnbw (sPkn), sIm®p-t{Xky (Pb) F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. ]p{X≥ Pbn-k¨ tahnS At©-cn¬ F.kn.A{_mlw ˛tacnΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ en‰nsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v Fbvan-tdmkv, AIn¬ F∂o c≠pa°-fmWv. Ch¿ Ip™p-ß-fmWv. tXma-kns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn Pknsb apXet°mSw Ipgn-∏n-≈n¬Hutk∏v tamfn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ cmtPjv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Pb G‰p-am-q-cn¬ G‰p-am-q-c-∏≥ tImf-Pn¬ eIvN-d-dmWv.dh. ^m. sh¿W¿ kn.-Fw.-sF. Cfw-tXm-´-Øn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ C´n sF∏v(dh. ^m. sh¿W¿ knFwsF) 1945¬ 32˛masØ hb-kn¬ acn®p.sNØn-∏pg B{i-a-tZ-hm-e-b-Øn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p.De-l-∂≥ (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) Cfw-tXm-´-Øn¬ h¿°n-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ De-l-∂≥(Ip™ntem) Cfw-tXm´w sXt°-°-≠-Øn¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ¢mcsb hnhmlw sNbvXv sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn®p. De-l-∂≥1995 sk]v‰w-_¿ 30-˛mw XobXn 84-˛masØ hb-€n¬ ac-W-a-S-™p.sh≈n-bm-a‰w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p. De-l-∂p tPm¿Pv (Rq™v), tPmkv, amXyp (t__n-®≥)F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw tacn, Gen, A∂, tdmkΩ F∂o mep]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. De-l-∂s‚ aqØ-]p{Xn tacnsb Ipdp-a-Æn¬ hcn-°-am-°¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 213. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 338aØm-bn-bpsS aI≥ amWn hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen (knÿ tacn {]oam) Icq¿ I¿Ω-eoØm aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂sb Fen-°p-fØv ]∆-Øp-ho-´n¬amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk-Ωsb sN∏p-Ipfw Ipº-fm-¶¬tPmk-^ns‚ aI≥ sI.sP.tZhky hnhmlw Ign®p. Ch¿ Ct∏mƒAd-°p-fØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tZhky Xncp-h--¥-]pcw sF.-F-kv.-B¿.-H.-bn¬ kbn‚n-Ãmbncp∂p. Ct∏mƒ dn´-b¿ sNbvXp.tPm¿÷v (Rq™v) De-l∂ms‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¿Pv (Rq™v) Ggm-t®cn -Icn-tßm-g-°¬n∂p ZØp-h∂ Rmh-≈n¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aIƒadn-b-Øns hnhmlw sNbvXv sh´n-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°vtPm¨ (tPmWn), amXyp (jmPn) F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw ¢mcnkv(km-en-Ω) F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v.tPm¨ (tPmWn) tPm¿÷ns‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¨ (tPmWn) `c-W-ßmw hmfn-πm-°¬ tPmk^ns‚ aIƒ sIm®p-dm-Wnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv Cfw-tZ-iØv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmWn°v tPm¿Pp-Ip´n F∂]p{Xpw an∂p F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p. tPmWnAp-P≥ jmPn-bp-samØv Ie-b-¥m-n-bn¬ d∫¿ _nkn-kvsNøp∂p. IqSmsX ]∂n-a‰w sI.F.em‰Ivkv d∫¿ ^mIvS-dn°ptXm´-ß-fn¬n∂pw d∫¿]m¬ kw`-cn®p ¬Ip∂ _nkn--kp-ap≠v.-amXyp (jmPn) tPm¿÷ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (jmPn) aqe-a-‰Øva-bm-n-°¬ Ipcp-hnf aIƒ dmWnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. jmPn°v am¿K-c‰v, tdmkv F∂o c≠ps]¨a-°-fmWv. Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 214. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 339 tPm¿÷ns‚ ]p{Xn ¢mcnkv (kmenΩ) Acn-°pg Nn‰q-cn¬Xm-Øp-]-d-ºn¬ sUma-nIv aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿Ct∏mƒ ]qbw-Ip-´n-bn-emWv Xmakw.tPmk^v (tPmkv) De-l-∂ms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (tPmkv) ap´whcn-°-am-°¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ A∂-°p-´nsb hnhmlw sNbvXvsh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknv ‰ntPm, tPm_n≥ F∂oc≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw ‰n]vkn F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. tPmkns‚ H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ ‰ntPm hS-°m-t©cn ap≠m-´p-Np-≠-bn¬ tPm¨ks‚ aIƒ tUmWsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Bkvt{S-en-b-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v dn®m¿UvFs∂mcp ]p{X-p≠v. tPmkns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm_n≥ Fen-hmen sh≈-cn-ßm´v h°-®s‚ aIƒ Ap-hns hnhmlw sNbvXv ]pXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm_nv l∂ Fs∂mcp ]p{Xn-bp≠v. tPmkns‚ ]p{Xn ‰n]vknsb ]mem XpSn-bw-πm-°¬ amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ PÃn≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Ata-cn-°-bn¬tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v aq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v.amXyp (t__n-®≥) De-l-∂ms‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp (t__n-®≥) ]qh-cWn Ipº-f-¥m-Øv sNdn-bms‚ aIƒ tdmk-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbv X v ]nXr- K r- l - Ø n¬ Xma- k n- ° p∂p. amXyp- h np tPm¨(sP≥kv), tPmkv F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw Pn≥kn F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{X≥ tPm¨ (sP≥kv) ]g-b∂q¿ ap≠m-´p-Np-≠bn¬ tPmkv - -aIƒ Ap-hns hnhmlw sNbvXp. sP≥kv sU≥am¿°nepw Apdnbm-Znepw tPmen sNøp∂p. tPmkv hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. Pn≥kngvknwKv ]Tw Ign™v tPmen sNøp∂p.aØmbn Cfw-tXm-´-Øn¬ h¿°n-bpsS A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ aØmbn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 215. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 340]mem-bn¬ Xpº-t»-cn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlwsNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. At±-l-Ønp k¥m--߃ C√.aØm-bnbpw A∂bpw ac-W-a-S™p. Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. aØmbn Hcp ]tcm-]-Imc X¬∏-c-m-bn-cp∂p.IpSpw-_tbmKw ap≥ {]kn-U‚p-amWv. aØmbn 7.05.1994¬ 78-˛masØ -hb-€n¬ ac-W-a-S-™p.sNdn-bm≥ Cfw-tXm-´-Øn¬ h¿°n-bpsS Bdm-asØ ]p{X≥ sNdn-bm≥(Ip™v) Cf-ßp-fØv Nocmw-Ip-gn-bn¬ amWn-bpsS aIƒ adn-bØns -hnhmlw sNbvXv sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. sNdn-bmptPm¿Pv, amWn, sNdn-bm≥ (t‰man), tPmk^v (tPmbn) F∂o mep]p{X-∑mcpw tacn, tdmk, t{Xky, A∂ F∂o mep ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn tacnsb ac-ßm-´p-]≈n-bn¬ sXm≠n-°¬ Nmt°m- -bpsS aI≥ Ipcy≥ hnhmlw Ign®p. c≠m- a sØ ]p{Xn tdmksb ac- ß m- ´ p- ] ≈n ap™- m´vtXmakv hnhmlw Ign®p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xkysb (X¶Ω)sh´n-a-‰Øv amΩq-´n¬ tPm¨ hnhmlw sNbvXp. mem-asØ ]p{Xntdmksb ]mem-bn¬ Iho-°p∂v Nocmw-Ip-gn-bn¬ aØm-bn-bpsSaI≥ tPmkv hnhmlw sNbvXp.tPm¿÷v sNdn-bms‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPm¿Pv _n.Fkvkn _n.FUvsh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv XS-h-m¬ tPmk-^v-˛-a-dn-b-°p´n aIƒ A∂sb(X-¶-Ω) hnhmlw sNbvXv hmg-tØm-∏n¬ Xma-kn®p. tPm¿Pv hnZym-`ym-k-h-Ip-∏n¬ F.C.H Bbn dn´-b¿ sNbvXp. tPm¿÷v 19˛6˛2004¬acWw {]m]n®p. hmg-tØm∏v ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.tPm¿÷np kndnƒcmPv Fs∂mcp ]p{Xpw knan Fs∂mcp ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. tPm¿÷ns‚ ]p{X≥ kndn¬cmPv sImgp-h-m¬ XÆn-∏mdHutk-∏-®s‚ aIƒ k¬asb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. kndn-fnp tPm¿÷p-Ip´n Fs∂mcp ]p{Xpw A≥kv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 216. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 341F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ccp-hcpw ]Tn-°p∂p. ]p{Xn knansb Nß-m-ticn Ipdp-ºm-SØv ap°m-´p-Ip-t∂¬ -Pbnwkv Ip´n-bpsS aI≥ PntPm Pbnwkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Zp_m-bn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p.amp-h¬ (amWn) sNdn-bms‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ amp-h¬ (amWn) ]memsh≈n-tb-∏≈n Igp-Øp-ho-´n¬ tXma-kns‚ aIƒ Nn∂-Ωsbhnhmlw sNbvXv tXm{]mw-Ip-Sn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. amWn°v PnΩn,tdmWn F∂o c≠m¨a-°-fmWv. PnΩn ]S-apJw sXm´n-bn¬ tP°-_ns‚ aIƒ kpn-Xsb hnhmlw Ign®p ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn- ° p∂p. PnΩn°v sacn≥ Fs∂mcp ]p{Xn- b p≠v . tdmWnbp.sI.bn¬ gvkmbn tPmen sNøp∂p.tSman sNdn- b ms‚ aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ tSman ssae- s °mºvAΩ≥Xp-cp-Øn-bn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ sseesb hnhmlw sNbvXvtXm{]mw-Ip-Sn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tSman°p t‰mWn, tPm¿÷v F∂oc≠m¨a-°-fmWv. c≠p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p∂p. tSman 09.08.2011 ¬ ncym-X-m-bn. tXm{]mw-IpSn ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-®p.tPmk^v (tPmbn) sNdn-bms‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (tPmbn) Cc-´-bm-‰n¬ sXm´n-bn¬ A{_m-l-Øns‚ aIƒ kme-Ωsb hnhmlwsNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmbn°v hntmZv, apF∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw tPm€n Fs∂mcp ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{XntPm€nsb IqØm-´p-Ip-fØv Ing-t°-tIm-gn-πm-°¬ tPm¨ aI≥enPp hnhmlw sNbvXp.]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ XmsgsXmΩ≥ sshZy≥ (Bdmw Xe-ap-d) A©mw Xe-apd ]pen-ae°p-t∂¬Ømsg sXmΩ≥ sshZys‚ - -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 217. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 342c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sXma-Ω≥. ]pXp-a A{_m-l-Øns‚ aIƒadn-bØns hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ Xma-kn®p. At±lw - -Bbp¿thZ NnIn-’-bn¬ hnZ-Kv[-m-bn-cp∂p. sXmΩp tXmakv,A{_mlw, h¿°n, tPm¨, tPmk^v, amXyp F∂ Bdp ]p{X-∑mcpw tdmk, Gen, adnbw, A∂, adnbw, t{Xky F∂ Bdp]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. ]p{Xn tdmksb {]hn-Ømw CS-hI Ipgn-™m-en¬ sNdn-b-Xns‚ aI≥ Ck-lm°v hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{Xn Gen (knÿdPom) ]mem ¢mc-a-T-Ønepw aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn adnbw (knÿÃ≥kn-en-knbm F^v.-kn.-kn.) shfn-®n-bmn ¢mc-a-T-Ønepw ]p{XnA∂ hnim-J-]-´Ww anjy-nepw A©m-asØ ]p{Xn adn-bhpwBdm-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xkymbpw ae-_m-dn¬ ¢mc-a-T-Ønepw tN¿∂pIym-kv{Xo-I-fmbn.sI.-‰n. tXmakv (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) {]Y-a-]p-{X≥ sI.-‰n. tXmakv _n.Fkvkn Icq¿ Iq¥m-ØvHutk-∏ns‚ aIƒ Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXp. At±lw ]memsk‚ v tXmakv kvIqfn¬ A[ym-]-I-mbpw Ipdp-aÆv anUn¬kvIqƒ slUvam- à - d mbpw tPmen tm°n- b n- c p∂p. {io.sI.kn.sk_m-Ãy≥ Ign-™m¬ Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-ØnseASpØ _ncp-Z-[m-cn-bmWv tXmΩkv. At±lw 1947¬ acn®v Cfw-tXm´w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p. At±-l-ØnptXmakv, tPmk^v F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m¿ Pn®p.sI.Sn. tXmakv (F´mw Xe-ap-d) sXmΩs‚ aqØ- ] p- { X≥ sI.Sn.tXmakv _n.Fkv k nFw._n._n.Fkv, Fw.B¿.kn.]n. ssk° ˛ e≠-n¬ tUmIvS-dmbn tPmen sNøp∂p. tXmakv Ce-™n-bn¬n∂pw Xncp-h--¥-]p- c Øv Xma- k n- ° p∂ tXm´- Ø n¬ ]o‰- d ns‚ aIƒ tamfn_n.Fkvknsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ch¿°v adnbw (‰nwkn), Fen-k-_Øv (enwkn), {_nPo‰v (km≥^n) F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-am-cm-Wp-≈Xv. a°ƒ aq∂p-t]cpw hnhm-ln-X-cmbn e≠-n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 218. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 343sI.-Sn. tPmk^v tXma-kns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sI.Sn.tPmk^v XnS-mSvsh≈q-Ip-t∂¬ tPmk^v, adn-b°p´n Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ tacn-Ωsb - -hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-amb ]pen-a--°p-t∂¬ Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tPmk-^np tacn (kop) F∂ ]p{Xnbpw tXmakv(s_p) F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. ]p{Xn kophns Ccn-ßm-e-°pS ]ø-∏≈n sImfph≥ {]^. ]n.sP.DΩ≥, kteman Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥tlm¿aokv (Ddp-aokv) hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw _mw•q-cn¬tPmen sNøp∂p. ]p{X≥ s_p ss]I tImgn-sIm-Øn-°¬ tPmbnkv, t{Kkn-°p´n aIƒ sXtck(Ip°p)hns hnhmlw sNbvXv _mwKvfq-cn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p.A{_mlw (C´n-°p™p) ]pen-a--°p-t∂¬ sXmΩs‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ A{_mlw(C´n-°p™v) {]hn-Øm-Øv Abv]≥]-d-ºn¬ Ipt∂¬ C´n-b-hn-c-bpsS aIƒ t{Xkysb hnhmlw sNbvXp. a°-fn-√msX `mcyacn®p. AXn-m¬ aptØm-en¬ am[-h-∏-≈n¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒt{Xkymsb ]p¿ hnhmlw sNbvXv Ipdp-aÆv a-°-°-≠-Øn¬Xma-kn®p. Ch¿°v sXmΩ≥, h¿°n, tPmkv, tPm¨ F∂o ]p{X-∑mcpw tacn, t{Xky, tdmk F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. ]p{Xntacn ]mem IÆm-Sn-bp-dpºv ¢mc aT-Ønepw c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnt{Xky `c-W-ßmw tacn-Kncn saUn-°¬ anj-nepw aq∂m-asØ]p{Xn tdmk ]mem ¢mc-a-T-Ønepw tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-I-fmbn.CXn¬ t{Xkymbpw tdmkbpw ac-W-a-S™p.tXmakv (F´mw Xe-ap-d) C´n-°p-™ns‚ aqØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv {]hn-Øm--Øp-n∂pwCS-a-dp-In¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ Iq´p-¶¬ Nn∂-Ωsb hnhmlw Ign®vtX∑m-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-knv A©v ]p{Xn-amcpw Hcp]p{X-p-ap≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn tacnsb Ie-b-¥m-n-bn¬ hcn-°-am-°¬ A{_m-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 219. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 344l-Øns‚ aI≥ Pbnwkv hnhmlw Ign®p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn t{K€nsb CS-a-dp-In¬ hmfn-πm-°¬ amXyp-hns‚ aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn kmen(knÿ knkn-enb) _mwKvfq-cn¬ ¢qWn tIm¨sh‚n¬ tN¿∂pIym-kv{Xo-bmbn _mwKvfq-cn¬ tkhw sNøp∂p. mem-asØ]p{Xn ^ntem-an-sb Im™n-c∏≈n ]¥n-cp-th-en¬ kÆn hnhmlw -sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn h’-Ωsb Cfw-tZ-iØv ]≈n-°y-am-en¬ n°-fm-thm-kns‚ aI≥ eqbnkv hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw_l-dn-n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. ]p{X≥ tm_nƒ tImX-aw-Kew Ipcn-ipw-aq-´n¬ amXyp-hns‚aIƒ dosb hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Bkvt{X-en-b-bn¬tPmen sNøp∂p. Ch¿°v tXmakv, amXyp F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpwtdmkvtamƒ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv.sI.-sF. tPm¿Pv (h¿°n-®≥) C´n-°p-™ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sI.sF.tPm¿Pv (h¿°n-®≥) {]hn-Øm-Øv Ipgn-™m-en¬ Ipcp-hn-f-bpsS aIƒ h’sbhnhmlw sNbvXv tX∑m-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷np kpaknan F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw tkmWn F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. h¿°n-®s‚ aqØ-]p{Xn kp-asb acn-bm-]p-cØv ap≠-°¬tPm¨ ˛ Gen-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ ¢a‚ v (X¶-®≥) hnhmlwIgn®v DSp-º-∂q-cn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn knansb aqhm-‰p-]pg ]®-bn¬ amXyp-hns‚aI≥ km_p hnhmlw sNbvXv aqhm-‰p-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. ]p{X≥ tkmWn ]qh-cWn ]¥-em-n-°¬ sXmΩ-®≥, eoemΩZº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ kn€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. tkmWn°v Aa¬ Pntbm tkmWn F∂ ]p{XpwB≥ tdmkv F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv.tPmkv C´n-°p-™ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv ]∂n-a-‰Øv ap≠-°¬ sk_m-Ãys‚ aIƒ h’-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv h≠-a-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 220. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 345‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v k®n≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw kuay F∂]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{Xn kuaysb ss]I Bn-tØm-´-Øn¬ Ipcy≥t{Xky aI≥ amXyp kndn-bIv hnhmlw sNbvXp. ]p{X≥ k®n≥tImX-aw-Kew s]cp-º-m-n-°¬ tPmkv-˛-F-anen aIƒ Pn¬knshnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-{K-lØn¬ Xma-kn®v Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv tPmen -sNøp∂p.tPm¨ A{_ml(C´n-°p™v)Øns‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¨Xriq¿ ]pd-h≥Xp-cp-Øn¬ kvIdn-bm-bpsS aIƒ knnsb hnhmlwsNbvXv IS-πm-a‰w CS-h-I-bn¬ s√n-°p-∂n¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.Ch¿°v sPdn≥ F∂ ]p{Xpw sjdn≥ F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. ]p{Xnsjdn≥ gvkmbn Al-Ω-Zm-_m-Zn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. sPdn≥hnZym¿Yn-bmWv. sXmΩs‚ XrXo-b-]p-{X≥ h¿°n (dh. ^mkn-kvXqkv)kn.Fw.sF. sshZn-I-m-bn-cp∂p Ct∏mƒ C√.sI.Sn.tPm¨ (Ip™ntem) sXmΩs‚ mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm¨ (Ip™ntem) {]hn-Øm-Øv Im™n-c-Øn-¶¬ NpΩm-cpsS aIƒ t{Xkysb hnhmlwsNbvXv sh´n-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°bpw ]∂oSv sh´n-a-‰sØ ÿew hn‰v]mem-bn¬ Xma-kn-°th acWw {]m]n®p. tPmWnp sXmΩ≥Fs∂mcp ]p{Xpw adnbw, Gen, A∂, tdmk, t{Xky F∂oA©p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p{Xn adn-b-Øns Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ s]mcp-t∂m-en¬ kvIdn-bm-bpsS aI≥ tPmk^v kvIdnb _n.Fkvkn_n.FUv hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn Gen Bc-°pg I¿Ω-eoØm aT-Ønepwaq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂-°p-´nsb Fcp-taen aq∂p-I≠Øn¬ t__n- - -®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ccp-hcpw Ct∏mƒ Im-U-bn¬ tPmensNøp∂p. mem-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk ae-_m-dn¬ ¢mc-a-T-Øn¬tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xkysb cn-b-ßmw am¶q-´-Øn¬ h¿°n aI≥ tSman hnhmlw sNbvXv ]mem-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. ]p{X≥ kpJ-an-√mØ Bfm-bn-cp∂p. Ct∏mƒC√.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 221. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 346sI.Sn.tPmk^v sXmΩs‚ A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v sshZn-I-hrØnDt]-£n®v tN¿∏p-¶¬ ]d-tIm´n-bn¬ tPmk^v ˛ Gen-°p´n Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ tacnsb hnhmlw sNbvXv Ccn-´n-b-SpØv B-∏m-d-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ct±lw 2002 s^{_p-hcn-bn¬ acWw {]m]n®p. -aWn-°-Shv ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. tPmk-^np Pnkv, kuay F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw amp-h¬(tPm_n) F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. ]p{Xn-am¿ c≠p-t]cpw aT-Øn¬tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xo-I-fmbn. ]p{X≥ tPm_n≥ aWn-°-Shv aqe-°m-´n¬ Ipcy≥, Beokv aIƒ tkmWm (F¬kn)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm_n°v Gbv©¬, Fhnk(A¬t^m≥km) F∂o c≠p Ip´n-I-fp≠v. Ccp-hcpw Ip™p-ß-fmWv.sI.Sn.amXyp sXmΩs‚ Bdm- a sØ ]p{X≥ amXyp {]hn- Ø m- ØvsXt°¬ kvIdn-b-bm-bpsS aIƒ Gen-°p-´nsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.amXyp-hnv tXmakv (sIm®v), kvIdnb (tPmbn), Pbnwkv (t__n)F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw tacn, A∂ F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap≠v.aqØ]p{Xn tacnsb ss]I ¥n-Im-´p-I≠Øn¬ F≥.F. h¿Kokv, - -t{XkymΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ F≥.hn.h¿Kokv hnhmlw sNbvXp.tacn-°p-´n°v mep ]p{Xn-amcpw aq∂p ]p{X-∑m-cp-amWv. amXyp-hns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂ (ssee)sb Im°q¿aoº-≈n-°m-hn¬ Fw.sP.BKkvXn Fen-k-_Øv aI≥ tSman(Irjn) hnhmlw sNbvXp. ssee-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ PÃn≥ tSmwFw._n.F, Akn- v amt-P¿ dnte-j≥jn∏v C¥y _pjv skIyq-cn-‰okv C.sI.Fw. h¿°v sNøp∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyqkv_n.Fkv.F ÃpU‚ v BWv. aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tSmwkv _n.sSIvÃpU‚ v BWv. mem-a≥ tPmk≥ F´mw ¢mkn¬ ]Tn-°p∂p.sI.-Fw. tXmakv (sIm®v) amXyp-hns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ sI.Fw.tXmakv (sIm®v) Fcp-taen○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 222. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 349Ddp-tº-n-c-t∏¬ (n[o-cn-°¬) H.hn.tZhky, ImX-ssd≥ aIƒtamfnsb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv Cfw-tXm-´-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-knp kmtPm t_m_n F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw tUm. kmntXmakv F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. aqØ-]p-{X≥ kmtPm sF.Sn. F≥Pn-o-b-dmbn _mwKvfq-cn¬ tPmen sNøp∂p. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥t_m_n Fw.Fkvkn°v ]Tn-°p∂p. ]p{Xn kmnsb sXmSp-]pg]me-a‰w ]n.sP.tPm¿Pv, Gen-°p´n aI≥ cmtPjv tÉv SmIvkvHm^ok¿ hnhmlw sNbvXp. kmn sh‰-dn-dn k¿P-mWv. amXyp-hns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kvIdnbm (tPmbn) ]memIS-∏m-´q¿ amS-∏m´v Fw.sI.tPmk^v, t{Xky Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒtdm€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXp Nq≠-t®-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.tPmbn°v amXyp, tPmkv F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cmWv. aqØ-a-I≥amXyp sI.sP. oeq¿ ap√-∏≈n amXyp, Gen-°p´n aIƒ _n≥knsbhnhmlw sNbvXp.sPbnwkv (t__n) amXyp-hns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ sPbnwkv tImgn-ae sI.kn.tPmkv˛G-en-bmΩ Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ kqk-Ωsb hnhmlw sNbvXv -]nXr-{K-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. sPbnw-knv amXyp _n.-F®v.Fw.,FUvth¿Uv (sk-an-m-cn), tSmw sPbnwkv _n.-tImw. F∂o aq∂v]p{X-∑m-cp≠v. Itcm-s´-ho-´n¬ h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ De-l-∂m≥(dh. ^m. tPm¨) Cfw-tXm´w Bÿm-am-bn-cp∂ I¬Zmb kpdn-bm-n-k-`-bnse sa{Xm-t∏m-eo-Ø-bpsS ]°¬n-∂mWv ]´-ta-‰Xv.]n∂oSv tdma≥ ItØm-en-°m-k`bn-te°v Xncn-®p-t]m∂p. Ct±lw - -Ing-t°-°c]o-Sn-Ibn¬ _lp. butk-∏®s‚ kl-]m-Tn-bm-bn-cp∂p. - - - -Ct±lw Cfw-tXm´w, aptØmen, tIm´m-߬ apX-emb ]≈n-I-fn¬Akn. hnIm-cn-bm-bn-cp-∂n-´p≠v. At±lw ac-WaS™p ]mem IØo-{U¬ ]≈n-bn¬ kwkvI-cn-°-s∏´p. Itcm-s´-ho-´n¬ imJ h¿°n-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ h¿°n (Xe-ap-Sn-°m-c≥) ]Sn-™m-sd-°c imJ-bmb sXcp-hn¬n∂pw hnhmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 223. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 350´n¬ Xma-kn®p. h¿°n°v h¿°n Fs∂mcp ]p{Xpw Hcp ]p{Xn-bp-ap-≠mbn. ]p{Xnsb ao-®n¬ ]p√m´v hnhmlw sNbvX-b®p. ]p{X≥h¿°n `c-Wßmw πmtØm-´Øn¬ dh. ^m. Ipcp-hn-fbpsS ktlm- - - -Zcn Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn®p. ]n∂oSv ]mem-bn-ep≈ Xd-hmSpw hkvXp-°fpw hn‰v sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv ]pc-bn-S-߃hmßn Xma-k-am°n. h¿°n°v h¿°n (Ip™p), amWn, tPmk^v(]m∏-®≥), sXmΩ≥, De-l-∂m≥ (Ip™ntem) F∂ A©p ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen, adnbw, tdmk, t{Xky, A∂, ¢mc F∂o Bdp ]p{Xn-am-cp-ap-≠mbn.h¿°n h¿°n (Ggmw Xe-ap-d) H∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ h¿°n (Ip™v) ao-®n¬ sXmSp-I-bn¬s∏´ aqe-bn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ adn-bØns hnhmlw sNbvXv -ssltd-©n¬ s]cn-©mw-Ip-´n-bn¬ Xma-kn®p. h¿°n°v tPm¿÷v(sIm®v) kvIdnb, Hutk∏v F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw Gen, A∂,t{Xky, adnbw F∂o ]p{Xn-amcpw Pn®p. h¿°n 1988 Pq¨ 20pacWw {]m]n®v s]cn-©mw-Ip´n ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. h¿°n-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPm¿Pv (sIm®v) ]md-tØmSv Ipf-ß-c-ho-´n¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ tacnb hnhmlw sNbvXv ssltd-©n¬ s]cn-©mw-Ip-´n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷v 2009 HIvtSm-_¿ A©mw XobXn acWw {]m]n®p. s]cn-©mw-Ip´n ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p. tPm¿÷np aPq, Nmt°m (Pbnan),tPmk^v (tPman) F∂o aq∂p ]p{X-∑mcpw adnbw (ann), t{Xkym(enb) F∂o c≠p s]¨a-°-fp-amWv. tPm¿÷ns‚ aqØ-]p-{X≥ aPq s_tY¬ sIm√-s°m-ºn¬amXyp aIƒ tacn (cPn)sb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬Xma-kn-°p∂p. aPq-hnv h¿°n (sFhn≥) Fs∂mcp B¨Ip-´n-bp≠v. tPm¿÷ns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m (Pbnan) sh≈m-cw-Ip∂v cn-h≈n-bn¬ Nmt°m aIƒ aRvPp-hns hnhmlw sNbvXv -]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷ns‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥tPmk^v (tPman) FIvkvtd sh¬UnwKv tImgvkv ]mkmbn kz¥-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 224. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 351ambn _nkn-kv sNøp∂p. Ahn-hm-ln-X-mWv. tPm¿÷ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn adnbw (ann)sb sh≈-Øq-h¬ ]≈n-∏-d-ºn¬ h¿Ko-kns‚aI≥ t]mƒ hnhmlw Ign®p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xky (enb)sbI√m¿Ip´n sSpw-]o-Sn-Ibn¬ tPm¿÷ns‚ aI≥ _n_n≥ hnhmlw -sNbvXp. h¿°n-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ kvIdnb (k°-dn-bmkvsI.h¿°n) DSp-º-∂q¿ tXm´p-¶¬ B≥knsb hnhmlw sNbvXvAta-cn-°-bn¬ tPm¿Pn-b-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. kvIdn-bbv°v n°n,m‰ven, n€n F∂o aq∂p s]¨a-°-fmWv. aq∂p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p∂p. h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ Hutk∏v (Ip™p-tam≥)]md-tØmSv ht≈mw-]p-cbnSw h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ X¶-Ωsb hnhmlw -sNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-lØn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ip™p-tamv HcmWpw Hcp -s]Æpw BWv a°ƒ. ]p{X≥ tPm_npw ]p{Xn B¬_n-bp-amWv.c≠p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p∂p. h¿°n-bpsS aqØ-]p{Xn Benkv (Gen)sb tImX-aw-KewtIm´-∏Sn ams¶m-gn-bn¬ tZhkn hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠p-t]cpw Ata-cn-°-bn-emWv. tZhkn acn-®p-t]mbn. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂(en√n)sb sh≈n-°p-f-ßc πm°q-´-Øn¬ tXmakv (Ip™v) hnhm-lw-sNbvXp. h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk-Ωsb tacn-Ipfw]pfn-°-a-WvU-]-Øn¬ (t°m-e-bn¬) Nmt°m hnhmlw sNbvXp.mem-asØ ]p{Xn tacnsb Iº-fn-°≠w hc-Ip-Im-em-]-d-ºn¬ X¶-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn t{Xky(t{Kkn)sbtkm-]-Xn-bn¬ iucymw-am-°¬ sk_m-Ãy≥ (sIm®v) hnhmlwsNbvXp.amWn h¿°n Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ h¿°n-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ amWn Ad-°p-fØv a™-°p-t∂¬ Nmt°m-bpsS aIƒ A∂sb hnhmlwsNbvXv ]∂n-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. amWn°v tPm¿Pv, Nmt°m,tPmk^v (tPmkv ) F∂o aq∂p ]p{X- ∑ mcpw Gen (Fanen)Fs∂mcp ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v.tPm¿Pv (Rq™v)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 225. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 352 amWn-bpsS aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPm¿Pv (Rq™v) apX-e-t°m-SØvsNº-cØn-°¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ eqknsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]∂n- -a-‰Øv Xma-kn®p. tPm¿÷np c≠m¨a-°fpw Hcp s]¨Ip-´n-bp-ap-≠mbn. F∂m¬ s]¨Ip´n (A∂) Bdp-h-b-km-b-t∏mƒ acn®p.aqØ-]p-{X≥ amWn (ap) c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ B‚-Wnbpw ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. ap A£b sk‚¿ S-Øp∂p.tPm¿÷v 2005¬ 56˛#masØ hb-kn¬ tcmKw h∂v ac-W-a-S™p.]∂n-a‰w ]≈n skan-tØ-cn-bn¬ kwkvI-cn®p.Nmt°m (Pbnw-kv) amWn-bpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ Nmt°m sImSp-th-en¬ Fen-hm-ep-¶¬ Ipcym-®s‚ aIƒ dq_nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv sh´n-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p-p. Ch¿°v amWn (sa¬_n≥) F∂ ]p{XpwA∂ (an°n) F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. c≠p-t]cpw F≥Pn-o-b-dnw-Knp]Tn-°p∂p.tPmkv amWn-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmkv sh≈-cn-°p≠v aWn-bw-am-°¬ amXyp-hns‚ aIƒ Fen-k-_Øv (tamfn)sb hnhmlwsNbvXv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmknp amp-h¬(nJn¬) F∂ ]p{X-p≠v. nJn¬ ae-_m¿ t]¿Ø√n Cfw-Ip-‰n-°m-´n¬ tPmk-^v-˛-A-∂Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ An-Xsb hnhmlwsNbvXp. amWn-bpsS ]p{Xn Gen (Fanen) Fd-Wm-Ipfw Ieq-cn¬C‚¿m-j-W¬ saUn-°¬ Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ aT-Øn¬ tN¿∂vIym-kv{Xo-bmbn.tPmk^v h¿°n h¿°n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmk^v (]m∏-®≥) Icq¿Rmh-≈n¬ ]-a-‰-Øn¬ h¿°n-bpsS aIƒ {_nPo-Øsb hnhmlwsNbvXv sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tPmk-^np tPmkv,tPm¿Pv, tXmakv, tPmWn, Pn≥kv, _n≥kv F∂o Bdp ]p{X-∑mcpwsSkn, tagvkn, Pnn F∂o aq∂p ]p{Xn-amcpw D≠v. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPmkv Nnehv I®n-d-a-‰-Øn¬ BKkvXn, adnbw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 226. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 353aIƒ en√nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv apcn-°m-ti-cn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.tPmknp oXp F∂ ]p{Xnbpw entPm, DÆn F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw D≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p∂p. c≠m-a≥ tPm¿÷v taep-Imhv h´-a-‰-Øn¬ tXmakv, adn-bmΩZº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ P€nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv sh≈n-bm-a‰Øv Xma- - -kn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷np _n¬_n, sa¬_n F∂ c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpwsP_n≥ F∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p∂p. aq∂m- a sØ ]p{X≥ tXmakv , mK- ∏ pg h´- ° p- t ∂¬BKkvXn t{Xkym Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ Pm≥knsb hnhmlwsNbvXv ]∂n-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. tXma-knp AJn¬, nJn¬F∂ c≠p ]p{X-∑mcpw B≥a-cnb F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-ap≠v. aqhcpw]Tn-°p∂p. mem-asØ ]p{X≥ tPmWn ]qh-cWn ]pXn-bn-SØv Ahn-cm-®≥, tamfn Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ annsb hnhm-lw -sNbvXv mfn-bm-n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v tkmWnbm F∂ ]p{Xnbpw tSmWnF∂ ]p{X-p-ap≠v. Ch¿ ]Tn-°p∂p. A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ Pn≥kpwBdm-asØ ]p{X≥ _n≥kpw Ahn-hm-ln-X-cmWv. tPmk-^ns‚ aqØ-]p{Xn sSknsb apl-ΩZ Ipt‰¬ tPm¨,A∂ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ tPmbn hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠m-asØ]p{Xn tagvknsb Icn-a-Æq¿ AS-∏q¿ aØ≥, t{XkymΩ Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ Ipcym-®≥ hnhmlw sNbvXp. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn PnnsbhS-°≥tNcn H‰-sØ-ßp-¶¬ Hutk-∏-®s‚ aI≥ jmPn hnhmlwsNbvXp.tXmakv h¿°n h¿°n-bpsS mem-asØ ]p{X≥ sXmΩ≥ (Ip™-Ω≥)oeq¿ ]ptØ´v amXyp Gen Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ t{Xkysb hnhm-lw-sNbvXv sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p.sXmΩp aq∂p B¨a-°fpw Hcp s]Æp-ap≠v. tPm¿Pv, amXyp,tPm_n F∂o aq∂v ]p{X∑mcpw B≥kn F∂ ]p{Xn-bp-amWv. aqØ-]p-{X≥ tPm¿Pv hmg-°pfw Xpcp-Øn-∏-≈n¬ h¿°n adnbw Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ B≥kns hnhmlw sNbvXv sh≈n-bm-a-‰Øp Xma-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 227. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 354kn-°p∂p. tPm¿÷np F_n, PnØp F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cmWva°ƒ Ch¿ hnZym¿Yn-I-fmWv. c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ amXyp ao∑p´nsXt°¬ tPmk^v t{Xky Zº-Xn-IfpsS aIƒ t{Kknsb hnhmlw -sNbvXp. Ch¿°v Aa¬, APnXv F∂o c≠p ]p{X-∑m-cmWv. Ch¿Ip™p-ß-fmWv aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ tPm_n I√m-n-°¬ Ip‰n-∏m-e-°¬ tPm¿Pv X¶Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aIƒ knansb hnhmlwsNbvXv I√m-n-°¬ Xma-kn-°p∂p. Ch¿°v FtdmWm acnb F∂]p{Xn-bp≠v. aIƒ B≥knsb Cfw-tZ-iØv Be-°¬ ssa°nƒadnbw Zº-Xn-I-fpsS aI≥ kÆn (tXmakv) hnhmlw sNbvXp.De-l-∂m≥ h¿°n Itcm-s´-ho-´n¬ h¿°n-bpsS A©m-asØ ]p{X≥ De-l-∂≥(Ip™ntem) sXmSp-]pg Nnehv Ic-bn¬ s]cp-º-≈nØmØvtPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ tdmknsb hnhmlw sNbvXp sh≈n-bm-a-‰ØvXma-kn-°p-∂p. De-l-∂v kn_n Fs∂mcp ]p{Xpw Gen (Pkn),_n≥kn F∂o c≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp-amWv. ]p{X≥ kn_n ap´Øv Iq´p-¶¬ tPmkns‚ aIƒ en‰nsb hnhmlw sNbvXv ]nXm-hns‚ IqsSsh≈n-bm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p. kn_n°p tdmk, {_nPo‰v F∂oc≠p ]p{Xn-am-cp≠v. Ccp-hcpw sIm®p-Ip-´n-I-fmWv. ]p{Xn-am-cmbtdmkbpw {_nPo‰pw Bcm-[-m-a-T-Øn¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-I-fmbn. Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ h¿°n-bpsS aqØ-]p{Xn Gensb Ad-°p-fØvsIm´m-c-Øn¬ sXmΩ≥ aI≥ tPmk^v hnhmlw Ign®p. Ccp-hcpwacn- ® p- t ]mbn. c≠m- a sØ ]p{Xn adn- b - Ø ns aptØm- e n¬B≥t{UmØv tXmakv hnhmlw Ign®p. Ccp-hcpw acn-®p-t]mbn.aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xn tdmk sNdp-∏-Ønse acn®p. mem-asØ ]p{Xnt{Xky Im™n-c-∏-≈n¬ Bcm-[-m-a-T-Øn¬ tN¿∂p Iym-kv{Xo-bmbn acn-®p-t]mbn. A©m-asØ ]p{Xn A∂-Ωsb ssae-s°mºvAa-¥p-cp-Øn¬ Hutk-∏ns‚ aI≥ h¿Kokv hnhmlw Ign®p. Bdm-asØ ]p{Xn ¢mcsb hmg-°p-fØv an‰-Øm-n-°¬ tXma-kns‚aI≥ amXyp hnhmlw sNbvXp Ccp-hcpw ac-W-a-S™p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 228. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Xmg-tØ-ho-´n¬359 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  • 229. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 360BapJw Fd-tIm∂n C´n-s®-dnb apX¬ Ing-t°-°c Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬sNdn-bm≥ Ipcy≥h-sc-bp≈ IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ cXv-®p-cp-°w. tahnS sh´n-°m´v ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬†Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ Fd-tIm∂nC´n- s ®- d n- b m- b psS Cf- b - a - I ≥ sXmΩ≥ Ing- X - S n- b q¿ h∂v]pØ≥]pc mb-b¿ hI ÿeØv hoSp-h®v Xma-kn-®p. B hoSvIng-t°-°c F∂ t]cn¬ Adn-b-s∏-´p. sXmΩ≥ ]Wn-°¿°v aq∂vB¨a-°ƒ Pn-®p. aqØ-a-I≥ C´n-s®-dnb H‰-πm-°¬ IpSpw-_-Øn-s‚-bpw, c≠m-asØ aI≥ sIm®v C´n-tb∏v Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Øn-s‚bpw, aq∂m-asØ aI≥ sIm®v aØmbn ]Sn-™m-td-°cIpSpw-_-Øn-s‚bpw ÿm]-I-]n-Xm-a-l-∑m-cmbn Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-m-Y-m-bn-cp∂ sIm®n-´n-tb-∏nv aq∂vB¨a-°ƒ Pn®p ˛ sXmΩ≥, C´n-s®-dn-b, sF∏v. aqØ-a-I≥ sXmΩ≥ Ing-t°-°c Xd-hmSv hoSnv Itcm-´p-`m-KØv hoSp-h®v Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ Xma-kn-®p. C´ns®-dnbIng-t°-°c Xmg-sØ-ho-´n¬Xs∂ Xma-kn-®p. sF∏v tImX-aw-K-e-Øp-n∂v hnhmlw sNbvXv ZØ-h-Im-in-bmbn AhnsS Xma-kn®vk¥m--ß-fn-√msX acn-®p. Ing-t°-°c Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn® C´n-s®-dn-bmbv°v aq∂v]p{Xn-am¿ am{Xw Pn-®p. aqØ-]p-{Xnsb Xncp-h-√m-bn¬ tImhq¿hnhmlw sNbvX-b-®p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb ]pfn-¶p∂v sImSp-]m-S-Øn¬ t]mØ≥ hnhmlw sNbvXv Ing-t°-°c Xmg-tØ-ho-´n¬ZØ-h-Im-in-bmbn Xma-kn-®p. aq∂m-asØ ]p{Xnsb t]mØs‚ktlm-Z-c≥ hnhmlw sNbvXv k¥m--ß-fn-√msX acn-®p. Ing-t°-°c Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn® t]mØv c≠v ]p{Xn-am¿ Pn-®p-I-gn-™-t∏mƒ `mcy acn-®p. t]mØ≥ ]pfn-¶p-∂nv Xncn-sI-t∏mbn]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXv Xma-kn-®p. t]mØs‚ c≠v ]p{Xn-am-cn¬ aqØ ]p{Xnsb ap´p-Nnd ne-∏ ho´n¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-b-®p. c≠m-asØ ]p{Xnsb Im∏n¬ tXw-am-°¬ sNdn-bm≥Ipcy≥ hnhmlw sNbvXv ZØ-h-Im-in-bmbn Ing-t°-°c XmgsØ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 230. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 361ho´n¬ Xma-kn-®p. Ct±-l-Ønv mev ]p{X-∑mcpw aq∂v ]p{Xn-amcpwPn-®p. tZh-kym, DÆn-s®-dn-b-Xv, t]mØ≥, C´n-s®-dn-b-Xv. Cu mev ]p{X-∑m-cpsS ]n≥ap-d-°m-cpsS hwi-N-cn-{X-amWvXmsg sImSp-Øn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Ch-cn¬ C´n-s®-dnb aÆm-d-a-‰-Øn¬ZØp-t]m-bn. t]mØ≥ k¥m--ß-fn-√msX acn-®p. Ing-t°-°c Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬ sNdn-bm≥ kvIdn-bm-bpsS hwim-hen kvIdn-bm-bpsS a°ƒ: B¨a-°ƒ 7, s]¨a-°ƒ 4. s]Æv (A-°-Ω) kvIdn-bm-bpsS aqØ-a-Iƒ Rmh-≈n¬ ]-a-‰-Øn¬ Nm≠n aI≥ h¿°n (h-°-®≥)s]Æns (A-°-Ω) hnhmlw sNbvXv Icq¿ ]-a-‰-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®p. B¨a-°ƒ 5, s]¨a-°ƒ 4. h°-®≥ 21.2.1981 epw s]Æv16.09.1989 epw ncym-X-cm-bn.I A∂-°p´n `¿Ømhv : amXyp, ap≠-Øm--Øv, he-hq¿ B¨a-°ƒ ˛5, s]¨a-°ƒ ˛1 amXyp 9.7.1997 epw A∂-°p´n 23.2-.2006 epw ncym-X-m-bn. A°-Ω- `¿Ømhv : tPmkv ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬, B∏m-©nd IqØm-´p-Ipfw t__n-˛-_n-kn-kv (h-e-hq¿ Xma-kw) `mcy : sPkn (A-[ym-]n-I) tPm¿÷v : cmP- ÿ m- n¬ IpSpw- _ - k - l nXw Xma-kn-°p-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 231. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 362 amXyp : a[y- { ]- t Z- i n¬ IpSpw- _ - k - l nXw Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Ip´n-®≥ : he-hq¿ ap≠-Øm-Øv Xd-hm´v ho´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. tSman : Kƒ^n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. A¶-am-en-bn¬ n∂v hnhmlw sNbvXp.II Gen-°p´n `¿Ømhv : Ipcy≥ tPmk^v (sIm-®v) Rmh-≈n¬ a™-°p-t∂¬ {]hn-Øm- Øv Xma- k n- ® p. sIm®v 22.7.2008 ¬ acn-®p. B¨a-°ƒ ˛1, s]¨a-°ƒ 1 tacn : Ipcy-mSv a‰-Øn¬ hnhmlw sNbvXp A°Ω : kuØv C¥y≥ _m¶n¬ DtZym-Kÿ `¿Ømhv : Xqap-≈n¬ tPmkv (A-[ym-]-I≥) kn. Beokv : X n c p - l r - Z - b - a - T m w K w tdman¬ tkh--a-p-jvTn-°p∂p tPmk^v : Irjn (hn-hmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p) enkΩ : Ahn-hm-lnX (X-d-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p) tj¿en : Nß-m-t»-cn-bn¬ hnhmlw sNbvX-b-®p.III Ip´n-bΩ `¿Ømhv : tXma-kv, ]mtd-°m-´v, ao-®n¬, ]mem B¨a-°ƒ-˛1, s]¨a-°ƒ-˛1 tXmakv 2008-˛¬ acn®p1. X¶-®≥ (tPm¨) : cmP-ÿm-n¬ tPmen sNøp∂p `mcy : Ipssh-‰n¬ tgvkv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 232. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 3632. tacn-°p´n B.Sc., BEd.(A-[ym-]n-I) : `¿Ømhn- t m- s Sm∏w a[y- { ]- t Z- i n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.IV Nm≠n-°p™v t^m¨ : 04822-˛267544 `mcy : s]ÆΩ (sI-gp-h-¶pfw HmWw-Xp-cp-Øn¬ De-l-∂m≥-˛-A∂ aIƒ) tN¿∏p¶en¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 4, s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 31. kÆn (Xn-cp-h--¥-]p-cw) Cw•ojv C¥y t¢ Iºn-n-bn¬ tPmen `mcy : Ap tPmk^v (C-cn-ßm-e-°pS ssIX- bn¬ tPmk-^ns‚ aIƒ)2. tdmbn : F¬.- s F.- k n- b n¬ tPmen ]qh-c-Wn, I√m-n-°¬ sP€nsb hnhmlw sNbv X v ZØ- h - I m- i n- b mbn Xma-kn-°p-∂p.3. ^m.-tPmkv ]-a‰w: hn≥sk≥jy≥ k`mw-K-ambn DØ¿{]- tZ-in¬ t{]jn-X-hrØn sNøp-∂p.4. hnp `mcy : _nn, Imcy-¥-S-Øn¬, AXn-c-ºpg5. A°Ω : `¿Ømhv : F{_mlw (]--®n-°m-´v, h¿°n-˛-Gen aI≥)6. tamfn : A≤ym-]nI `¿Ømhv : Nmen¬ tPmbn (A-[ym-]-I≥)7. Bi `¿Ømhv : _ntmbn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ (C-S-a-dp-Iv, πmtØm-´-Øn¬ tXma-kv-˛- G-en-°p´n aI≥)
  • 233. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 364 Bkman¬Øs∂ I_-d-°n.VI Ipt™-∏®≥ `mcy : ssh°Øv sh´n-°m-∏-≈n¬ en√n-°p´nae-_m-dn¬ Xma-kn-®p. Ipt™-∏®≥ 2007 Unkw-_-dnepw en√n-°p´n 2008 PqWnepw acn-®p. a°ƒ ae-_m-dn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.VII amΩ≥ ˛ C¥y≥ mhn-I-tk--bn¬ n∂v dn´-b¿ sNbvXvIpS-°-®n-d-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.`mcy : h’Ω (A-b¿°p-∂w, tXm∏n¬ De-l-∂ms‚ aIƒ) s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2, t^m¨: 04822-˛2583871. {]nb `¿Ømhv : t__n, cn- ° m- ´ v, D≈- mSv (X-d-hm-´p-ho-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p)2. {]n≥kn : `¿Ømhv : jmPn, amen-bn¬ hoSv, Ab¿°p∂w c≠p-t]cpw Cw•-≠n¬ Xma-kn®v tPmen sNøp-∂p.VIII X¶Ω (kn. entbm_m I.B.M.V.) Iym-kv{Xn-bmbn t∏m-fn¬ tkhw Ap-jvTn-°p-∂p.IX Ip™ptam≥ (sk_m-Ãy≥) Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. t^m¨ : 04822 21187 `mcy : eoemΩ aÆ-t©-cn¬, B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 11. jo_ `¿Ømhv : tPmkp-Ip-™v, BSp-Ip-gn-bn¬, sXmSp-]pg Ieq¿ Xma-kn-°p∂p○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 234. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 3652. jmPn : IS-πm-a-‰Øv Xma-kn-°p∂p `mcy : knn, CS-°m-´p-Ip-Sn, tImX-aw-Kew3. jn_p (X-d-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p) `mcy : ann, hn√≥¥m--Øv, sh≈n-°pfw‰n.-kn. sNdn-bm≥ (Ip™v)kvIdn-bm-bpsS c≠m-asØ aI≥ Ip™v (‰n.-kn. sNdn-bm≥) N°-m-n-°¬ tdmk-Ωsbhnhmlw sNbvXv oeq¿, sh≈n-bm-a-‰w, ]mem F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬Xma-kn-®-tijw 1950 Ifn¬ CSp-°n-bn¬, Aø-∏≥tIm-hn¬ hnt√-Pn¬, am´p-°´ Xma-kn-®p. Ip™v 5.8.1985 epw tdmkΩ 1.8.95 ewncym-X-cm-bn. B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 3 ]m∏-®≥, tZh-kym-®≥, tXmΩm-®≥ s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2 Gen-°p´n, t{KknI Gen-°p´n `¿Ømhv : tPmk^v (Ip-cn-ipw-aq-´n¬ aØmbn C´n-b- hncm aI≥) 1947 Pp-hcn 9˛mw XobXn hnhmlw sNbvXp.II ]m∏-®≥ (^m. tPmk^v sNdn-bm≥ SDB) 1931 BKÃv 12-˛mw XobXn Pn®p. 1962-˛¬ kte-jy≥ k`-bn¬ n∂v sshZn-I-]´w kzoI-cn-®p. kte-jy≥k-`-bn¬ sshZn-I-mbn ]e taJ-e-I-fnepw kvXpXy-l¿amb tkhw Ap-jvTn-®-tijw I¬°-´m-bn¬ Nn¬{U≥kv FbvUv Ub-d-IvS-dmbn tPmensNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂-t∏mƒ lrZ-b-kw-_-‘-amb ikv{X-{In-bbv°vhnt[-bm-Ip-Ibpw AtX-Øp-S¿∂v 2004 HIvtSm-_dn¬ 18-˛mw XobXn - -Znhw-K-X-m-Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp.III tZh-kym-®≥ (sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãy≥) _nkn-kv A{U€v : Ing- t °- ° c, ]qh- c - W n,○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 235. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 366 t^m¨: 04822-˛226997, 227097 `mcy : A∂Ω (sN-º-fm-bn¬ amXyp-˛-A-∂Ω aIƒ) B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 3, s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 31. tamfn `¿Ømhv : tPmkv IÆn- a m≥Ip- t ∂¬, sNßfw (ko-n-b¿ amt-P¿, tIm¿∏-td-j≥ _m¶v, sIm´m-c-°-c) a°ƒ : Acp¨ (F-©n-o-b¿) DÆn (hn-Zym¿∞n)2. jmP≥ : Akn. Ub-d-IvS¿, Irjn Un∏m¿´p-sa‚ v `mcy : m≥kn Im™n-cw-Ip-t∂¬, hmg-°pfw a°ƒ : Zo]Iv (F- © n- o- b - d nwKv hnZym¿∞n) Ap (hn-Zym¿∞n-n)3. tj¿fn `¿Ømhv : ss_Pp sk_m-Ãy≥ sImSp-th-en-°-IØv, sXmSp-]pg a°ƒ : km{µ, kvtl, tkzZ (hn-Zym¿∞n-n-Iƒ)4. joe : So®¿ `¿Ømhv : kÆn (So-®¿) hS-°≥ ho´n¬, apcn-°m-t»cn a°ƒ : inev], kvtl (hn-Zym¿∞n-n-Iƒ)5. jn_p : _nkn-kv (tZm-l, JØ¿) `mcy : _nµp sIm≈n-s°m-f-hn¬, Iqh-∏≈n a°ƒ : tUm¨, sU∂ (hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ)6. _nPp : tkm^v‰vshb¿ F©n-o-b¿ (Zp-_m-bv) `mcy : dt_° _nPp MBA, Bep-hn-f, sIm√w○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 236. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 367 a°ƒ (2) : B≥{Un-b, dnbm≥IV t{Kkn tPmk^v -- ˛ dn´-tb¿Uv So®¿, aq∂p-am-°¬, Acp-Wm-]p-cw, ]mem, t^m¨: 04822 211460 `¿Ømhv : Fw.-kn. tPmk^v (am-n) (aq-∂p-am-°¬ Nmt°m t]mØ≥-˛-A∂ t]mØ≥ aI≥, B¨a-°ƒ 2, s]¨a-°ƒ 1)1. Bn tacn tPmk^v MA., B.Ed. (e-IvN-d¿, Kh. sslkvIqƒ,Z≥]p-cn, a[y-{]-tZ-iv) `¿Ømhv : sI.-kn. tPm¨ (F-©n-o-b¿, tImƒ C¥y, [≥Zmdv) sXmSp-]pg tIf-IØv sI.-bp. Nmt°m-˛- tdm-kΩ aI≥ a°ƒ : sPbnwkv sI. tPm¨ (F-©n-o-b¿) Pqen sI. tPm¨ (MBBS hn-Zym¿∞n-n)2. t_mkv tPmk^v (Bsc, Ag.) Akn. Ub-d-IvS¿, Irjn Un∏m¿´p-sa‚ v, t^m¨: 04822 ˛ 211460 `mcy : B≥kn amXyp _n.-sS-Iv, eIvN-d¿ sk‚ v tPmk^vkv F©n-o-b-dnwKv tImtf- P v, Nq≠- t ®- c n, ]mem (Xn-cp-h--¥-]p-cw, Imc-ap-≠-bv°¬ sI.-hn. amXyp-˛-sk-en≥ tPmk^v aIƒ) a°ƒ : Inc¨ t_mkv (F-©n-o-b-dnwKv hnZym¿∞n) Io¿Øn t_mkv (hn-Zym¿∞n-n)3. kndnƒ tPmkv (Ip-™p-tam≥) B.Pharm, USA bn¬ tPmen t^m¨ : 04822-˛200704 `mcy : _nn kndn¬ B.Sc., B.Ed.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 237. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 368 (tIm-X--√q¿, C≠n-°p-gn-bn¬, ]n.-kn. ]o‰¿, Gen-bmΩ aIƒ) a°ƒ : kmhntbm kndn¬ (F≥Pn-o-b-dnw-Kv) tkmWnb tPmk^v (hn-Zym¿∞n-n) sUman-nIv ]o‰¿ (hn-Zym¿∞n)V tXmam-®≥ (sI.-kn. tXma-kv) Ing-t°-°-c, am´p-°-´, Aø-∏≥tIm-hn¬ t^m¨: 04869 244246, 9562761314 `mcy : tacn (am-´p-°-´, ap≠-bv°¬ sF∏v aIƒ) B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 1, s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 31. Intjm¿ tXmakv -˛ AUz-tI‰v `mcy : t_m_n (πm- i - m¬, sNdp- h ≈n Ing-t°¬ tXmakv aIƒ) a°ƒ : sFdn≥, semssd≥, tSmw (hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ) samss_¬: 97446827802. Po tXmakv `¿Ømhv : dq_n≥ (B-kvt{S-en-b) I´-∏ aq∂m--∏- ≈n¬ amXyp aI≥ a°ƒ : Ae≥, sIhn≥ (hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ)3. Pqen `¿Ømhv : sPbnwkv (A-ta-cn-°) (cnXq°n¬ ]pØ≥]p-c-bn¬ sPbnwkv aI≥) a°ƒ : sÃ^n, tjdm (hn-Zym¿∞n-n-Iƒ)4. Pq_n `¿Ømhv : sen≥ (Nm¿t´¿Uv A°u-≠‚ v, Zp_m-bv) (ote-iz-cw, ap≈q¿ tXmakv aI≥) a°ƒ : tl, antj¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 238. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 369Ipt™enkvIdn-bm-bpsS aq∂m-asØ aIƒ {]hn-Ømw aW-°m´v tZhkym aI≥ aØ-°p™v hnhmlwsNbvXp. tacn-em‚n¬ Npcpfn F∂ ÿeØv Xma-kn-®p. B¨a°ƒ 5, s]¨a-°ƒ 3. aØ-°p™v 1998 G{]n¬ 12-˛mw Xob-XnbpwGen-°p´n 1998 BKÃv 15-˛mw Xob-Xnbpw ncym-X-cm-bn.II A°Ω (kn.-sk-en-Kz-cn≥ {Sok) Xncp-lr-ZbaTØn¬ tN¿∂v k`m-tk-hw SØn slUvan-kv{S- - - - -€mbn dn´-b¿ sNbvXv sIm´m-c-°c Xncp-lr-Z-b-a-T-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.III A∂-°p´n `¿Ømhv : tPmk^v (N- ß - m- t »- c n, {km¶¬ IpSpw-_mw-Kw) 2.10.2008 ¬ ncym-X-mbn a°ƒ 2IV knknen `¿Ømhv : c¨ho¿ knwKv, I¿Æm¬, ]©m-_v. 13.9.2008-˛¬ ncym-X-mbn. aIƒ : aoj (Hm-kvt{S-en-bm-bn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂p)V tPmk^v ˛ _nkn-kv, ]mem. 20.11.2009-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn. -- `mcy : h’Ω (]m-em, Im∏n¬ IpSpw-_mw-Kw) a°ƒ : _np-cm-Pv, Ap-dm-Wn, Pnp1. _np-cmPv ˛ _nkn-kv (]m-em-bn¬ Imm-´p-]md Xma-kw) `mcy : ann (N-ßm-t»-cn, ]p∂-t»-cn¬ IpSpw-_mw-Kw) - a°ƒ : Aeo-, B‚-Wn, A√≥2. Ap-dmWn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 239. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 370 `¿Ømhv : _nPp (]n-g-Iv, Imhm-eØv IpSpw-_mw-Kw) c≠p-t]cpw Ipssh-‰n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. aI≥ : tPmb¬ (hn-Zym¿∞n)3. Pnp - ˛ _nkn-kv (]m-em-bn¬ Imm-´p-]md Xma-kw) `mcy : cRv P nn (Ip- S - a m- f q¿, sF°- c - a men IpSpw-_mw-Kw) aI≥ : Aa¬ (hn-Zym¿∞n)VI sPkn `¿Ømhv : tPmfn ˛ _n.-Fkv.F≥.-F¬. F©n-o-b¿, - - Fd-Wm-Ipfw (Ip-dp™n ISp-I≥am-°¬ IpSpw-_mw-Kw) a°ƒ : enkm (F-©n-o-b¿), eom (F-©n-o-b¿)VII enkΩ (sh-‰n-dn k¿P≥) Pn√m Hm^o-k¿, arK-kw-c-£-W-h-Ip-∏v, ]me-°mSv `¿Ømhv : tP°_v (Ip-d-hn-e-ßm-Sv, Im´m-ºm°v Xqº-°¬ IpSpw-_mw-K) dn´. s{]m^-k¿, tZh-amXm tImtf-Pv, Ipd-hn-eßm-Sv ap´p-Nn-dbn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. - - B¨a-°ƒ : 2VIII jmPn˛ Akn. Ub-d-IvS¿, tIcfm Kh.-Irjn Un∏m¿´p-sa‚ v `mcy : So (_n.-F-kv.-F≥.-F¬.) (sXm-Sp-]pg, IZ-fn-°mSv aqte-°mSv IpSpw-_mw-Kw) IpSpw-_-k-lnXw sXmSp-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn- °p-∂p. t^m¨: 04862-˛221377, 9447238181 a°ƒ : joP, tSmWn (F-©n-o-bdnwKv hnZym¿∞n- - Iƒ)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 240. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 371Ip™ptZ- h ky (tUm. ‰n.- k n.- sk- _ m- Ã y≥)kvIdn-bm-bpsS memasØ aI≥Xncp-h--¥-]pcw bqWn-th-gvkn‰n tImtf-Pn¬ n∂pw ^nknIvkvhn`mKw F®v.-H.-Un. Bbn dn´-b¿ sNbvXp. A{Ukv : Phl¿- K ¿ sI.5, Xncp- h - - ¥ - ] pcw t^m¨: 0471-˛2724317 `mcy : sXd-Ω-Ip´n (Ip-´-m-Sv, as¶m-ºv, ssXtØm- ´ - Ø n¬ {io. ‰n.- s P. kJ-dn-bmkv aIƒ) 2009 sabv 2˛mw XobXn ncym-X-bm-bn. B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2, s]¨a-°ƒ 2I tUm. h’Ω Hutk∏v (sskIym-{Sn-Ãv, bp.-F-kv.-F.) `¿Ømhv : Hutk∏v (D-Sp-º-∂q¿ N°-m-n-°¬ Ipt™∏v aI≥) c≠p-t]cpw Ata-cn-°- bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. aI≥ : tUm. _ntmbv1. tUm. _ntmbv (bp.-Fkv.F.-bn¬ tUmIvSdmbn tkhw sNøp- - - -∂p) `mcy : kz]v (F-d-Wm-Ipfw tUm. _m_p tPmk^v˛Bn aIƒ) a°ƒ : c≠v ]p{Xn-amcpw Hcp ]p{XpwII KoXΩ `¿Ømhv : tPm¿÷v (h-°-®≥) tImX-aw-K-eØv Ce- ™n-°¬ B‚Wn aI≥. IpSpw-_-k- taXw Ata-cn-°-bn¬ Xma-kw. a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 1, s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 11. sPko°○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 241. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 372 `¿Ømhv : _wKm-fn-bmb Znhym-kmp (A-ta-cn-°- bn¬ Xma-kw)2. Pbv B‚Wn (bp-F-kv.-F.-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p)III cmP≥ sk_m-Ãy≥ kymkw kzoI-cn®v X]-kzn-n-bmbn Ign-bp-∂p.IV _m_p sk_m-Ãy≥ MBA HmUn-‰¿ bp.-F-kv.-F. `mcy : Pmkvan≥ (tIm-gn-t°m-Sv, sSp-ºmd ho´n¬ Ipcp-hn-f-˛-A-∂Ω aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 31. Acp¨ : k¿P‚ v (A-ta-cn-°≥ Fb¿t^m-gvkv)2. Aq]v : Hm^o-k¿ (tImÃv Km¿Uv, bp.-F-kv.-F.)3. Aojv : _m¶v DtZym-K-ÿ≥ (bp.-F-kv.-F.)Ipt™∏v (‰n.- F - k v. tPmk- ^ v)kvIdn-bm-bpsS †A©m-asØ aI≥ A{Ukv : Xmg- Ø p- h o- ´ n¬, oeq¿, t^m¨: 04822-˛221711 `mcy : A∂-°p´n (Ip-d-a-Æv, ]-®n-°¬, Ip™∏n aIƒ)2006 HmKv‰v 15-˛mw XobXn tPmk^v ncym-X-m-bn. B¨a-°ƒ 5,s]¨a-°ƒ 1.I tacn `¿Ømhv : t__n aqtØ-S-Øv, t^m¿´v sIm®n-bn¬ Xma-kw, t^m¨: 0484-˛2215582, 9446897533 aIƒ : njm t__n1. nj t__n B.Sc., B.Ed ˛ A[ym-]nI○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 242. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 373 `¿Ømhv : kmPp (Hm-^o-k¿, S.B.I.)II A∏-®≥ (k-J-dnbm tPmk-^v) dn´- t b¿Uv kn.- _ n.- s F. Hm^o- k ¿, sNss∂, t^m¨: 044-˛ 24898848, 09444434634 `mcy : adn- b mΩ Rtd. Officer, SBI (Nn-d-°-S-hv, Iß-g-∏-d-ºn¬ tXmakv tPmk^v aIƒ) a°ƒ : Hcp ]p{Xpw Hcp ]p{Xnbpw1. Ap kJ-dn-bmkv B.Tech, M.S. `¿Ømhv : ap amXyp (tIm-gn-t°m-Sv, tIm´-∏-≈n¬ sI.-Fw. amXyp-˛-G-en-bmΩ aI≥) c≠p-t]cpw kzn‰vk¿e-≠n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.2. An¬ kJ- d n- b mkv B.Tech, M.S. sX¿e- ≠ n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.III Ip´n-®≥ (AK-Ãn≥ tPmk^v) Irjn hÆ-∏p-d-Øv, Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬ Xma-kw, t^m¨: 04862-˛246499 `mcy : ssek-Ω, Iq¥m-w,-I-cq¿ a°ƒ : Bi, A]vkcIV tZh-kym-®≥ (sk_m-Ãy≥ tPmk^v) _nkn-kv Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬, oeq¿, t^m¨: 04822-˛221678 `mcy : F¬kn, Ipf-ß-c-sØm-´n-bn¬, Bc-°pg a°ƒ : tkmWn-b, tkmPp (hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ)V tXmam-®≥ (tXmakv tPmk^v) _nkn-kv Xmg-Øpho-´n¬, oeq¿, t^m¨: 04822-˛221711, Xd-hm-´n¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 243. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 374 Xmakw `mcy : t{Kkn (sIm-gp-h-m¬, Bn-aq-´n¬ h¿°n-˛-kn-knen aIƒ) a°ƒ : aq∂p ]p{Xn- a m¿ Ao-‰, Atm-l, Aeo (hn-Zym¿∞n- n-Iƒ)VI tPmkv tPmk^v (jmPn) Xmg-Øpho-´n¬, hÆ-∏pdw `mcy : B≥kn tPmk- ^ v M.Sc., B.Ed. (kvIqƒ A[ym-]n-I) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 1, s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 1adn-b-°p´nkvIdn-bm-bpsS BdmasØ aIƒ `¿Ømhv : h¿§okv (h-°-®≥) (apf-¥p-cpØn, Bº-√q¿ ]≈n-bn-ShI Ipcn-ip-¶¬ Ipcy≥ aI≥) B¨a-°ƒ 3, s]¨a- -°ƒ 4. adn-b-°p´n 15.01.1987 epw h°-®≥ 22.12.2001 epw ncym-X-cm-bn.sXmΩ-®≥ (‰n.-F-kv. tXmakv M.A.B.L.)kvIdn-bm-bpsS memasØ aI≥apn-kn-∏m-en-‰okv doP-¬ tPmbns‚ Ub-dIvSdmbn dn´-b¿ sNbvXp. - -]mem-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. t^m¨: 04822-˛212922, 9447918989 `mcy : t{KkΩ (dn-´. Akn. FUyq-t°-j-W¬ Hm^o-k¿, FUyq-t°-j-W¬ Un∏m¿´p- sa‚ v) cma-]p-cØv hmg-bv°-a-e-bn¬ tkhy¿-˛-a-dn-b-°p´n aIƒ B¨a-°ƒ1, s]¨a-°ƒ 1○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 244. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 375I k°o¿ ‰n. tXmakv I.R.S. (M.Sc. M.S. Intellectual Property Right -LLB) C≥Iw SmIvkv IΩo-j-W¿. Ct∏mƒ U¬ln-bn¬ C.S.I.R. ¬ OSDD t{]mPIvSv Ub-d-IvS-dmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p. t^m¨: 01123388919. `mcy : aoXp hn≥sk‚ v I.C.W.A. No^vA°u≠vkv Hm^o-k¿, Imcn-Ømkv C‚¿m-j-W¬, U¬ln(hm-g-°pfw CS-h-I, Hmen-°¬ tUm. hn≥sk‚ v-˛-t{]an aIƒ)II dmWn tXmakv M.Sc., M.B.A., C.I.I.B. kon-b¿ amt-P¿, ImØ-enIv kndn-b≥ _m¶v, sNss∂, Kn≠n{_m©v, t^m¨: 044-˛2644945 `¿Ømhv : tUm. km_p ]n. h¿§okv, No^v F©n-o-b¿, skbv]mw C‚¿m-j-W¬ (C-‰m-en-b≥ Iº-n) (sh-´n-ap-Iƒ CS-h-I, ]Sn-Ic ho´n¬ ‰n.-kn. h¿§o-kv-˛-tdm-kΩ aI≥) a°ƒ : dnt_°m km_p h¿Kokv (]-Tn-°p-∂p) _©-an≥ km_p h¿Kokv (]-Tn-°p-∂p)sNdn-bm≥ (‰n.-F-kv. AK-Ãn≥)kvIdn-bm-bpsS F´masØ aI≥`mcy : X¶Ω (]mem I≠- Ø n¬ tZh- k ym- ˛ - A-∂Ω aIƒ) Ingt° am´p-°-´-bn¬ Xma-kn-®p-h-cth 1993 s^{_p-hcn 20-˛mwXobXn sNdn-bm≥ ncym-X-m-bn. Ch¿°v a°-fn-√. X¶Ω ktlm-Z-c-]p-{X-tm-sSm∏w Ct∏mƒ ]mem-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.A°ΩkvIdn-bm-bpsS H≥]-XmasØ aIƒ`¿Ømhv : aØ-®≥ (Ip-S√q¿, Ipdn-t®¬ sXmΩ-®≥˛ - Ipt™en aI≥) 1970-˛-I-fn¬ ae-_m-dn¬ IpSn-tbdn Im™-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 245. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 376 ßm-SnSpØp Xma-kn-°p-∂p. a°ƒ˛ B¨a-°ƒ 3, s]¨a-°ƒ 1.X¶≥ (‰n.-F-kv. amXyp)kvIdn-bm-bpsS ]ØmasØ aI≥Xncp-h--¥-]pcw F©n-o-b-dnwKv tImtf-Pn¬n∂pw _n.-F-kv.-kn.F©n-o-b-dnwKv ]m€m-b-tijw kn.-]n.-U-ªp.-Un.-bn¬ F©n-o-b-dmbn tPmen-bn¬ {]th-in-®p. kn.-]n.-Uªp.-Un.-bn¬ n∂pw thmf‚n- -bdn dn´-b¿sa‚ v FSpØv sI´n-S-n¿Ωm-W-ta-J-e-bn¬ _nkn-kvsNbvXv Xncp-h--¥-]p-cØv mem-©n-d-bn¬ s_-UnIvSv K-dn¬Xma-kn-°p-∂p. t^m¨ : 0471 ˛ 2531031 `mcy : sken- mΩ Fw.- F - k v . - k n. (ap- ´ m¿, aW-en¬ Fw.-‰n.- tPm-k^v˛a-dn-bmΩ aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ 2, s]¨a-°ƒ 1.I Bim amXyp M.Sc. B.Ed. A[ym-]n-I, Cw•ojv aoUnbw kvIqƒ, Xncp-h--¥-]pcw `¿Ømhv : tPm¿÷v tPmk-^v Fw.-tImw. Gcnb amt- P ¿ C≥jp- d ≥kv, Fkv.-_n.-sF. Xncp-h--¥-]pcw (N-ß-m-t»-cn, sNØn-∏p-g, sNºp-¥d ho´n¬ tUm. tPmk-^v-˛-tdm-kΩ aI≥) a°ƒ : A`n-emjv, A≥Pp (hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ)II tPmkn amXyp M.Sc. Hm^o-k¿, tIcf Kh. tIm˛-Hm-∏-td-‰ohv Un∏m¿´p-sa‚ v `mcy : nj (Ip-d-hn-e-ßm-Sv, aÆ-bv°-m-Sv, FSw-X-S-Øn¬ tZh-kym-®≥-˛-tdm-k-°p´n aI≥)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 246. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 377 a°ƒ : amØp-°p-´n, sk_nIII dntPm amXyp B.Tech. MBA Xncp-h--¥-]pcw F©n-o-b-dnwKv tImtf-Pn¬ n∂pw _n.-sSIv]m€m-b-Xn-p-tijw bp.-F-kv.-F.-bn¬ C≥Uym bqWn-th-gvkn-‰n-bn¬n∂pw Fw.-_n.-F. ]m€mbn Ata-cn-°-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.t__n (‰n.-F-kv. tkhy¿)kvIdn-bm-bpsS ]Xnsm-∂masØ aI≥ A{U€v : Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬, am´p-°-´, Aø-∏≥tIm-hn¬ ]n.-H., CSp°n Pn√, t^m¨: 04869-˛244273Gtd-dp-am-q-cn¬n∂pw sF.-‰n.-sF. ]m€mbn Irjn Un∏m¿´p-sa‚n¬ sa°mn-°mbn tPmen sNbvX-tijw dn´-b¿ sNbvXv am´p-°-´-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. `mcy : B≥kn (ta-cn-°p-´n) G‰p-am-q¿, sh´q¿tPmk^v ˛ {_nPoØ aIƒ. B¨a-°ƒ 2, s]¨a-°ƒ 1.I A`n-emjv tkhy¿ B.com, PGDCA `mcy : sUbvkn (sIm-√w, ]≈Øv Bep-aq-´n¬ sUman-nIv ˛ tagvkn aIƒ) c≠p-t]cpw e≠-n¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. a°ƒ 1 aI≥ (1 hb-€v).II hntmZv (tPm-k^v tkhy¿) MCA tkm^v‰vshb¿ F©n-o-b¿, Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv tPmen sNbvXvXma-kn-°p-∂p.III cPn tkhy¿ tgvkv, s_¿i tlmkv]n-‰¬, C≥tUm¿ `¿Ømhv : emen-®≥ (k¿°p-te-j≥ kq∏¿ssh-k¿, awK-fw) Xe-b-mSv, a‰-Øn¬ kvIdn-b-˛- enkn aI≥) Ing-t°-°c Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 247. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 378 sNdn-bm≥˛A°Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS c≠m-asØ aI≥ sIm®v (sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãy≥) s‚ hwim-hensI.-kn. sk_m-Ãy≥ (B.A.L.T.) `mcy : amΩn (t{X-kym) ]pfn-¶p-∂v, sImSp-]m-SØv amXyp aIƒ.B¨a-°ƒ 6,s]¨a-°ƒ 4. sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãy≥ 16.07.1972 epw amΩn 22.09.1992 epw ncym-X-cm-bn. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Ønse BZysØ _ncp-Z-[m-cn. {Xn»n-m-∏≈n sk‚ v tPmk^v tImtf-Pn¬ n∂v 1920-˛¬ _n.-F. ]m€m-bn. ]mem sk‚ v tXmakv kvIqfn¬ A≤ym-]-I-m-bn.1925 ¬ F¬.-‰n. ]m€m-bn. B h¿jw Xs∂ sk‚ v tXmakvkvIqfn¬ slUvam-Ã-dm-bn. 38 h¿jw A≤ym-]-I-mbpw AXn¬35 h¿j-tØmfw slUvam-Ã-dmbpw tkhw sNbvXp. AXn-p-tijw sk‚ v tXmakv s{Sbn-nwKv tImtf-Pn¬ eIvN-dmbpw sk‚ vhn≥k‚ v kvIqfn¬ slUvam-ÿ Bbpw acWw hsc A≤ym-]-I-m-bn-cp-∂p. tIc-fØnse kzImcy A≤ym-]-I-cpsS BZysØ kwL-S--bmb ]n.-F-kv.-‰n.-F. bpsS ÿm]I {]kn-U‚ v F∂ ne-bn¬Zo¿L-Imew {]h¿Øn-®p. tIcf bqWn-th-gvkn‰n sk‰v saº¿F∂ ne-bnepw hf-sc-°mew {]h¿Øn-®p. ao-®n¬ Xmeq-°n-tebpw kao] {]tZ-i-ß-fn-sebpw hnZym-`ym-k-cw-KØv {]iw-k-o-b-amb tXrXzw sImSp-Øp. Cw•ojnepw ae-bm-f-Øn-ep-ambn nc-h[n teJ--ßfpw nc-h[n ]mT-]p-kvX-I-ßfpw {]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Øn. temI-N-cn{Xw F∂{_l-Ømb {KŸw ae-bm-f-Øn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®p. 1972 Pqsse 16-˛v ncym-X-m-bn.I At¥m-n-®≥ (B‚-Wn sk_m-Ãy≥) (sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãys‚ aqØ aI≥) kq{]≠v, tIcfm πmt‚jvtIm¿∏-td-j≥. 29.06.1981-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 248. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 379 `mcy : sXdΩ (I- c p- a m- S n, ]≈n- h m- X p- ° ¬ h°-®≥-˛-¢m-cΩ aIƒ) B¨a-°ƒ ˛1, s]¨a-°ƒ 2.1. ssekΩ (πm-t‚-j≥ tIm¿∏-td-j≥ Hm^o-k¿) `¿Ømhv : Ipcy≥ tPmk^v (am-t-P¿, ImØ-enIv kndn-b≥ _m¶v) (sh-fn-b-m-Sv, mep-I-≠- Øn¬ tPmk-^v-˛-Gen aI≥) a°ƒ : tPmkn (2008 sk]v‰w-_¿ ncym-X-m-bn) {Sokm Ipcy≥ (F-©n-o-b-dnwKv hnZym¿∞n-n) acnb F¬km Ipcy≥ (hn-Zym¿∞n-n)2. Atemjym tPmk^v B.Sc., B.Ed. `¿Ømhv : tPmk^v h¿§okv M.A. Ph.D. (s{]m-^-k¿, sk‚ v tPm¿Pv tImtf-Pv, Acp-hn-Øp-d) Ipf-Øq¿, aqgn-bn¬ ssate´v h¿§okv ˛ tN®Ω aI≥) a°ƒ : Cµp-teJ (F¬.-F¬.-_n. hnZym¿∞n-n) Nn{X-teJ (hn-Zym¿∞n-n)3. tkmWn B‚Wn B.Tech. F©n-o-b¿, Zp_mbv Fb¿t]m¿´v t^m¨: 71508477072 `mcy : Cµp tkmWn _n.-sS-Iv. (A-[ym-]n-I, Zp_m-bv) tIm´-bw, {imºn-°¬ t__n- ®≥-˛-A-ΩnWn aIƒ. a°ƒ : Ao‰ sXtckm B‚-Wn, Aeojy sXtckm B‚-Wn (hn-Zym¿∞n-n-Iƒ)II A®mΩ-°p´n (sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãy≥ c≠m-asØ aIƒ) `¿Ømhv : sI.-sP. tPmk^v (dn-´. slUvam-ÿ, ]mem sk‚ v tXmakv sslkvIqƒ) Icq¿, Iq¥m-Øv Hutk-∏v˛adnbw aI≥. -- - t^m¨: 04822 ˛ 212669. tPmk^v 12.06.2007- ˛¬ ncym- X - m- b n. B¨a- ° ƒ 1, s]¨a-°ƒ 2.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 249. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 380III t{Kkn (kn. Atem-jykv I.B.M.V.) sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãys‚ aq∂m-asØ aIƒ I.B.M.V. k`-bn¬ tN¿∂v Iym-kv{Xn-bmbn hSt° C¥y-bn¬hnhn[ ÿe-ß-fn¬ tkhw sNbvX-tijw Ct∏mƒ ]m‰vm-bn¬,tIm¨sh‚n¬ hn{i-a-Po-hnXw bn-°p-∂p.IV A∂-°p´n sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãs‚ mem-asØ aIƒ `¿Ømhv : tUm.-Fw.-Fw. Nm≠n, a™-°p-t∂¬, Ad- ° p- f w, Rtd. HOD Chemistry Dept. Ccn-ßm-e°pS ss{IÃv tImtfPv, t^m¨: - 0480 2821256, 9595710960, Ccn-ßm-e-°p-S- bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ 3, s]¨a-°ƒ 1.V X¶-≥ (tUm. sI.-F-kv. sNdn-bm≥) s{]m^-k¿, Ata-cn° sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãs‚ A©masØ aI≥ 30.01.1996-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn. `mcy : X¶Ω (I-≈n-h-b-en¬,CS-a-‰w IpSpw-_mw-Kw) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ 31. km_p (tUmIvS¿, bp.-F-kv.-F.) `mcy : ImX-ssd≥ a°ƒ : tkm^n-b, antj¬, sNdn-bm≥2. ssa°v (A-Uz-tI-‰v, bp.-F-kv.-F.) `mcy : tdmkn-en≥ a°ƒ : sNdn-bm≥, B≥3. tPm (tUm-IvS¿, bp.-F-kv.-F.)VI amØp-°p´n (tUm. amXyp sk_m-Ãy≥) tUmIvS¿, P¿Ωn sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãs‚ BdmasØ aI≥○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 250. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 381 P¿Ω-n-bn¬ h®v 18.09.1979-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn. `mcy : F¬kn (_mw-•q¿) ]mem, Xd-t∏¬ amWn- ˛-Gen aIƒ a°ƒ : aI≥ 11. kt¥mjv amXyp (_n-kn-kv ˛ _mw•q¿) t^m¨: 0480 25741074, 09845037464 `mcy : anen (sXm-Sp-]p-g, tXmWn-°pgn IpSpw-_mw-K) a°ƒ : adn-b, amXypV Ip´n- b - ® ≥ (s{]m^. sI.- F - k v . sk_m- à y≥) sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãs‚ GgmasØ aI≥ (Rtd. HOD, Botany Dept. sk‚ v tXmakv tImtfPv, ]mem) Xd-hmSv hoSnpkao]w Xma-kn-°p-∂p. t^m¨: 04822-˛212117 `mcy : kmenΩ (A-ºe∏p-g, Icq-am-Sn-bn¬, ]≈n- - - hm-Xp-°¬ h°-®≥-˛-¢m-cΩ aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2, s]¨a-°ƒ ˛11. koa `¿Ømhv : hn¬k¨ (F-b¿t^m-gvkv) a°ƒ : Itcm-fn≥, kmdm (hn-Zym¿∞n-nIƒ)2. A∏p (sk-_m-Ãy≥) B.Pharm ImU `mcy : _np (D-Z-bw-t]-cq¿) c≠p-t]cpw Im-Um-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. aIƒ : Znb3. tPm∏p (tPm¿÷v sk_m-Ãy≥) B.Tech `mcy : _n≥kn tPm¿÷v B.Tech○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 251. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 382 c≠p-t]cpw _mw•q-cn¬ sF.-‰n. Iº-n- bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p. aI≥ : s_≥ (sk-_m-Ãy≥)VIII tUm.-sI.-F-kv. tPmkv (ENT tUmIvS¿, sXmSp-]pg) sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãs‚ F´masØ aI≥ t^m¨: 04862-˛222760, 9847783658 `mcy : tUm. Bn-bΩ (]o-Un-bm-{So-j≥,sXmSp-]p-g) ]me, CS-a-dp-Iv, hmg-Nm-cn-°¬ tPmk^v aIƒ. t^m¨:9544768907 a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ 2, s]¨a-°ƒ 1.1. sk_m-Ãy≥ tPmkv M.Arch sI´n- S - n¿Ωm- W - t a- J - e - b n¬ {]h¿Øn- ° p- ∂ p. ]pcm- X ohmkvXp-in-ev]hpw B[p-nI inev]-I-ebpw ka-z-bn®v sI´n-S-n¿Ωm-WcwKØv ]pXnb DW¿∆pw DtØ-P-hpw evIn {]iw-km¿l-ambn {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p. t^m¨: 9847032049 `mcy : kuay M.A., B.Ed. (A-[ym-]n-I). IpSpw-_- k-lnXw tXh-c, sIm®n-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. a°ƒ : tPmk-^v, B‚-Wn, amXyp (hn-Zym¿∞n- Iƒ)2. A∏p tPmkv I.R.S. Deputy IΩo- j - W ¿ C≥Iw- S m- I v k v , Fd-Wm-Ipfw `mcy : tUm. cay Fw.-F-kv. ENT Specialist, Kottayam sXmSp-]p-g, CSn-bm-n-°-≠-Øn¬ t]mƒ aIƒ a°ƒ : Hutk- ∏ - ® ≥ (2 1 /2 hb- € v ) , t]mƒ (6 amkw)3. AnXm tPmkv M.S. (P¿Ω-n), t^m¨: 9744176606○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 252. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 383 `¿Ømhv : Aq]v sNdn-bm≥ (a¿®‚ v thn Iym]v‰≥, P¿Ω-n) Be-∏p-g, Icn-∏q-a-Æn¬ cmPp (F-©n-o- b¿)-˛-tUm. F¬kn h¿°n aI≥. a°ƒ : nbm F¬kn sNdn-bm≥ oXm B≥ sNdn-bm≥IX sI.-F-kv. tPm¿÷v MSC sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãys‚ H≥]XmasØ aI≥ t^m¨: 04822-˛212558 `mcy : ]pjv] (N-ß-m-t»cn Hf-»-bn¬ {^m≥ko-kv-˛-a-dn-bmΩ aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ 1, s]¨a-°ƒ 31. tim` tPm¿÷v `¿Ømhv : hn≥k¨, hmcn- I m- S v , sNehv `mKw, sXmSp-]pg a°ƒ : 1 aI≥ (1 hb-€v)2. Ap tPm¿÷v `¿Ømhv : kntm- P v, the- ¶ - f w, sSp- a pSn c≠p-t]cpw Ata-cn-°-bn¬ Xmakw aIƒ : kmnb (1 hb-kv)3. ann tPm¿Pv `¿Ømhv : Pb- c mPv (_n- k n- - k v ) amºn- ≈ n¬, Fd-Wm-Ipfw a°ƒ : 1 aI≥ (1 hb-kv)4. kptcjv (sk-_m-Ãy≥ tPm¿÷v ITA) sF.-‰n.-F. Iºn `mcy : Ap sk_m- à y≥ M.C.A. (Zp- _ m- b v ) (Nß-m-t»-cn, Im™q-]-d-ºn¬ amXyp aIƒ)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 253. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 384X s]ÆΩ sI.-kn. sk_m-Ãys‚ ]ØmasØ aIƒ sNdp-∏-Ønse ncym-X-bm-bn.Ip™p-s]Æv(In-g-t°-°c Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬ sNdn-bm≥-˛-A-°Ω Zº-Xn-I-fpsS Cf-b-a-Iƒ) `¿Ømhv : C´n-b-hnc tXmakv (Ip-s™m-Ω≥)]mem-bn¬ sXt°-°≠w Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn® Ch¿ 1940-˛-I-fn¬]ng-In-te°v amdn-Øm-a-kn-®p. B¨a-°ƒ 2, s]¨a-°ƒ 5.Ips™m-Ω≥ 17.09.1976 epw Ip™p-s]Æv 10.08.1986 epw ncym-X-cmbn.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 254. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 385 Ing-t°-°-c, XmgØpho´n¬ Xma-kn® DÆn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ hwi-]-c-ºcDÆn-s®-dn-bXv `mcy : A∂Ω (sX≈n-bn¬, ]q™m¿) a°ƒ : Nmt°m,- sN-dn-bm≥, Gen Gensb Xe- ® nd sXmΩ≥ hnhmlwsNbvXp. Ing-t°-°c DÆn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aI≥ (aq-∂p-am-°¬) Nmt°m-bpsS hwim-henNmt°m`mcy : I{Xn (Im-™n-c-∏≈n, Ing-t°-Ø-e- bv°¬ C´n-b-hncm aIƒ) B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 4 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2I Ips©-dnb (sNdn-bm≥) Nmt°m-bpsS H∂masØ aI≥`mcy : A∂ (In- g - t °- ° - c , hmIm- n- b n¬sXmΩ≥-˛-A∂ aIƒ) Ips©-dnb hmIm-n-bn¬ ZØ-h-Im-in-bmbnXma-kn-®p. Ips©-dn-bm-bpsS a°-sf-∏‰n ]Sn-™mtd Be-°¬hmIm-n-bn¬ F∂ `mK-Øn¬ tN¿Øn-´p-≠v.II Hutk∏v (Ip-´n), Nq≠-t®cn Nmt°m-bpsS c≠m-asØ aI≥`mcy : t{Xykym (h-S-t°¬ sXmΩ≥ aIƒ)a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 4 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2(Nmt°m, sXmΩ≥, Hutk-∏v, sNdn-bm≥, h¿°n, I{Xn, A∂)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 255. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 3861. Nmt°m (a-e-_m¿) `mcy : tdmk (aq-e-bn¬ Ip™q™v aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ 4, s]¨a-°ƒ 2.2. sXmΩ≥ (aq-∂p-am-°¬) `mcy : tacn (hm-bva-‰-Øn¬ tPmk^v aIƒ) aqe-a-‰Øv Xmakw a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 4 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 11. tPmkv `mcy : h’Ω(A-©m-n-°¬ Ip´n aIƒ) aI≥ : tPm_n≥2. {^m≥kokv ( A[ym-]-I≥) `mcy : kpioe (a-dn-bm-Ω) A[ym-]n-I) (Xn-cp-h--¥-]pcw Ip∂p-Ip-gn ssa°nƒ aIƒ) a°ƒ : tUm. Pnkv {^m≥kokv Pn≥ {^m≥kokv (hn-Zym¿∞n)3. amXyp (C-¥y≥ Ic-tk-, U¬ln) `mcy : sj¿en (F-S-°c AK-Ãn≥ aIƒ) a°ƒ : Sp´p tXma-kv, s]m∂p, Pm°n ë4. tPm¿÷v (am-Wn-®≥) tlmantbm tUmIvS¿ `mcy : sUbvkn (aq-e-t»-cn¬ IpSpw-_mw-Kw) a°ƒ : tamfp, s]m∂p5. sIm®p-t{Xkym : `¿Ømhv : kn_n, Hmen-°¬, Ipdp-aÆv3. Hutk∏v (A-∏-®≥) Iho-Ip∂v `mcy : tXykym (a--bm-n-°¬ Ipcp-hnf aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 21. Fw. sP. Ipcym-t°mkv (Ip-cy≥)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 256. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 387 `mc-Xob dnk¿hv _m¶v, Xncp-h--¥-]pcw `mcy : Bn-bΩ sXß-m-Ip-t∂¬ Ip™p-Ip´n aIƒ) a°ƒ : tkm-Wnb (M.Ed.) An¬ (M.Tech.) im¥n (Agricultural Engineer)2. Fw.-sP. amXyp (Rtd. Pqn-b¿ kq{]-≠v, oXn-ymb hIp-∏v) `mcy : enkn-bΩ (dn-´. So®¿) (tN¿∏p-¶¬, Nnc-h-b-en¬ h¿°n aIƒ) a°ƒ : Pb-Ie (B.Tech.) Pb-ame (M.B.B.S hnZym¿∞nn) enb (hn-Zym¿∞n-n)3. tXykymΩ (sX-øm-Ω) `¿Ømhv : tdmbn (D-∏p-am-°¬, ]ng-Iv)4. tacnΩ `¿Ømhv : tZh-kym-®≥ (tNdp-t»-cn¬, Im´m-ºm-°v, Ipd-hn-eßm-Sv) -4. sNdn-bm≥ (Im-d _m¶v DtZym-K-ÿ≥) `mcy : (dn´. A[ym-]n-I) (tXm´Øn¬, aqhm-‰p-]p-g) tImX-aw-K-e-Øn--SpØv Ip∂p-Ip-gn-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 1 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 31.- sk-eo≥ `¿Ømhv : tdmbn, XI-Sn-tb¬, ]qh-cWn2. sle≥ `¿Ømhv : tP°∫v (sh-‰n-e-∏m-d, hcn-°-am-°¬ amXyp aI≥)3. sj¿en `¿Ømhv : tP°∫v (sX-t°-°c h¿§okv aI≥)○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 257. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 3884. sS‰kv (tIm-X-aw-K-ew) `mcy : ARvPp, Ing-t°-Ø-e-bv°¬, Im™n-c-∏≈n a°ƒ : Nmƒkv, acnb5. h¿°n (I-c-tkm DtZymK-ÿ≥) `mcy : tacn, sXt°-Xn¬, ss]I a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 1 s]¨a--°ƒ ˛36. I{Xn `¿Ømhv : sXmΩ≥ Nocmw-Ipgn7. A∂ `¿Ømh v: A{_mlw CS-aeIII. tZhkym (Ip™m∏≥) Nmt°m-bpsS aq∂m-asØ aI≥ `mcy : sIm®p- s ]Æv (A- © p- I - ≠ - Ø n¬, Ipdp-a-Æv) a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 1 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 11. Nmt°m (-A-{]w) `mcy : A∂-°p-´n, ac-ßm-´p-]≈n a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 3 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 1 tZh-kym, tPmkv, kn_n.......................2. I{Xn (s]-Æ-Ω)oXn-ymb hIp-∏n¬ tPmen sNbvX-tijw dn´-b¿ sNbvXv sXmSp-]p-g-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. `¿Ømhv : kn.-Fw. amXyp, Nc-f-bn¬ CeIv{Sn-kn‰nhIp-∏n¬ n∂pw dn´-b¿ sNbvXp.IV. t]mØ≥ (I-ho-Ip-∂v, aq-∂p-am-°¬ Xd-hm-Sv) Nmt°m-bpsS mem-asØ aI≥ `mcy : A∂ (s]m-cp-t∂m-en¬ De-l-∂≥ aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 3 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 258. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 3891. Nmt°m (Ip-™-∏≥) `mcy : tdmk (No-cmw-Ip-gn-bn¬ aØmbn aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 5 s]¨a--°ƒ ˛ 21. sPbnwkv ˛ Zp_mbv `mcy : ¢mcn-kv, Im°-m-Sv, hf-fn-®nd a°ƒ : Pm°v (B.Sc Nurse) tSmw, tamp (B.Tech hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ)2. amXyp (X-¶-®≥) (^m¿a-kn-Ãv, Im-U) `mcy : s_kn (tgvkv ˛ ImU) aqhm-‰p-]pg, Im´p-Ip-Sn, ]m∏p aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2 s]¨a-°ƒ˛ 13. tPmtPm (sa-bn¬ tgvkv, Bkvt{S-en-b) `mcy : sPkn, Fc-∏q-gn-°c ˛ tgvkv a°ƒ : tdmk-, dnb (hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ)4. At{]w `mcy : PnPn (A-[ym-]n-I) sIm´pIm∏-≈n¬, ISp-Øp-cpØn a°ƒ : tP°∫v, sdan, tPmk^v (aq-∂p-t]cpw ]Tn-°p-∂p)5. ap (sa-bn¬ tgvkv, Im-U) `mcy : [y (-^m¿a-kn-Ãv, Im-U) ap≠≥Nn-d, I√q¿°mSv a°ƒ : sPb-kv, tdmkvan≥, (hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ)6. B≥kΩ `¿Ømhv : tPmk^v sIm´m-c-Øn¬, XnS-mSv7. X¶Ω `¿Ømhv : knPn, mK-q-en¬, sh≈S2. amn (t]m-Øs‚ c≠m-asØ aI≥) `mcy : t{Kkn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 259. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 390 (CSp- ° n, tacn- I p- f - Ø v , Ing- t °- ° - c , sNdn-bm≥ ˛ tdmk aIƒ) ]me, Acp-Wm-]p-cØv Xmakn-°p-∂p.(hn-i-Z-hn-h-c-߃ Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬ sNdn-bm≥ kvIdn-bm-bpsS hwim-h-en-bn¬ tN¿Øn-´p-≠v.3. tPm¨ : GeΩ (t-gvkv, Ata-cn-°) (I-fØq°-S-hv, sh´Øv ]m∏-®≥ aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 2 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 11. kn_n (tUm-IvS¿, bp.-F-kv.-F) `mcy : t{ib ]coJv (tUm-IvS¿, bp.-F-kv.-F) a°ƒ : kmP≥, dbm2. k‘y (tUm-IvS¿, bp.-F-kv.-F) `¿Ømhv : Zps_ tm°nb I-ºn, bp.-Fkv.F- - aIƒ : tdb3. t_m_n (bp.-F-kv.-F) `mcy : eo sPbnwkv (Fw.- U n.- F kv, bp.-F-kv.-F)4. I{Xn (dn-´. A[ym-]n-I) `¿Ømhv : A{_mlw, Ce-™n-°¬, Be-∏pg a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 25. tacn (I-ho-Ip-∂v) `¿Ømhv : t__n (No-cmw-Ip-gn-bn¬ kn.-sI. tXmakv aI≥)V. amΩn (]m-em) `¿Ømhv: amWn Nocmw-Ip-gn, ]meVI. A∂ `¿Ømhv : ]oen sX‰m-en-°¬, ss]ßfw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 260. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 391 DÆn-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ c≠m-asØ aI≥ sNdn-bms‚ hwim-hensNdn-bm≥ `mcy : adnbw (sh- ´ p- I m- ´ n¬, HmS- b v°¬, IpSpw-_mw-Kw) B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 3 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 4 Ip™m-∏≥, Ips™m-Ω≥, Ipt™-∏v, amΩn, A∂, A°-Ω, GenI. sNdn-bm≥ (Ip-™m-∏≥) `mcy : s]mcp-t∂m-en¬, hf--f-ap-≠-bn¬ sXmΩ≥ aIƒ sIm®ps]-Æns hnhmlw sNbvXv ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ Xma-kn-®p. aIƒ adn-b-Øns‚ P--tijw sIm®p-s]Æv acn-®p-t]m-b-Xn-m¬ sh≈n-tb-∏-≈n¬ ]p-fn-°¬ amXyp aIƒ adn-bsØ ]p¿hn-hmlw sNbvXp. AXn≥ Hcp aIƒ (A∂) IqSn Pn-®p.a°ƒ : s]¨a°ƒ ˛ 21. adnbw `¿Ømhv : sSn-b-Im-´n¬, aW-Ip-∂Øv tZhkym2. A∂ `¿Ømhv: tZh-kym, aqg-bn¬, ]me tZhkym ZØ-h-Im-in-bmbn XmgØp ho´n¬ Xma-kn-®p. B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 21. tPmk-^v (Hu-tk-∏-®≥), sh≈n-bm-a‰w `mcy : Nn∂Ω (I- c q¿, Ad- b v ° - ° - ≠ - Ø n¬ tZh-kym-®≥ aIƒ) a°ƒ : F_n≥, _n_n≥2. t__n (sN-dn-bm≥) `mcy : t{XykymΩ (Acp-Wm-]p-cw, ]me-bv°m-´p-Ip-t∂¬○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 261. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 392 {^m≥kokv aIƒ) a°ƒ : dn‰p, dn‚p, acnb3. tacn `¿Ømhv : tXma- k v , a- b m- n- ° ¬ πmi- m- e n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p.4. knknen `¿Ømhv : kÆn tXmakv avfmhn¬, InS-ßq¿II. sXmΩ≥ (Ip-s™m-Ω≥) ˛ Ing-t°-°c Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-®p. sXcp-hn¬ Ipt∂¬s]m-Xn-bn¬ DXp∏v aIƒ t{Xykymsbhnhmlw sNbvXp. Hcp B¨Ip´n D≠m-bn-°-gn-bp-tºmƒ `mcy acn-°p-I-bm¬ ]q™m-‰n¬ tXm´-°c Gensb hnhmlw sNbvXv Xd-hm-´n¬ Xma-kn-®p. ]mem-bn¬ hnhn-[-Xcw _nkn-€v SØn kmº-ØnI _≤-∏m-Sn-em-I-bm¬ hoSpw ÿehpw hn‰v ssltd-©n¬ Im©n-bm-‰n-te°v Xmakw am‰n.11.8.1971 ¬ sXmΩ-pw, 26˛ 1˛1986 ¬ `mcy Genbpw ncym-X-m-bn.a°ƒ: B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 5 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 31. BZy-hn-hm-l-Ønse B¨Ip´n sNdp-∏-Ønse acn-®p.2. tXmakv (tXm-Ωm-®n), sh≈-bmw-Ip-Sn, I´-∏ `mcy : A∂Ω (I- ´ - ∏ - , Rm‰p- s Xm- ´ - b n¬ h¿°n aI≥) a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 3 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 21. tdmWn `mcy : Umeokv (C-c-´-bm¿, apXp-πm-°¬ h¿°n aIƒ) a°ƒ : sU∂o-kv, Umen2. PnΩn-®≥ (dh. ^m. tPm¿÷v) I´-∏-, sk‚ v tPm¨kv kymk k`-bn¬ tN¿∂v sshZn-I-mbn tkh--a-p-jvTn-°p-∂p.3. kÆn Cc-´-bm¿, sh´n-°p-gn-bn¬ n∂pw hnhmlw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 262. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 393KpP-dm-Øn¬ ]m-a-I-º-n-bn¬ nb-tam-]-tZ-jvSm-hmbn tPmensNøp-∂p.4. kmen tImgn-t°mSv [¿Ω-Kncn aT-Øn¬ kym-kn-n-bmbn tkhwsNøp-∂p.5. ssk_n`¿Ømhv: tPmkv ]mdbv°¬, Icn-ºmn3. Hutk∏v (Hu-tk-∏-®≥)Hutk-∏-®≥ hnjw Xo≠n acn-®p. `mcy : Ip™Ω (G-e-∏m-d, ]Sn-™m-sd-°c tPmkv a-Iƒ) aIƒ : t{Kkn (hn- h m- l n- X - b mbn am´p- ° ´bn¬ Xmakn-°p-∂p.)4. At¥mn (A-t¥m-n-®≥, Im©n-bm¿ `mcy : amΩn (G-‰p-am-q¿, Bm-Øn¬ h¿°n aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 2 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 11. kÆn(Im-©n-bm¿) `mcy : sUbvkn sh≈-bmw-IpSn2. km_p -˛ tgvkv, Ata-cn°3. knn (Ip-a-fn-bn¬ hn-hmlw sNbvX-b-®p.)5. sk_m-Ãy≥ (Ip-™-®≥) CSp-°n, 10-˛mw ssa¬) `mcy : t{XykymΩ sh≈m- ∏ - ≈ n- b n¬, sN-Ω-e-a‰w a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 2 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 11. tm_nƒ (B-kvt{S-en-b)2. kndnƒ (ss]-m-hv) `mcy : ssjn, Xq°pgn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 263. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 3943. seo (sh-≈-Øq-h¬)6. Ip´n-bΩ `¿Ømhv : tPmk^v , Ccp- ] - t X- ° ¿, Im©nbm¿ cn-bºmd Xma-kn-°p-∂p.7. s]ÆΩ `¿Ømhv : eq°m-®≥ ˛ _nkn-€v s√n-°m-w, tImSn--°pfw a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ˛ c≠v Bkvt{S-en-bm-bn¬ tPmen sNøp-∂p.8. amfnΩ `¿Ømhv : tPmWn, ]oSn-Ibv°¬, CSp°n Pn√ ]m≠n-∏md Xma-kn-°p-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 264. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 395 DÆns®-dn-bXv aI≥ sNdn-bms‚ aq∂m-asØ ]p{X≥ Iqm-n-°¬ Xma-kn® sI.-kn. tPmk-^ns‚ hwim-hensI.-kn. tPmk^v (Ip-t™-∏v) ]mem, ]- b v ° ¬ Xp≠--Ø n¬ Hutk∏v sshZy≥ aIƒtXykymsb hnhmlw sNbvXp. c≠p ]p{Xn-amcpw c≠v ]p{X-∑mcpwPn-®p-I-gn-™-t∏mƒ `mcy ncym-X-bm-bn. ]n∂oSv CSa‰Øv hc-Ip-Im-em-bn¬ t]mØs‚ aIƒ Gen-°p-´nsb hnhmlw sNbvXp.Cu hnhmlw sNbvXp. Cu hnhm-l-Øn¬ aq∂v ]p{X-∑mcpw c≠v]p{Xn-amcpw Pn-®p. sI.-kn. tPmk^v ]mem apn-kn-∏m-en-‰n-bn¬ tPmen sNbvXphcsh 30˛12˛1972 ¬ ncym-X-m-bn. `mcy Gen-°p´n 19˛ 8˛ 2004 ˛¬ acn-®p.I. Ip´-∏≥ (dh. ^m. tPmk^v Ing-t°-°c SDB)kte-jy≥k`-bn¬ tN¿∂v s{]mhn≥jym-fmbpw a‰p ]e {][m--s∏´ XkvXn-I-I-fnepw tkh--a-p-jvTn-®-tijw Ct∏mƒ U¬ln-bn¬ tUm¨ t_mkvtIm kvIqƒ amt-P-cmbn tPmen sNøp-∂p.II. ]m∏®n 1952 ˛ ¬ a™-∏nØw _m[n®v acn-®p.III. tPmkv sI.-sP. (In-g-X-Sn-bq¿, Ing-t°-°c Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p) t^m¨: 04822 ˛ 216442 `mcy : sXømΩ (]mem, Ducm-im-e-bn¬ tPmk^v aIƒ) a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 2 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 11. tPm_n tPmkv MBA (_nkn--kv, sI´n-S-n¿Ωm-W-taJe)2. sk_m-Ãy≥ tPmkv (_n-kn--€v, sI´n-S-n¿Ωm-W-ta-J-e)3. tPmkn○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 265. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 396 `¿Ømhv: tPmPn (sIm-gp-h-m¬, am¥-d-bn¬ Nm°m-®≥ aI≥) a°ƒ: tPma¬, tPmZp¬IV. tZh-kym-®≥ (tPm-k^v sk_m-Ãy≥) Ing-X-Sn-bq¿, Ing-t°-°c Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. t^m¨: 04822 ˛ 210723 `mcy : h’Ω (tN¿∏p-¶¬, tIme-Sn-bn¬, Ip™p-Ip´n aIƒ) tZh-kym-®≥ ]mem d_¿ am¿°-‰nwKv tIm∏-td-‰ohv skmssk-‰n- b n¬n∂v dn´- b - d m- b - X n- p- t ijw kmaq- l y- t k- h - - c w- K - Ø v{]h¿Øn-°p-∂p. Ch¿°v a°-fn-√.V. sNdn-bm≥ (]mem apn-kn-∏m-en-‰n-bn¬ n∂pw dn´-b-dm-bn.) IpS-°-®nd Xmg-Øp-ho-´n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p. `mcy : sXømΩ (C-S-∏m-Sn, aq°≥tXm-´-Øn¬ tXmakv aIƒ) a°ƒ : s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 31. knn `¿Ømhv : s_∂n (Im-™n-ca‰w, DXn-cIp-fØv hmfm- - - Sn-am-°¬ ]m∏-®≥ aI≥) a°ƒ : s]¨a-°-ƒ ˛ 22. knan `¿Ømhv : Sn.-Pn. XnS-mSv (]m-em-bn¬ _nkn-€v sNøp-∂p) (Xn-S-mSv, h≈n-bmw-X-S-Øn¬ tPmk^v aI≥)3. koXp : tgvkv, t_mws_VI. adn-b-°p´n (sIm-gp-h-m¬) `¿Ømhv : Ip-™p-Ip-´n, aWn-b-ßm-´v, sImgp-h-m¬, a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 6 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 1○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 266. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 397VII. t{Xykym (sXøm-Ω) `¿Ømhv : sI.-F-kv. h¿°n Ipgn-∏-≈n¬, tImX-s-√q¿, G‰p-am-q¿ a°ƒ: B¨a--°ƒ ˛ 3 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 3VIII. GeΩ `¿Ømhv : t]mƒ (X-¶-®≥) tN¿∏p-¶¬, sbvt®- cn¬ AhpX aI≥ a°ƒ : B¨a°ƒ ˛ 1 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 1IX. Bn `¿Ømhv : h°-®≥ (cm-a-]pcw Ip-Wn-™n, hmg-bn¬ Ip™v aI≥) a°ƒ : B¨a-°ƒ ˛ 21. An¬ (sshZnI hnZym¿∞n)2. AJn¬ (hn-Zym¿∞n) Ing-t°-°-c, XmgØp ho´n¬ Xma-kn® sNdn-bms‚ s]¨a-°ƒ.amΩn`¿Ømhv : t]mØ≥, ]mdt»-cn¬, ]pfn-¶p∂v GIaI≥, At¥m--n-®≥ Pn®p Ign-™- t∏mƒ amΩn ncym-X-m-bn.A∂ `¿Ømhv : amWn, Imcy-m¶¬, {]hn-Ømw a°ƒ : 1) sI.-Fw. tPmk^v 2) NpΩm¿ (]m-∏-®≥) 3) d-h. ^m. sNdn-bm≥ kn.-Fw.sF 4) sI.Fw amWn (Ip-™v) 5) tacn 6) A∂-°p´nA°Ω `¿Ømhv amXyp C√n-aq-´n¬ a°ƒ B¨a-°ƒ: 3 s]¨a-°ƒ ˛ 3Gen `¿Ømhv : h¿-°n, Iq¥m-w, Icq¿○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 267. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 398 ADDRESSPeedikayil Sheeba Shiji K.T. Thomas Kulathinal (Thomachan)Ittyipe Ittyipe Chattikulam P.O. KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara Chalakudy, Alacodu,Neeloor P.O. Thrissur (Dt) Kalayanthany P.O.Kottayam Dist Mob: 9846302390 Idukki (Dist)Ph: 0482 2221143 Pin - 685588 Achamma Joseph Ph: 04862 276260K.I. Thomas Pullattu Mob: 9447139489.Kizhakkekara Vazhoor East P.O.Neeloor P.O. Kottayam (Dist). Jessy SunnyKottayam Dist. Kochumattathil HousePhone: 04822 221136 Mary Joseph Manalumnkal P.O. Pullolil AnicaduSaju Thomas Kadanadu P.O. Kottayam Dist.Room No. 503 Kollappally Email- sunnycyriac@usa.netD-2/Kangara Kottayam Dist. Mob: 9388884331.Lokdhara - Kalyan Ph: 0482 2246793.(Est) Sithara JosephPin - 421306 K.T. Joseph M.A. InchakuzhiyilPh: 0251 2355407 (Kunju) KizhakombuMob: 09867511166 Kizhakkekarapeedikayil Koothattukulam Kizhathadiyoor P.O.Siby Thomas Palai, Kottayam Dist Ajesh JosephKoxhakkekara Ph: 0482 2212377 KizhakkekaraNeeloor P.O. Mob: 9447571930. Kuttichira P.OKottayam Dist. Kormala,ChalakudyPh: 0482 2221939 Anly Johns MSC9495333325 Erattupuzha House Thomas John S.R.M. Road, KizhakkekaraSaji Thomas (Roy) Cochin - 18 Vellikulangara P.O.Kizhakkekara Ph: 04842 403352 Via Kodakara,Neeloor P.O. Thrissur Dist,Palai Sithara Cyril Ph: 0480 2740574.Ph: 04822 223403 H 104 VaishmodeviMob: 9744108660 Township Niju Thomas Near B.R. Park Kizhakkekara Behind Subash Garden Vellikulangara Jahamgirpura Kodakara Via,Thrissur Surat, Gujarat Dist. Pin - 0480 2740574.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 268. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 399Baby John Valsamma Vincent K.V. Emmanuel2/546 C Naranapuram Prarakattel KizhakkekarapeedikayilP.O. Nagapuzha P.O. Kizhathadiyoor P.O.Vinayaka Nagar Kaloorkadu Palai, Kottayam (Dist)Palladam (Via) Ernakulam (Dist) Ph: 04822 201195Tirupur Ph: 0485 289861. Mob: 9495048912Mob: 09789312534. Mob: 9495465049 Leelamma JamesJoy Kizhakkekara Sr. Mary Melani PalackatharappelLERCHENWEG 12 D.M. Convent Irumbakachola P.O.5034 SUHR, SWISS Panachamoodu Palaghat (Dist)0041628427905 Mancode P.O. Ph: 04924 238347 K.K.Dist.Lilly George Thamilnadu - 629 152 Achamma JosephKizhakkekara Ph:0465 1284548 MadappallymattomKuttichira P.O. HouseKormala,Chalakudy Sr. John Mary Manalumkal P.O.Ph: 0480 2740214 Vice Principal Kottayam Dist. SADHU WASWANI Ph: 0481 2551348.Joby George College of NursingKizhakkekara 7-9 Koregaon Park Litteeshya XavierKuttichira P.O. Pune - 411001 (Molly)Kormala,Chalakudy Ph: 094 21500658, Xavier Mandir0480 2740214. 091 58105651 Kothavara P.O. Vaikom, Kottayam Dist.Jomin George Sr. Merly 0482 9225032Kizhakkekara Nirmala MedicalKuttichira P.O. Centre Poliya MathewKormala Moovattupuzha Thuruthumalil (H)Chalakudy Mob: 9495515764 Kalkandi P.O.Ph: 0480 2740214 VandamparaMob: 09744970367 Rosamma Joseph Attapady Kizhakekarapeedikayil Ph: 9961849890Achamma Mathew Kizhathadiyoor. P.O.Keerikattu Palai KAITHOLILMylakombu P.O. Ph: 04822 212717.Thodupuzha Aleykutty ChackoPh: 04862 227038 George Joseph Puthumana Kizhakkekarapeedikayil KarimpanakulamThressiamma Mathew Kizhathadiyoor P.O. Ponthenpuzha P.O.Mattathilkulathananiyil Palai ManimalaKurianadu P.O. Ph: 04822 212717 Ph: 0481 247182Kottayam Dist. Mob: 9446255844.Ph: 04822 231599○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 269. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 400 Mrs. Valsamma Baby Shiju JoseMarykutty Ittykunju Thomas KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara Kaitholil Kizhakkekara Kaitholil Chengulam P.O.Kanjar P.O. Arakkulam P.O. ChithirapuramPh: 04862 252102 Ph: 04862 252272. Ph: 9446609895Babu K.I. Johney ThomasKizhakkekara Kaitholil Kizhakkekara Kaitholil Achamma PappachanKanjar P.O. Kanjar P.O. MadathilparambilPh: 04862 252102 (Via) Thodupuzha Ampara P.O. Pin - 685 592 BharananganamShibu K.I. Ph: 04862 252948Kizhakkekara 9446824302. Sr. JustinaKanjar P.O. AgmeerPh: 447988194556 Anil Johny Rajasthan Kizhakkekara KaitholilBiju K.I Kanjar P.O. Sr. AntonietKizhakkekara (Via) Thodupuzha - (Pennamma)Kanjar P.O. 685592 Sisters of CharityPh: 0017809053767 Ph: 04862 252948 Tinsukliya, AssamJessy Abraham Aneesh Johney Sr. Rocky MariaPanthappallil (H) Kizhakkekara Kaitholil (Mary)Palai P.O. Kanjar P.O. S.H. ConventPh: 0482 2200222 (Via) Thodupuzha - Palai 685592.Vincy Mathew Ph: 04862 252948 Thomas SebastianPuthiaparambil (Kunju)Near Medical College Anu mol Johney Kizhakkekara KaitholilCalicut Kizhakkekara Kaitholil Michaelgiri P.O.Ph: 0495 3222909 Kanjar P.O. Marayoor Ph: 04862 252273Sincy Cherian Sr. Jain CarlaB. L.K. 233/03/166 (Aleyamma) Deby Latha SebastianSimei Street - 4 Sisters of Charity Peermont GassesSingapore - 520233 Calicut Province PeermadePhone: 0065 - Calicut7854501. Dr. Mathew Sebastian Cicily Jose 1834 LGB ColonyGeorge Thomas Paliath, Olamattom Ramanathapuram3123, Blue Hills, P.O. Coimbathore 641015Missori City Thodupuzha Ph: 0422 2319355Tex as 77459, U.S.A. Ph: 04862 225097 Mob: 08903136753Ph: 001 - 281 - 438, 8314○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 270. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 401Thressiamma Jacob Antony (Babychan)(Jolly) Joseph Seeba GeorgeThattarukunnel Kizhakkekara KurukilottilMuvattupuzha Kizhathadiyoor Ettumanoor P.O.Ph: 9446220110 Palai Ph: 0481 2505370 Ph: 04822 215200 Rosamma Joseph PanamkattuJancy Mathew Mrs. Achamma Mathai Anchiri P.O.Mattathanickal Kizhakkekara ThodpuzhaVengachuvadu P.O. Vellappadu P.O. Ph: 04862 258456Vazhakulam PalaiPh: 04852 2260824 Ph: 04822 211172 Thomas Joseph PanamthanathuMrs. Mary Joseph Lissy Johney Kodumpidy P.O.Kizhakkekara Chettiparambil PalaiKizhathadiyoor P.O. Manackadu P.O. Ph: 04822 221087Palai ThodupuzhaPh: 04822 215252 Ph: 04862 222024 Sr. Diana Holy Family ConventChinnama Mathew Tessy Bose ArpookaraPonnadathukallel Chempakathinal Ph: 0481 2599795Elikulam P.O. MunnaniPalai Palai Benny ThomasPh: 04822 225545 Ph: 0482 2214002 Kizhakkekara Kodumpidy P.O.Sabu Joseph Shaji K. Mathew PalaiKizhakkekara KizhakkekaraKizhathadiyoor P.O. Vellappadu Laly JohnPalai Palai MecherilPh: 04822 215252 Ph: 04822 211172. Valavoor P.O., PalaiMob: 9447761252. Ph: 04822 258067 Saji K. MathewsSaju Baby General Manager Joy JosephKizhakkekara Kaitholil Synthite Industries PanamhanathuMarayoor P.O. Ltd. Kodumpidy P.O. Kadayiruppu PalaiShoby Baby Kolenchery 682 311 Ph: 04822 221086Kizhakkekara Ph: 9387485035Kaitholil Jijo JosephArakulam P.O. Lillykutty Joseph PanamthanathuPh: 04862 252272 Kizhakekara Kodumpidy P.O. Gandhi Nagar Road Palai Palai 04822 216262○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 271. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 402Joji Joseph Marykutty Thomas Doncy AugustinePanamthanathu Kizhakkekara F4, Mana CampbellKodumpidy P.O. Mylakombu P.O. Green Glen LayoutPalai Thodupuzha Bellandur, Bangalore Ph: 9567782180 56010103Sebastian Joseph Ph: 049448450777Panamthanathu Anto K.ThomasKodumpidy P.O. (Benny) Mrs. ThankammaPalai Kizhakkekara MathewPh: 04822 221085 Mylakombu P.O. Kizhakkekara,Thenmary, Thodupuzha Kalayanthany P.O.Annakutty Joseph ThodupuzhaThadathil Sherly Joseph Ph: 04862 276405.Neeleeswaram P.O. PuthenparambilVia. Kalady Cheeranchira P.O. Baby Thomas Changanassery KizhakkekaraKutty Ph: 9962156764 Pannimattom P.O.Kunnathoor ThodupuzhaParambu P.O. Nancy Jolly(Via) Parappu Arayakunnel Mathew ThomasKattangamala Kanjiramattom KizhakkekaraKasargod (Dist). Thodupuzha East P.O. Ezhumuttom,Thodupuzha Ph: 04862 229470 Ph: 9495157026Aleykutty Thomas Mob: 9497789745.Alapurathukattil George ThomasKP XI/624 Jolly Mathew KizhakkekarakaitholilPipeline Junctions Prakuzhiyil Kizhathadiyoor P.O.Changampuzha Nagar Anakuzhikara Palai, Ph: 04822 210605P.O. Poovattuparabu P.O.Cochin Calicut K.U. Itty Ipe Ph: 9645927378. KizhakkekaraK.T. Achamma Mannarghat P.O.Thekkilakattil House Augusthy Thomman Palaghat DistPaickadu P.O. Kizhakkekarakaitholil Ph: 04924 222239(Via) Marangattupally Kizhathadiyoor P.O. Estate - 2388342.Pala Pala Ph: 04822 210605. Sabu IpeThresia Manjakunnel KizhakkekaraChempakanodu Thomas Augustine Mannarghat P.O.Kulathuvayal (Appachan) Palaghat DistKozhikode Kizhakkekara Ph: 04924 222239 Chilavu, Kalayanthany 9447938229 Thodupuzha E-mail: Ph: 04862 276622 sabuipe@gmail.com○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 272. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 403Jolly Sebastian Mercy Abraham Lucy CherianPalamkunnel W/o. Abraham Francis Kizhakkekara HouseIrubakachola P.O. Kanjirathingal House (Near NavajyothiPalaghat Dist. Mannarkad Ashram)Ph: 04924 238343. Mob: 9447236684. Kannikulam, Cherupuzha P.O.Jessy Sunny Lali Cherian Kannur Dist.Detroitcity Champappillil House Mob: 09666963402Michegon State Maveli Nagar, 5thUSA Cross Road, Leenamma CherianPh: 7345240290 House No. MNRA 57 W/o. Varghese Paul Cochin University P.O. (Shaji)Jancy Vijayan Cochin - 682022 Virunninattu (H)Vikaspukicharaksadan Ph: 0484 2575702 (R) Iringole P.O.No. 138 New Delhi Mob: 9447662902, Perumbavoor,Ph: 011 - 5596466 9287676101. Ernakulam Dist. Email - Lalicherian@gmail.com Mob: 9495203639.Jigy George Champappilly@gmail.comDetroitcity Saji K. CherianMichegon State Sunny Cherian SingapporeNo. 48170, Plymouth Kizhakkekara House Ph: 006565821864USA No.3, 6th Cross, Mob: 00656316564Ph: 2483476466 Kuvempu Road, Vijana Nagar, New Reji K.CherianJayarani Glady Thippasandra P.O. Kizhakkekara HouseNo 37712 th Crors Bangalore - 560075. (Near NavajyothiIIIrd Block, Bel layout Ph: 08025341618 Ashram)Vidjaranaraj pura P.O. Mob: 09544117710. Kannikulam,Bangalore Cherupuzha P.O.Ph: 080 8382101. James Cherian Kannur Dist. Kizhakkekara House Ph: Ekm 0484K.U. Cherian Thaliparamba P.O. 3229340.Kizhakkekara House, Pulimparambu Mob: 9605486706.(Near Navajyothi Ashram) Kannur Dist.Kannikulam, Ph: 04602249134 (R) VakaniyilCherupuzha P.O. Mob: 9744314942.Kannur Dist. Leelamma JosePh: 04985 - 241479. Sebastian K.C. Kizhakkekara (Devasia) VakaniyilRoy K.Cherian Kizhakkekara House Elamdesam P.O.Kizhakkekara House Badiyatuka P.O. ThodupuzhaEdavarambu P.O. Kasargod Dist Ph: 04862 276576.Kannur Dist. Mob: 9497044680.Ph: 9947722729.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 273. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 404James Thomas Josely Kuruvila Kuttiamma GeorgeKizhakkekara Karuvelil KalayathinalVakaniyil Arakulam P.O. Elamkadu P.O.,Velliamattom P.O. 685591. EnthayarThodupuzha Ph: 04862 252426. Ph: 04828 286753.Ph: 04862 276123 K.C.Chacko Rosly VargheseTom Thomas (Joy) Kizhakkekara ThoonganparambilKizhakkekara Vakaniyil,Muttom P.O. Chottupara P.O.Vakaniyil Thodupuzha Vandiperiyar (Via)Velliamattom P.O. Ph: 04862 255054 Idukki Dist.Thodupuzha Mob: 9744277992. Ph: 9562020506.Ph: 04862 276123Mob: 9645070143 K.J. Jose (Joy) K.C. Thomas Kizhakkekara KizhakkekaraJossymol Liju Vakaniyil VakaniyilKizhakkekozhiplakal Mundakayam P.O. MundupalamKoothattukulam Mob: 9744641339. PalaiPh: 0485 2251244. Tomson Joseph Molly JoyLilly Stephen (Shaji) ThottathilPampackel Kizhakkekara Perumbavoor P.O.Chakkittapara P.O. Vakaniyil,Ullanadu P.O. MuvattupzhaPerambra, Calicut. Anthinadu, Palai Ph: 0485234471.Ph: 0496 2662352. Ph: 04822 224217 Beena EmmanuelMary Mathew Joshy K. Jose (Kochu) KottanattuChilambikunnel Kizhakkekara Mutholapuram P.O.(Odackal) Vakaniyil Elanji (Via)Thabore P.O. Kizhathadiyoor P.O. Ph: 0485 257369.Cherupuzha, Palai.Ph: 9744987731.Payyannoor (Via) Sheela GeorgePh: 9605215177. Leelamma Kuriachan Thuruthikattu Kannankulathu Edappady P.O.Valsamma Melukavumattom P.O. BharananganamChackochan Palai Ph: 04822 237004.Pattarumadom Ph: 04822 219829.Ezhumuttom P.O. Jessy AntonyChalassery, Valsamma Sebastian CherayilThodupuzha. Kizhakkethuttayil 463, Puliakulam RoadPh: 04862 263137. Moonnilavu P.O. Coimbatore. Near Temple, Ph: 0485 2570647 Mamkombu Ph: 9496323067.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 274. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 405Susan Martin K.C. George K.V. CherianElanjimattom Kizhakkekara Kizhakkekara29/1192 Chembanodu P.O. Merykunnu P.O.Mangottuvayal Peruvannamoozhy CalicutKottooli P.O., Calicut. Calicut Ph: 8129775088.Ph: 9447006696 Ph: 0496 2663299 Mob: 9846338537. Shajan K.CherianSiby Thomas KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara K.C. Paulson Parambil BazarVakaniyil Kizhakkekara Moozhikal (Via)Mundupalam Chembanodu P.O. CalicutPalai Peruvannamoozhy Ph: 9048842250.Ph: 9447313049. Calicut Ph: 9496286358. Tintu ShijoK.C.Cherian NediyapalayilKizhakkekara Jolly Sebastian Koorachundu P.O.Chembanodu P.O. Vempala BalusseryPeruvannamoozhy Valadu P.O. CalicutCalicut (Dist) Mananthavady Ph: 0496 2660510Ph: 9961112466. Ph: 0493 5266043. Mob: 9562000864.K.C. Thomas (Sunny) Jancy Jose Mary KuriakoseKizhakkekara Keeranchira PullattuChangaroth P.O. Muthukadu P.O. Changaroth P.O.Peruvannamoozhy Peruvannamoozhy PeruvannamoozhyCalicut Calicut CalicutPh: 0496 - 2669765 Ph: 0496 3133091 Ph: 0496 2668143Mob: 9946283625. Mob: 9645000911 K.V. GeorgeK.C. Jose Kizhakkekara Valsamma joseKizhakkekara Chembanodu P.O. KadukammakalPeruvannamoozhy Peruvannamoozhy Kallanodu P.O.P.O. Calicut KoorachunduCalicut (Dist) Ph: 0496 2249025 CalicutPh: 9496442831. Mob: 9495258196. Ph: 0496 2660495.Binny JacobKizhakkekara K.V. Joseph Pennamma JosephChakkittapara P.O. Kizhakkekara PerumalilCalicut (Dist) Chembanodu P.O. Venmala P.O.Ph: 9447356853. Peruvannamoozhy Ernakulam Dist. Calicut Ph: 9846097382.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 275. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 406Chinnamma Joshy Kizhakkekara Bindu BejiSebastian Nellippara P.O. ChovattukunnelManalel Kannur Dist. CherupuzhaChembanodu P.O. Ph: 9447690325 Kannur Dist.Peruvannamoozhy Mob: 9400555398. Ph: 0498-5212035CalicutPh: 0496 - 2249792 Jaya Mathew K.M. JosephMob: 9496221524. Kaniaparambil (Ouseppachan) Thaliparambu P.O. Kizhakkekara,K.C. Mathew Pushpagiri Meempatty Vayattuparambu P.O.Kizhakkekara Kannur Dist Thaliparambu (Via)Chembanodu P.O. Ph: 9446367962. Kannur (Dist)Peruvannamoozhy Ph: 04602 245243Calicut Kumpuckal Mob: 9447483296.Mary K.M. Augustine Manoj JosephKaithottungal Kizhakkekara KizhakkekaraVayattuparambu P.O. Paduppu MeempattyKannur (Dist) Sankarampady P.O. Vayattuparambu P.O. Kasargodu Dist. Thaliparambu (Via)Leelamma Ph: 9495325522. Kannur Dist.Kannampadathil Ph: 04602245243.Karuvanchal P.O. Vinod Augustine email -Kannur (Dist) Kizhakkekara Kizhakkekara@gmail.comPh: 0460 245549. Paduppu Ph: 9447729474. Sankarampady P.O.Joseph Kizhakkekara Kasargod (Dist) Mini SabuNellippara P.O. Ph: 9947549990. KandavanamKannur Dist. Kozhichal P.O.Ph: 944699317 Dolly Shaju Payyannoor (Via)9747853025. Ittiyappara Kannur Dist. Ph: 8547245243. Kattippara P.O.Sunny Kozhikodu Dist. Annamma ChandyKizhakkekara Ph: 0495 2270541. Paikada,Pushpagiri,Alakodu P.O. Thaliparambu P.O.Kannur Dist. Beena Kunjumon Kannur (Dist)Ph: 0460 2255244 Viriammackal9400697692. Nadavayal P.O. Chinnamma Mathew Waynad Dist. NeerakkalMathew Ph: 04935279800. PodikunduKizhakkekara Pallikunnu P.O.Nellippara P.O. Kannur - 670004Kannur Dist Ph: 0497 2749928Ph: 0460 2255437. Mob: 9447372638.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 276. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 407Augusthy Itty ipe Jose Mathew Saly KuruvilaKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara PampackalKumpuckal Punnakunnu P.O. Punnakunnu P.O.Alanadu Anthinadu Kasarkodu Dist. Via ParappaP.O. Ph: 9562929487 Kasarkodu Dist.Palai Ph: 9495417054Ph: 04822 215801. Saju Mathew Kizhakkekara K.M. CherianK.I.Cherian Punnakunnu P.O. KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara Kasarkod Dist. Edamaruku P.O.Alakodu Ph: 9048163825 ErattupettaKalayanthany P.O. Ph: 04822 219361.Pin - 685 588. Tessy JossyPh: 04862 204112 Kizhakkekuttu Jose Cherian Pulinkunnu P.O. KizhakkekaraTony Mathew Purinakunnam VakakaduKizhakkekara Changanassery MelukavuAlakodu Ph: 9446932379. ErattupettaKalayanthani P.O. Ph: 9446922037Pin-685588 Jaya WilsonPh: 04862 204112 Pachapathiyil Mathew ChereianMob: 9961823620. Kalikadavu P.O. Kizhakkekara Pamkayam VannappuramTessy Benny Kasarkodu -Dist. ThodupuzhaKumbattuKaniaparambil Sr. Navya Sojan CherianAvoly P.O. D.S.T. Convent KizhakkekaraNadukara Bharananganam EdamarukuPh: 0485 2261259 Ph: 01122753326. Erattupetta.Lizy Roy Sr. Deepthy Gincy JoseThekkeManamkadathil Vimalalayam Convent PurayidathilAnchiri P.O., Chemperi Edamaruku P.O.Thodupuzha. Kannur Dist. MelukavuPh: 9745807301 Ph: 0460 2214148. Ph: 04822 291566Mercy Mathew Lilly Babu Mary AbrahamKizhakkekara Chirayil VarikayanickalKalchanadukam P.O. Kakkadavu P.O. Bharananganam P.O.Neeleswaram (Via) Kasarkodu Dist. PalaiKasarkodu Dist. Ph: 9747465804 Ph: 04822 237771.Ph: 04672 216072.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 277. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 408Ancy Joseph T.S. Mathew B.Sc Adv. Kishore ThomasNo. 5/464 Combar (Engg.) Kizhakkekarastreet Roshni House MattukattaSandavia Nagar Benedict Nagar Ayyappankovil P.O.Madurai - 20 Nalamchira P.O. Pin - 685507Ph: 09965869510. Trivandrum Ph: 04869 244246. Ph: 04712 531031.Lailamma Joseph Augustine JosephAzhathukarimpanackal T.S. Xavier (Baby) (Kuttichan)Aruvithura P.O. Thahatheveettil ThazhatheveettilErattupetta Mattukatta Mundanmudi PO.Ph: 04822 272674. Ayyappankovil P.O. Vannappruam (Via) Pin - 685 507 Thodupuzha,Cicily Mathew Ph: 04869 244273. Pin- 685 582.ThekkumkattilCheppukulam P.O. K.C. Sebastian Sebastian JosephThodupuzha Kizhakkekara (Devasiachan)Ph: 04862 271812. Thazhatheveettil Thazhatheveettil Poovarany P.O. Neeloor P.O.Sr. Kochuthressia Pin - 686577 Ph: 04822 221678.Kizhakkekara Ph: 04822 226997Kallupalam P.O. Thomas JosephIdukki,Ph: 9747395834 Shibu Sebastian (Thommachan) Kizhakkekara ThazhatheveettilLt. Conl. Ansamma Poovarani P.O. Neeloor P.O.Principal Matron Palai Ph: 04822 221711.M.H. Pattiala Mob: 9447022699Mob: 09815 492057. Mrs. Thankamma Biju Sebastian CherianThazhathuveettil Kizhakkekara 116-16th place Poovarani P.O. Camanche, I.A.T.C. Sebastian B.Sc Palai 52730.(Hons), Ph.D. Ph: 04822 226997 U.S.A.K5, Jawahar Nagar Ph: 001-319-259-Trivandrum K.C. Thomas 9330.Ph: 04712 324317. Kizhakkekkara Mattukatta Mrs. Elsy MathewT.S. Thomas, M.A., B.L. Ayyappankovil P.O. 33/8, Victoria RoadKizhakkekara Pin - 685 507 IIIrd Cross, XavierThazhatheveettil Ph: 04869 244246 LayoutKizhathadiyoor P.O. Bangalore, Pin -Palai 560042.Ph: 04822 212922 Ph: 0802 569776.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 278. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 409Jose Joseph (Shaji) K.S. George M.Sc. M.J. MathewKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara MoonumackalThazhatheveettil Kizhathadiyoor P.O. KaveekunnuVannappuram P.O. Palai Kizhathadiyoor P.O. Ph; 04822212558. PalaiMrs. Thresiamma Ph: 04822 214653.Antony(Theramma) Shajan SebastianKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara M.T. FrancisKizhathadiyoor, Palai Kizhathadiyoor P.O. MoonumackalPh: 04822 210358. Palai Kizhathadiyoor P.O. Ph: 04822 215925. PalaiProf. K.S. Sebastian Ph: 04822 215923.M.Sc. K.J. Jose(Kuttichan) Kizhakkekara, M.J. CherianKizhakkekara Thazhathuveettil KizhakkekaraKizhathadiyoor P.O. Kizhathadiyoor, Palai KunnukuzhyPalai Kothamangalam Ph: 04822 216442.Ph: 04822 212117. Ph: 0485 286007Dr. K.S. Jose M.B.B.S. K.J. SebastianD.L.O. Kizhakkekara Bose JosephKizhakkekara Thazhathuveettil KizhakkekaraOlamattom, Kizhathadiyoor, Palai MoonnumackalThodupuzha Ph: 04822210723. Arunapuram P.O.Ph:04862 222760 (R) PalaiE-mail K.J. Chereian Ph: 04822 211460.ksjose@vsnl.net.in KizhakkekaraMob: 9544768907. Temple Junction M.C. Joseph Poovarany P.O. KizhakkekaraSebastian Jose MArch Palai, MoonnumackalKizhakkekara Ph: 04822 225548. Arunapuram, P.O.Olamattom PalaiThodupuzha Joseph Ph: 04822 211460.Mob: 9847032049. (Ouseppachan) Kizhakkekara K.S. KathryAppu Jose IRS Moozhayil CharalilKizhakkekara Pannimattom P.O. OlamattomOlamattom Thodupuzha. ThodupuzhaThodupuzha 04862 223472.Ph: 8547000503.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 279. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 410Fr. Joseph Jomy George Mary GeorgeKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara VarakukalaparambilSDB Salatian Provin- Perichamkutty P.O. Parathodu P.O.cial of Delhi Murikassery (Via) KampilikandamAlakanda Idukki Dist. Idukki (Dist)N. Delhi Ph: 04868 260615. Ph: 04868 262692.Jose M.A. Alice Devassy Jose GeorgeKizhakkekara 39 Prospect Drive KizhakkekaraKoduveli P.O. Brentwood Perimchamkutty P.O.Thodupuzha Newyork, USA Via MurikasseryPh: 04862 264960. 0016312734371. Idukki Dist. Ph: 9444562604.Sebastian Ephream Zacharias. K. Varkey 04868 260610.Kizhakkekara 1820 Rock Side LaneKoduveli P.O. Snellville Atlanda Mini PaulThodupuzha. Georgia, 30078 USA Palliparambil Ph: 0017709827678. Vellathooval P.O.Karotteveettil Vimala City - 685 563 Gracy Sebastian Ph: 9556145424Mary Varkey Saueriamakal,SenapathyKizhakkekara Chinnar - Murikassery Mani VarkeyPerimchamkutty P.O. Perimchamkutty P.O. KizhakkekaraMurikassery, Idukki Idukki Dist. Pannimattom P.O.Dist.,Pin - 685 604. Via ThodupuzhaPh: 04868 260610. Lillykutty Thomas Idukki Dist. Plakoottathil Ph: 04862 276192.Maju George Vellikulangara P.O.Kizhakkekara Via. Kodakara K.M. JamesPerinchamkutty P.O. Thrissur Dist. KizhakkekaraMurikassery Via Ph: 0480 2741420. VettimattomIdukki (Dist) Kalayanthani P.O.Ph: 04868 260610. Rosamma Chacko Ph: 04862 276219. PulickamandapathilJaimy George Aiyeppencovil P.O. Sr. EmilyKizhakkekara Merikulam International MedicalPerichamkutty P.O. Idukki Dist. AssociationMurikkassery (Via) Ph: 04869 214239. Shenoy RoadIdukki Dist. Kaloor, Cochin 682017Ph: 04868 260615. Ph: 9539265138.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 280. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 411Jose K.M. Tessy Joy Elsy KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara Puthenveettil Christraj AdorationPanimattom P.O. Muhamma P.O. ConventThodupuzha, Idukki Alleppy Peruvanthanam(Dist) Idukki Dist.Ph: 04862 276192 Johny Joseph Bincy Kizhakkekara Kizhakkekara Adoration ConventAchamma Varghese Naliany, KoothattukulamAmanthuruthil Koovakandam P.O.Choorakodu Thodupuzha, Idukki K.V. ThomasKalladikodu (Dist) KizhakkekaraPalakadu Dist. Velliamattom P.O. Thomas Joseph Thodupuzha, Idukki (Dist).Lucy George Kizhakkekara Ph: 04862 275097.Kizhakkekara Pannimattom P.O.Pannimattom P.O. Thodupuzha George Thomas KizhakkekaraThodupuzha Velliamattom P.O.Ph: 04862 276390 George Joseph Thodupuzha. KizhakkekaraManu George Velliamattom P.O. Ancy SunnyKizhakkekara Thodupuzha. AlackalPannimattom P.O. Velliamattom P.O.Thodupuzha Jins Joseph Thodupuzha.Ph: 04862 276390. Kizhakkekara Velliamattom P.O. Mathew ThomasK.V. Joseph Thodupuzha KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara Velliamattom P.O. ThodupuzhaVelliamattom P.O. Bins JosephThodupuzha, Idukki Kizhakkekara Joby Thomas(Dist) Velliamattom P.O. KizhakkekaraPh: 04862 276919. Thodupuzha. Kallanickal P.O. ThodupuzhaJose Joseph K.V. JohnKizhakkekara KizhakkekaraThekkumthandu Velliamattom P.O.Rajapuram P.O. Thodupuzha, IdukkiMurikassery (Via) (Dist)Idukki (Dist). Ph: 04862 276926.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 281. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 412Elamthottam K.T. Ittycheria Priya Sobin Kizhakkekara Alappattukunnel Cherpunkal P.O. PlassanalGeorge Thomas Palai PanackapalamKizhakkekara House Ph: 04822 269505. Ph: 82129576129Near Elamthottamchurch, Dill Roy Fr. Briddu ChandhKizhathadiyoor P.O. Manayanickal (K.T. Joseph)Palai 686 575. Moolamattom P.O. KizhakkekaraMo: 9961671375. Idukki (Dist). Jabalpur Ph: 04862 252952. Ph: 09754565710.Mary JohnKattamkottil Dinu Prem Sr. Lussy MariaParapuzha P.O. A.1 - Mazroui Partners KizhakkekaraW- Kodikulam (Via) Post Box - 2035. Adoration ConventThodupuzha, Idukki Dist. Abudhabi, UAE NelliyaniPh: 04862 279192. Ph: 009715052130. Palai.Annamma George Deepu Cherian K.T. Mathew(Chinnamma) 8 Larges Walk KizhakkekaraC/o. P.J. Joseph Baguley ThenmaryPurayidathil Manchester Kalayanthani P.O.Chengalam P.O. M231 FW 685588Kottayam (Dist) Ph: 00447904267137. Ph: 04862 276405Ph: 04822 2894919. 9526588336 K.T. ThomasBriginamma George Kizhakkekara Shiny James(Valsamma) Kurumannu P.O. VandanakaraC/o. P.J. Joseph Via Palai Vandamattom P.O.Pulithookkil Ph: 04822 221033. ThodupuzhaUdumbannoor P.O. Mob: 9497320788 Ph: 04862 264304.KizhakkenpadamIdukki (Dist) Preena Joseph Mini PiousPh: 04862 272587. Kurikattuparayil Kuzhikannickal Marangoly PerumankandamThomson K.George Elanji P.O. NagapuzhaKizhakkekara PH: 9447867296 ThodupuzhaNear Elamthottam Ph: 04862 267666.ChurchKizhathadiyoor P.O.Palai,Ph: 984754358.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 282. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 413Alfin Eldo Sojan Joseph K.V. ThomasKulangattil Kizhakkekara KizhakkekaraMycadu P.O. Karimban P.O Kizhathadiyoor P.O.Kuriadu Idukki PalaiAngamaly Ph: 04862 230588 Ph: 04822 210958.Ph: 0484 2456660. Lovely James Jaison ThomasK.T. John Pazhayidathu KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara Cheenikuzhy P.O. Kizhathadiyoor P.O.Kuthirakal Thodupuzha PalaiMariapuram P.O. Ph: 9961708714. Ph: 04822 210958Idukki 9447409718Ph: 04862 235594. Johney JosephMob: 9446826928. Kizhakkekara Sr. Stella Maria Kangirappally P.O. Kizhakkekara S.A.B.S.Lillykutty Varghese Ph: 9495116581. Adoration ConventKizhakkekara Mammood P.O.Arunapuram P.O. Richard Joseph Kottayam Ph: 0481 2471097Palai KizhakkekaraPh: 04822 322494. Near Jairani School Sr. Treesa Thodupuzha Kizhakkekara S.A.B.S.Brighty George Ph: 9447066535. Adoration ConventElavumkal Kottayam Dist,Amparanirappel P.O. Laisa Shaji VazhappallyBharamamangalam Njaloor Ph: 0481 - 2420306Ph: 04822 272018. Edavetty P.O. Thodupuzha Sr. TessyPrince Ph: 04862 226429. Kizhakkekara S.A.B.S.Kizhakkekara Adoration ConventArunapuram Biji Prakash Ramankary P.O.Palai Madathil Alapuzha,Mob: 9048589877. Koduveli P.O. Ph: 0477 2707412. ThodupuzhaK.V. Joseph Ph: 9288076408. Dessy RajeshKizhakkekara KuzhippillilMariapuram P.O. Geo Joseph Muthalakodam P.O.Idukki Kizhakkekara Thodupuzha.Ph: 04862 235274. Mariapuram P.O. Idukki Ph: 9446132831○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 283. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 414K.J. George Tipsy Kizhakkekara Sr. Mary PreemaKizhakkekara Jose C.M.C.Thenmary 14 - Moredun - PL Carmel BhavanKalayanthani P.O. Philadelphia Post Box No. 68Thodupuzha Pa-19115 - USA Dimapoor, NagalandPh: 04862 276397. Ph: 0012673438975 Pin- 797112.Saliamma Mathew Jose Tijo Joseph Annamma SebastianThanathuparambil Flat No. 516 Block 1 VadakemangalathuPooyamkutty P.O. Wing - A - Funcity (Poweth)Kothamangalam Gloria Elikulam P.O., Paika, Sarjapur Road PalaiJohney George Bangalore 560035 Ph: 9249639299Kizhakkekara Ph: 09886677154Elamdesam P.O. Rosamma DevasiaThodupuzha Jobin John Jose KumplamkalPh: 04862 276122. 3/730 Kizhakkekara Arakulam P.O.Mob: 9447668363. Karimakkad Moolamattom Valiyakulam Road Mob: 9447496164.Shaji George Thrikkakara P.O.Kizhakkekara Cochin - 682 021 Varkey CherianThenmary Ph: 9495335762 KizhakkekaraKalayanthani P.O. Velliamattom P.O.Thodupuzha Baby John ThodupuzhaPh: 04862 276397. Kizhakkekara Ph: 04862 276388.Mob: 9446216557. Velliamattom P.O. Thodupuzha K. CyrilrajK.J. Jose Ph: 04862 276252. KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara Thadiampadu P.O.Velliamattom P.O. Jens Mathew IdukkiThodupuzha Kizhakkekara Ph: 04862 235991Ph: 04862 276101. Velliamattom P.O. Mob: 9447023506. ThodupuzhaTipsy Justeen Manuel CherianThudianplackal Mary Mani KizhakkekaraKizhathadiyoor P.O. Varkamackal Thopramkudy P.O.Palai Devarupara P.O. IdukkiPh: 04822 210914 Poochapra, Ph: 04868 264240 Velliamattom 9947573793 Ph: 04862 282098○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 284. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 415Laila Tomy Thankamma John Seenu HormisKizhakkekara Mammoottil MF 8/10, BDA FlatsThopramkudy P.O. Thenmary BTM 2nd StageIdukki Kalayanthani P.O. Bannerghatta RoadPh: 04868 264280. Thodupuzha Bangalore 560076. Ph: 04862 276308. Ph: 080 26688867.Tony CherianKizhakkekara Pennamma Jose K.I. ThomasThopramkudy P.O. Cheeramkuzhiyil KizhakkekaraIdukki Dist. Kizhathadiyoor P.O. Thenmari,Ph: 9847261581 Palai Kalayanthani P.O. Ph: 04822 210544. Thodupuzha, IdukkiJoy Cherian Dist.Kizhakkekara Pulimalakunnel Pin - 685588Velliamattom P.O. Ph: 04862 276135.Thodupuzha Dr. K.T. ThomasPh: 04862 276388 36 Norfordway Noble Thomas F.C.A.Mob: 9961823593. Bamford - Rochdale Kizhakkekara OL-11-5-QS Thenmari,Jocy mol K. Jose England Kalayanthani P.O.Kizhakkekozhiplackal Ph: 00441706344454. Thodupuzha - 685 588Koothattukulam P.O. Ph: 04862 276135Koothattukulam K.T. Joseph Mob: 9846046281.Ph: 0485 2251244 Kizhakkekara e-mail: Pulimalakunnel noblethomas@vsnl.com.Mary Kurian Kizhathadiyoor P.O.Thondical Palai Mary JamesAndoor P.O. Ph: 04822 215050. VarikamackalMarangattuppally, Kalayanthani P.O.Palai Nebu Joseph Thodupuzha 685588Ph: 04822 251123. 11,3rd Cross Ph: 04862 276467. Anugraha LayoutRosamma Thomas Near Presidency Gracy JoseJunjatte School ValiplackalAndoor P.O. Bileka Halli Road Erumapramattom P.O.Marangattupally Bangalore - 560076 Kottayam - 686 586.Palai Ph: 08026487225. Ph: 04822 291099.Ph: 04822 252294.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 285. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 416Celine George Simi Sabu Pachayil Mery JosephPanthiruvelil East Vazhappally PorunnolilKunnumbhagam - 686 Attayam, Kizhathadiyoor P.O.507, Kottayam Muvattupuzha Palai Ph: 0485 6419899Valsamma Louis Sr. Mery MelaniPallickamyalil Jose Cherian Yesunivas ConventElamdesom P.O. Kizhakkekara VazhathoppuThodupuzha -685588 Vandamattom P.O. Idukki Colony P.O.Ph 04862 276235. Vandamattom Idukki - 685 602. ThodupuzhaSr. Crelia Kizhakkekara Ph: 9645896162 Sr. SalesiaCluny Convent F.C. Convent11th Main 15th Cross Sachin K. Jose Chemperi P.O.Road Kizhakkekkara Kannur (Dist).Malleswaram Vandamattom P.O. Jessy TomBangalore - 560003. Thodupzuha Mamkoottathil Ph: 9400338855 PalaiK.I. George Ph: 04822 212685.(Varkeychan) Soumya KunjumonKizhakkekara Narithookil K.M.thomasKalayanthani P.O. (Anithottam) KizhakkekaraThenmary 685588 Paika, Poovarany P.O. Elamthottam,AnthinaduThodupuzha Palai, Kottyam Dist. P.O., PalaiPh: 04862 276307. Ph: 04822 225261 Ph: 04822 200299 9961741116 Mob: 9447293819.Sony GeorgeKizhakkekara K.I. Johny Rosly JoyKalayanthani P.O. Kizhakkekara KizhakkekaraThenmary 685588 Nellikunnu, Vayala ChoondacheryThodupuzha P.O., Kadaplamattom Vezhanganam P.O.Ph: 04862 276307 Kottayam. PalaiMob: 97446575104. Ph: 04822 251478 Ph: 04822 239218Email: sony.kizhakekara@gmail.com 9446757390 Mob: 9846178287.Suma Clement Sr. Mary Immaculate James Mathew (Baby)Mundackal FCC KizhakkekaraManchikkallu Clarist Convent Kizhathadiyoor P.O.Cheenikuzy P.O. Kannadiyurumbu PalaiPh: 04862 272195. Palai P.O. Ph: 04822 212540.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 286. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 417Mary Varghese Thomas Cherian Mercy PaulNathikattukandathil Kizhakkekara NadukudiyilPoovarani P.O. Pottenplavu Chunkakunnu P.O.Paika, Palai Kutianmala P.O. Iritty, Kannur (Dist)Ph: 04822 225273. Kannur (Dist). Ph: 09985603476. Ph: 0460 2218725.Laila Tomy Lissy GeorgeMeempallikkavil Mathew Cherian KaramayilKakkoor P.O. Kizhakkekara Nellikutty P.O.Kakkoor Pottenplavu Chembery,Kannur (Dist)Ph: 0485 2875398. Kutianmala P.O. Ph: 04602213286. Kannur (Dist)Joby Pulimana Ph: 9048596886. Cicily James(Kizhakkekara) Anna Skaria KunnappallilAnappara, Kochuvalanickal Ayarkunnam P.O.Manikadavu P.O. Poonjar Kottayam Dist. 686Iritty, Kannur (Dist). 564Ph: 0460 2217592 Jose Cherian Ph: 0481 - 2541218.Mob: 9497727215. Kizhakkekara Pottenplavu Sunny ThomasKochumattom Kutianmala Kizhakkekara Kannur (Dist) KochumattathilCherian Cherian Ph: 0460 2219498. Thalikundu P.O.Kizhakkedkara Thrissur.Pottenplavu Baby Cherian Ph: 0487 2317753Kutianmala P.O. KizhakkekaraKannur (Dist) Pottenplavu Joy ThomasPh: 0460 2218723. Kutianmala Kizhakkekara Kannur (Dist) KochumattathilManuel Cherian Ph: 9400618386 KizhakkenmattomKizhakkekara 04602218386. MarylandPottenplavu Ph: 04822 221109.Kutianmala P.O. Thressiamma SunnyKannur (Dist) Kaithapparambil Sabu ThomasPh: 0460 2218387 Nellikutty P.O. Kizhakkekara Chemberi Kochumattathil Kannur (Dist) Kizhakkenmattom Ph: 0460 2212916. Maryland,Kottayam (Dist),Pin - 686652 Ph: 04822 221109○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 287. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 418Baby Thomas Joy Thomas Sunimol MathewKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara KoottunkalKochumattathil Durgas P.O. Velliamattom P.O.Kizhakkenmattom Vellarikundu, Parappa ThodupuzhaP.O.,Ph: 9446758781 (Via),Kasargodu Dist. Ph: 04862 276329.04822 221109 Ph: 0467 2248100 Minimol SonySabu Thomas Tom Cyriac PanthiruvelilKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara Ponkunnam P.O.Kizhakkenmattom Kochumattathil Joseph CherianKizhakkenmattom Velliamattom P.O. KizhakkekaraPh: 04822 221109 Thodupuzha Kochumattathil9747765132 Kavakadu P.O. Lissy Joychan KalloorkkadBaby Thomas Ottathengungal Ernakulam (Dist).Kizhakkekara Pouis Mound P.O.Kochumattathil Melukavu Roy CherianKizhakkenmattom Ph: 04822 290179 KizhakkekaraP.O.,Palai (Via) KochumattathilMob: 9446758781 Tessy Tomy Velliamattom P.O.04822 221109 Mamkudiyil Thodupuzha Vadakode P.O.Sabu Thomas Vazhakulam Siby CherianKizhakkekara Ph: 0485 260359. KizhakkekaraKizhakkenmattom KochumattathilPh: 04822 221109 Kochurani Babu Velliamattom P.O.Mob: 9747765132. Thadavanal Thodupuzha Velliamattom P.O. Ph: 9446212205Deepu Thomas Thodupuzha George CherianBreneford Ph: -04862 276607 KizhakkekaraElectro Mechanical KochumattathilWorks Saly (Cicily) Benny Velliamattom P.O.L.L.C. Peedikackal ThodupuzhaP.O. Box. 122792 Kalayanthani P.O. Ph: 04862 276329Site 2001 ThodupuzhaSaeed Tower - 11 Ph: 04862 276620 K.T. AbrahamSheikh Zayed Road (Kunjukutty)Dubai, UAE KizhakkekaraPh: 0971507769389 Velliamattom,Thodupuzha Ph: 04862 276327.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 288. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 419Dony Abraham K.C. Joseph Joshy CherianKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara KizhakkekaraKochumattathil Kochumattam KochumattathilVelliamattom P.O. Kalayanthani P.O. Kalayanthani P.O.Ph: 04862 276327. Thodupuzha Thodupuzha Ph: 04862 276385. Mob: 9961708578.Dony K. Abraham6688 Mawson Ave Shanty Tomy Selly SajanReginask 54X214 Thonikuzhiyil PuthyadathuCanada. Kollappally Maryland P.O.,Palai Anthinadu P.O. Ph: 04822 221160.Diju Abraham Ph: 04822246026.Kizhakkekara Shibu CherianKochumattathil Shinto Joseph KizhakkekaraVelliamattom P.O. Kizhakkekara KochumattathilThodupuzha Kochumattathil Kalayanthani P.O.Ph: 04862 276327 Kalayanthani Thodupuzha Ph: 04862 276385. Ph: 9946615199Dona BabuNaikamparambil Rosamma Mathew Sheeba SabuMelukavu P.O. Thekkekara NjavarakkattuMaryland Avoly P.O., Kadavoor P.O.Ph: 04822 291318 Vazhakulam Ph: 04852 566311. Ph: 0485 260671.Dena Sibi K.P.ManuelPerumattathil Mary Thomas KizhakkekaraKallanickal P.O. Chennamkulathumoolayil KochumattathilThodupuzha Mannassery P.O. Kodumpidy P.O.,PalaiPh: 04862 225268 Mukkom, Calicut Ph: 0495 297321. Shanti GeorgeDinta Tomy Thattarayil,Kolencheril Shoby Cherian Velliappilly P.O.Neeleeswaram P.O. Kizhakkekara Ramapuram Ph: 04822 261431.Kottamam, Kalady KochumattathilPh: 0484 2463568. Kalayanthani P.O. 685 Sabu Manuel 588 Kizhakkekara Mob: 9446604337 Kochumattathil Kizhathadiyoor P.O., Palai Ph: 04822 210943.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 289. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 420Sr. Kabreena Tel + 1989 - 638-4283 Kuttiamma ThomasAdoration Convent Fax + 1989 -636-3495 KaniyakkattilSalom, Vadakara Mobile + 1989-492- Pottanplave P.O.(Via) Koothattukulam. 1685 Kudianmala Rsidence Cannore DistAlackal Kerala. Mrs. Usha ReddyK.C. Mani 606, Scenic Drive Annakkutty11-6-211 Midland PappachanPochamma bagh Michigan 48642 Paramundayil HouseSaroor Nagar Tel: 989-486-1028. MananthavadiHyderabad Waynad500035 (A.P). Capt. Shoba K. Mani KeralaPh: 04024046024, Managing Director 04935 - 323526Mob: 9676622736. Northeasern Shuttiles Mob: 9847484943. Reg. OfficeK.M. Cherian Surjya Road K.C. JosephVice President Agarthala (Appachan)G.E. (Money) Tripura Kizhakkekara AlakkalHI-TECH CITY Malom P.O.Hyderabad Admin. Office Parappa (Via)Mob: 09550557302 4th Lane Kasargod Dist Sukantha Nagar KerlaRani Sudhakar Jessore Road Ph: 9847169094Country Manager KolkathaNew India Assurance O33 - 25676277 Chinnamma ThomasCo. Ltd. Mob: 09163861126. Vattakkunnel HouseMakti City Malom P.O.Metro Manila Bindu Parappa (Via)Phillippines Chandrasekaran Kasargod Dist.Ph: 00639175095781. S. Chandrasekaran Kerala 603, A Wing Mob:9495650923Usha Singa Reddy Serinity HeightsHuman Resources Mind Space Mary JamesDirector Malad West Kodikkulath House(Polyurethanes) Bombay. Puthussery P.O.Dow Chemical Com- 022 40037226. Wayanad Dist.pany Mob: 9820146405. Kerala2040 Dowcenter Ph: 04938 235204Midland MI 48674 Mob: 9744795335.USA○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 290. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 421K.C. Kurian Rev. Sr. Ajay Mr. Manu MathewKizhakkekara Alakkal Notredam Academy KizhakkekaraPuthupariyaram P.O. Alberts Road Vengalloor,Thodupuzha Jamalpur BIHAR ThodupuzhaKerala Ph: 994714642. Jithu MathewRosamma Chacko Rev. Fr. Joseph KizhakkekaraUpputtil House Kizhakkekara Vengalloor,Kurinji St. Xaviers, Patna, Thodupuzha.Nellippara P.O. Bihar, Pin - 800011.(Via) Alakkode Mob: 919431023213 Dr. K.M. EmmanuelThalipparamba 0612227029, 226527 M.S.Kannur Dist. Kizhakkekara,Kerala Mr. Baby AnakkoodMob: 9747229033. Kizhakkekara Thodupuzha 4516, Brown Street, Pin - 685584Theyyamma Philip Union City,New Jersey Mob: 919447314492Chettisseriyil House 07087, USA 04862 225071Puthussery P.O. Ph: 001-201-865-4965. E-mailWayanad Dist. kmanuel@sanchnet.inKerala Mrs. Manju JamesPh: 0493 - 235205. Maliacal Mrs. Shalini Zacharia Apt. 1924 8181 Fanin St. ThudiyanplackalK.C. Joy Houston, TX 77054. KarimkunnamKizhakkekara Alakkal Ph: 04862 243330Puthussery P.O. Dr. Mrs. Annamma Mob: 9447754330.Waynad Dist. VinogradKerala State. 3065, Brighton 13, Nellimala BrooklynRev. Sr. Anima New York, 11235 USA Cherian MathewNotredam Convent Ph: 001-718-332 - KizhakkekaraJharkhand 2114. Pottassery P.O.Ph: 919470883278. Mannrcadu Mrs. Annie Mathew Mob: 9249114477Rev. Sr. Odile KizhakkekaraConvent of Jesus & Vengalloor P.O. K.C. JoseMary Thodupuzha KizhakkekaraCatholic Ashram Ph: 0486 - 229081. VadakummanamP.B.No. 35, MannarkadMob: 919428149262. Ph: 04924 222721.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 291. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 422Usha George Valsamma Mrs. Lucy FrancisErattapparambil Georgekutty,Alunkal ChunkappuraPayyanedam P.O. Bombay Mukku Mudappallor P.O.Mannarkad Kadumeny P.O. VadakkancheriPh: 04924 231231. Cherupuzha (Via) Palakad Dt. Ph: 04672220922. Ph: 0492 - 255789.Lisha CherianThalachira Kuzhiyil Benny Kizhakkekara Mrs. Lissy JohnsonKottoppadam P.O. Kavumthala MundattuchundayilMannarkad Thayyeni P.O. Mattikkal P.O.Ph: 04924 231181. Via Cherupuzha Vadakkancheri Ph: 0467 2222098 Thrissur Dt.K.J. Jose 9495679564 Ph: 0488 292260Kizhakkekara 9605999506.Near Good Shepherd Jemma AlexConvent Thattamparambil ManayanickalAmmathy P.O. Palai P.O.Kudaku (Dist), T.E. Thomas (Kunju) Ph: 04822 2215694Karnataka Kizhakkekara -Pin - 571211 Thattamparambil Maria JohnyMob: 09449688898 Moolamattom P.O. Mayamparambil Idukki Dt. Chittilamcheri P.O.Baby Kizhakkekara Ph: 04862 252531 Palakkad Dt.Kavumthala Ph: 0492 233006Thayyeni P.O. Joseph ThomasCherupuzha (Via) (Babychan) T.E. James B.Sc. Agri.Ph: 0467 2221682. Kizhakkekara - (Chackochan) Thattamparambil Kizhakkekara -Sunny Kizhakkekara Moolamattom P.O. ThattamparambilKavumthala Idukki Dt. Kayyalakkakom RoadThayyeni P.O. Ph: 04862 252531 Arunapuram P.O.Cherupuzha (Via). Kottayam Dt., Pin-Ph: 0467 22212268. Cyriac Thomas M.A. 686674. (Kuriachan) Ph: 04822 200484.Joymma Kizhakkekara - Email:Nettan Ozhukayil Thattamparambil kizhakekara@eth.net.Otakkolli Mudappalloor P.O.Palavayal P.O. Palakkad Dt.Cherupuzha (Via) Ph: 0492 - 260154,Ph: 9946574735. 9446237675.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 292. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 423Dr. Joseph James Eapen Jose B.Tech Mrs. LissammaM.D. Kizhakkekara Joseph1652, Hickory Bark Kurumannu P.O., Kalappurayil,Lane Palai Moolamattom,Bloomsfield Hill, Ph: 9447208847. Idukki Dt.Michingon (MI.) Ph: 04862 25253148304 U.S.A. Jacob JosePh: 001 -248-299- Jekob Designery Prof. Jose Joseph8789. No.10 Brundon Road Kizhakkekaraemail: josejam@ Bangalore - 25 Thattamparambilpol.net. Ph: 09886741841. Mundankal P.O. PalaiDr. Asha James I.A.S. Dr. Tom Jose Ph: 04822 213168.W/o. Vargheese Kizhakkekara Mob: 9745285738.Kochuvareed M.S. Kurumannu P.O.,Arackal Palai Josmon T. JoseThozhuthumparambil Ph: 9447676554. KizhakkekaraChelloor, Irinjalakuda ThattamparambilNRI Working in New Mrs. Anu Joseph B.Sc Mundankal P.O.York. (Fashion Tech.) Palai,Ph: 04822 213168 VellookkunnelDr. Anitha M.B.B.S. Aruvithura Bobby T. JoseD.M.R.D. Ph: 04822 272460. Boo 4W/o. Dr. Biju Thomas, Nagarguna Green23, Pearl Nagar Dr. Ponnu Jose WoodsPeroorkada P.O. Chandy House Kadveesana HilliTrivandrum-5, Chandy Lane Bangalore 103Pin- 695005. Trissur Ph: 09008006774.Jose Eapen (Jose) Mrs. Annamma Ressin Mary JoseKizhakkekara - Pallikkaparambil ChoovelikudyThattamparambil Mutholapuram P.O. 34/2227 B.Kizhakkanmattom Elanji, Pin - 686665. MamangalamP.O. Pottakuzhy RoadKurumannu, Sr. Columbiar M.A. Kallingal LaneKottayam Dt. Carmeilite Convent Palarivattom P.O.Ph: 04822 221034. Mutholly, Palai. Cochin - 682025 Sr. Lucina B.Sc, M.Ed Ph: 0484 - 2341356. Adoration Convent Koothattukulam.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 293. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 424Sr. Lidya S.D. Ivan K. Joseph Mary MathewAshnilayam Kizhakkekara KizhakkekaraReddpalam Kizhathadiyoor P.O. Elamakkara P.O.Mughalchirala P.O. Palai Cochin - 682026.Dasaipett (Via) Mob: 9846764410.Warrangal Roy MathewA.P. 506006 Gimmy K. Joseph Cochin RubberPh: 07152 287829. Kizhakkekara Complex Kizhathadiyoor P.O. Industrial Develop-Sr. Gerard CMC Palai ment Area, Edayar,Carmelite Convent Ph: 9447506637 Cochin - 683502Cherpunkal P.O. Ph: 0484 3252401Palai. Celine Thomas Mob: 9388457111. KizhakkekaraAbymon T. Jose Muttom P.O. Mrs. Raji VargheseC.T.S. MPEZ Pin - 685587 (Raji)Pambaram Ph: 04862 255124. Parepally Veedu,Sanatorium Elamakkara P.O.Chennai 45 Mrs. Moncy Jijo Cochin - 26.Ph: 09600039466. Thomas (Moncy) Mrs. Mary ZhachariahEenthunkal Moozhayil House M.L.G. 50, K.H.B.Pakuthiyil..... Puthanpallikkunnu P.O. Colony Palai R.S. Naidu Nagar,Mrs. Leela Michael Ph: 04822 210491. N.R. Mohalla,561, Mysore - 570007Irinjalakkudakkaran Mrs. Dalia Benjamin Phone: 0821 2490159.Veedu (Dalia)Mission Quarters, Kallunkal, Mr. John ZachariahThrissur - 5. Kaloor, Ernakulam M.I.G. 50, K.H.B. Ph: 0484 2341979. ColonyMrs. Omana Jose, R.S. Naidu Nagar,561, Ani Tomson Thomas N.R. MohallaIrinjalakkudakkaran (Ani) Mysore - 570 007,Veedu Kizhakkekara IndiaMission Quarters, Muttom P.O. email:Thrissur - 5 Pin - 685587 johnzac59@hotmail.comPh: 04842 392112. Ph: 04862 255124. anilapat@gmail.com Mob: 9387955124 0821- 2490159. Mob: 09845118850.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 294. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 425Dr. Elzy Mrs. Annu Vasu George MammenTharamangalam Panicker (Annu) Kizhakkekara House254 Langbra Drive Green Acres NettadukkamHalifax, Nova Scotia Belawadi Village KanjangaduB3S 1K4 CANADA Sreerangapattanam Kasarkodu Dist.email: etharamangalam Taluk@yahoo.ca Mandya Dt. Dr. George Mammenjoc.tharamangalam@gmail.com Karnataka State M.A. Ph.D.Ph: 001-902-4451761. Mobile: 9243511936. Associate Professor, Dept. of HindiProf. K.V. Joseph Mrs. Cicily George B.Sc St. Pius 10th College(Iype) M.Sc. (Chichu) Rajapuram P.O.Door No. 12, Ann Villa 135, Lily White, Kasarkode Dt.Behind Ganesh Subash Nagar Pin - 671532.Temple N.R. Mohalla Ph: 04672 202481N.R. Mohalla, Mysore Mysore. Mob: 9447650356- 570007. 9495183805.Phone: 0821 - K.V. Mammen,2494298. Ragam Roy Mammen Kizhakkekara House 36552, Nettles CI.,George Joseph (Joju) Challlavayal, FREMONT, CA 94536B.E, Muttom P.O. USAAsraya, H. No. 56, Thodupuzha (Via) Ph: 881-510-794-Eastern Villas Pin - 685 587. 7962,Near T.V. Centre, Ph: 04862 255170 M. 001-408-439442.Kakkanad, Mob: 9447543372. e-mail:C8E2, Cochin roymammen@gmail.comPh: 0484 2427167. Mini Chacko, Eden Integrated Device PuthenveettilMrs. Lizzy Cyriac Annankunnu Road Joseph K. CherianM.Sc. (Lizzy) Kottayam-Pin 686001 (B.Sc Engg.)Anugraha Ph: 04812 585811 179 High Gate DriveR.S. Naidu Nagar Mob: 9447058581. MarkhamMysore - 570 007 OmtarioPh: 0821 2496039. Dr. Mini Chacko M.Sc Canada M.Phil. Ph.D email: Associate Professor, cherianj@interiog.com Dept. of Botany Ph: 001-905-904-1263 CMS College Kottayam - 686001○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 295. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 426Sanjay Cherian Praphu Eapen B.Tech Mrs. Philomina Baby8, Font Hill USA Mathew (Valsa)Blvd Markham Email: Pittappally BuildingsOntaria praphueapen@gmail.com Near SNDP SchoolL3RHNI Ph: 001-914-3801221 Muvattupuzha 686661Ph: (416) 987 -1707, Tel: 09495564034.(905) 604-1707 Sr. Joseline St. Josephs Matric Mrs. Puspha JoseK.J. Jose School Poovathinkal HouseKizhakkekara Peramballoor, Varantharappally P.O.Lalam Jn. Thrisinappally ThrissurPalai Tamil Nadu Tel: 0480 2760062. Ph: 04328 - 209010.Ph: 04822 212741. Mrs. Molamma Tomy P.M. MathewDhanya Jose Kizhakkekara House Pinamarukil House9, Hill Field Close Kizhathadyoor Paika P.O.Guildford Palai Tel: 04822 225491.U.K. Tel: 04822 213385.Gul 2ur Prof. MathewPh: (O) 1483511677 Mrs. Celine Jose Matheikal Padathil House Matheikal HouseVineeth Jose MBA Karikode, Thodupuzha PuliyanoorHDFC Bank Tel: 09820826773. PalaiPalai Tel: 04822 205361. KizhakkekaraKaitholil Kaitholil Vallippara Rev. Dr. GeorgeKottamkode........ Branch... Kaitholil Society of St. PaulMrs. Leelamma Eapen K.I. Thomas Bandra, BombayNedungadan (Mamachen) Tel: 07738179221.Residency,Apartment Kizhakkekara,Vallippara email:12C,Chittoor Road, Ellumpuram P.O. gkaitholili@gmail.comKacheripady ThodupuzhaCochin - 682018 Tel: 04862 255152. K.V. MathewTel: 0484 390587 (Mathachen)Dr. Saji Eapen Mrs. Mariamma Kizhakkekara KaitholilUSA Joseph (Gracemma) Mele Kalikavu P.O.Email: Kachiramattom Malappuram Dt.sajieapen@gmail.com Arakulam P.O.,Idukki Dist. Tel: 04931257284.Phone:0018657699251 Tel: 04862 252463. Mob: 9496405841○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 296. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 427Mrs. Aleyamma Cyriac Kizhakkekara Kaitholil(Laly) Kuttikkattu......... MuvattupuzhaPakalomattom BranchThozhuthumkal Sr. Benceci(Kizhakkekara House) Clarist Convent Thomaskutty And Alice Peruvanthanam P.O.Vallippara Ellumpuram P.O. Alappatt Mundakayam 971 Windmill PKWYSr. Anu Kizhakkekara Tel: 04869 - 280276. Evans, GA 30809C.M.C. Convent,Palai Sr. Mary Kizhakkekara USA Clarist Convent Email:Kizhakkekara Kaitholil Peruvanthanam P.O. aalapatt@mail.mcg.eduMangalam dam.. Mundakayam Ph: 001-706-210- Tel: 04869 280276. 8790,Jose Kizhakkekara 001-706-210-3088,Kizhakkekara House Mrs. Anice Mathew 001-706-461-2138,Karimkayam P.O. (Annie) 001-706-877-9991.Mangalam Dam PoovathinkalPalaghat Dist. Pin - Thattakuzha P.O. Ansmaria678 706. OlicaMattom 685581. KizhakkekaraPh: 09446241464. Tel: 04862 262642. Carmelite Conventemail: bjkizhakkekara Thiruvampady, Mrs. Thresiamma Mukkam,Calicut@yahoo.co.in Issac (Kunjamma) Email: Neerampuzha House sr.annsmaria@gmail.comChinnamma Vazhakulam P.O. Ph: 9037704134.KizhakkekaraAnnamma Joseph Tel: 0485 2260386. Aphrem KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara House 3311 Leffingwell CourtKarimkayam P.O. Claramma Lonachen Ashland, KY 41102Mangalam Dam Chandrankunnel USAPalaghat Dist. Pin- 28/3182 St. Marys Email-09495524397. Sunoro Church Road faphrem@vt.edu Elamkulam Ph: 001-606-694-1894 Kochi - 682020 001-606-324-3491. Tel: 0484 2310658 Mrs. Rosamma George Kizhakkekara House Edappally Muttom P.O. Ph: 04862 255675.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 297. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 428Celine Kizhakkekara Kochuthressia 0043- Sebastian213 New Petersburg 6608174511. KizhakkekaraDr. Ph: 0485 2 833979 759 Echo RoadApt: C Charleston, WVMartinez, GA 30907 Tejo (Francis) 25303USA Kizhakkekara USAemail: Urselbrunnengasse Email: 17/4/48celinefrancis83@yahoo.com dr.skfrancis@gmail.comPh: 001-706-925-4971 1100 Wien, Austria Ph: 001-304-277-7094001-706-394-5990. Email: Office: 001-303-388- francistejo@hotmail.com 6004.Claramma Ph: 0043 699Kizhakkekara 10640838 Sijo KizhakkekaraKizhakkekara House 9 Adna RoadKuzhimattom Road, Mathew Kizhakkekara Bristol, CT 06010 USAMuvattupuzha East Perfekta Strasse 6-8/ email:Ernakulam Dt. 2/21 sijirina@comcast.net686661. 1230 Wien, Austria Ph: 001-860-581 0910Ph: 0485-2-33979. Email: 001-860-540-3998 mathew.kizhakkekara@chello.at 001-860-237-2811George Kizhakkekara Ph: 001-431-9430121Charlotte, NC Sr. Seraphiaemail: Paul Kizhakkekara Kizhakkekarageorgekizl@yahoo.com Breitenleer Strasse Provincial HousePh: 001-704-544-2282 52/9 Thiruvampady P.O.001-704-970-8044 1220 Wien, Austria Kozhikode Dt. 673603.001-704-252-4704 Email: pkizhakkekara Ph: 0495 -2252052.Jaya Kizhakkekara @yahoo.co.inCarmelite Convent Ph: 001-431-2311561 Thomas KizhakkekaraThiruvampady P.O. 001-431- Bottminger Strasse 9Ph: 0495 -2-2252052. 69911301941. 4102 Binningen Basel, SwitzerlandJose Kizhakkekara Savio Kizhakkekara email:Kizhakkekara House Marys Good News thomasaniy@yahoo.comKuzhimattom Road West Kodikulam P.O. Ph: 001-41614218465Muvattupuzha East 685582. 001-41-796698792Ernakulam Dt. Ph: 04862 279416. 001-41-762513019Pin - 686 661 Fr. James 944-email: josekizl@ 7814748yahoo.com Sr. Vineetha 944-Ph: 9745369948 7132488.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 298. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 429Tessy Kurian Palaghat Dt. Eapan K.K.(Kizhakkekara) Ph: 04924238362. Kizhakkekara House,Naglikonerweg 9, AU, 9447622476 Kanhirapuzha P.O.ZH CH 04924 - 210315. Palakkad - 678 591Switzerland, Europe Ph: 9496354216Email: tessy K.M. Kuriakoseki@hotmail.com (Joychan) Thomas MathewPh: 0041786101466. Kizhakkekara (Tomy) Irumpakachola P.O. Kizhakkekara House,Vincent Thanchan Palaghat Dt. Kanhirapuzha P.O.15 Willow Road Ph: 04924 238262 Palakkad - 678 591Bacon, NY 12508 9446235662. Ph: 04924 - 238997,Email: 210314, Mob: 9447622478kottekad@hotmail.com Deepu K.K. Web:Ph: 001-845-440- Flat No. 116 www.fruitcounty.in,6053. E Block www.farmtourism.in Federal Park email:tomyorganicfarmer@gmail.comDr. Antony Vennala email:tomykzk@gmail.comKizhakkekara (Sajo) Cochin 682028Baron Karlgasse 10/3/ Ph: 9895076776 Anna Thomas33 Email:kkdeepu Kizhakkekara House,A-1100 Vienna, @gmail.com Kanhirapuzha P.O.Austria Nisha Deepu Palakkad - 678 591Europe Ph: 9995803232 Ph: 07502385089Email: Email: deepunisha Email:annadivyathomasanotny.kizhakke@yahoo.de @gmail.com @gmail.comPUTHENPURACKAL Arun K.K. Mammen Thomas Triassic Solutions Pvt. Kizhakkekara House,Mrs. Annakutty Ltd. Kanhirapuzha P.O.Mathew Plot No.2, Leela Palakkad - 678 591Kizhakkekara Infopark Ph: 9400738997Irumpakachola P.O. Technopark Campus Email:mammenthomasKanjirapuzha Kazhakkoottam @gmail.comPalaghat Dt. TrivandrumPh: 04924238262 Ph: 9895589059 K.M. Mathew(Mathachan) Email: KizhakkekaraJoseph mathew arunkizhakkekara irumpkachola P.O.(Kuttichan) @gmail.com Palaghat DT.Kizhakkekara Ph: 04924 238262.Kanjirapuzha P.O. 9744445950.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 299. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 430Lawrance Mathew Jemmy Joseph PuthenpurackalKizhakkekara Busines Development Kizhathadiyoor P.O.Irumpakachola P.O. Manager Palai 686 575Palaghat Dt. Lifestyle Ph: 04822 212267.Ph: 04924 238262, Land Mark Retail Ltd.210431 Industrian Area, Chinnamma Thomas09442525194. Jabelali Varickamakal UAE, Dubai Pazhayannoor.Mrs. Rajamma Joseph Ph: 971509690149.(Rajamma) LalyKizhakkekara Sophy Thomas W/o. Dr. P.D. JosephKanjirapuzha P.O. Kizhakkekara PlakoottamPalaghat Dt. Puthenpurackal Karimba P.O.Pin- 678591 Kizhathadiyoor P.O. EdakurrissyPh: 04924 238234. Palai - 686 575 Palakkadu Ph: 04822 212267. Ph: 04924 243702Sunny JosephKizhakkekara Dr. Eapen Thomas MollyKanjirapuzha P.O. A.C.E. Dental Special- W/o. Advt. GeorgePalaghat Dt. ity Clinic PulikanPin - 678 591 Holy Family Complex Aruvithura P.O.Ph: 04924 238434. Kanjikuzhi, Erattupetta9847038434. Kottayam - 4. Ph: 04822 273663. Ph. 0481Sunny Joseph 2573179(Clinic) Mrs. Vimala FrancisGreen Valley Oils 2570323( Res) W/o. Francis K. JohnIrumbakachola P.O. Mobile: 09447157317 Kattoor Assissi HouseKanjirapuzha, Nedumkunnam P.O.Palaghat Dt. Jacob Thomas Kottayam Dt.Pin - 678 591 Software EngineerPh: 04924 238743. Origin Information Emily Sebastian Techonology India Ltd. W/o. Sebastian K.Siby Joseph M.Com, Aman House, Plot No. DominicM.B.A. 103 Kurisummoottil HouseVani Gardens House Road No. 12, MIDC Chittady P.O.No. 29 (MAROL) KanjirappallyCheranchira P.O. Andheri East,Changanacherry, Mumbai - 93. ManjuKottayam Dt. Tom K. Thomas W/o. BijuPh:9447249214 B.C.A. Kannikatt House Kizhakkekara○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 300. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 43139/2888, K.S.N. Kanjirapuzha P.O. Changanacherry -Menon Road, Palaghat Dt. 686104.Ernakulam, Cochin - Ph: 04924 238318.16 Mob: 9961251852. Ancy W/o. JosephPin - 682 016. Zachariah Advt. K.T. Thomas Kootumkal HouseK.T. Mathew (Kunju LLB KizhakkanmattomMatha) Kizhakkekara P.O.,MelukavumattomKizhakkekara Irumbakachola Pin - 686 652Vellathodu, Kanchirapuzha Ph: 04822 291083Irumpakachola P.O. Palghat (Dist)Kanjirapuzha, Palghat Ph: 04924 238435 BetsyDt. Mob: 9447778435. W/o. Mathew JohnPh: 04924 238539. Palathara George Thomas NellimattomThomas Mathew Kizhakkekara Pareekkanni P.O.(Thommachan) Irumbakachola KothamangalamKizhakkekara Kanjirapuzha Pin - 686 693.Irumpakachola P.O. Palaghat (Dist)Palaghat Dt. Ph: 9447255135. RincyPh: 0492 4238743 W/o. Jose V. VarkeyMob: 9446727730. Tony Thomas Vadakkamcherry Kizhakkekara Anappara P.O.Siby Mathew Irumpakachola P.O. Manjapra, AngamalyFlat No. 303 Kanjirapuzha Ph: 0484 2694848.Team Heritage Palaghat Dt.3363 A1/42 Ph: 04924 238253, Aleyamma Vijayan2nd Corss 13th Main 238574 (Kunjaamma)Hal2nd stage Email: tt@vsnt.com W/o. A.J. VijayanIndira Nagar tonythomas@yahoo.com MythreeBangalore - 560008 Ph: 9447058253. TC/937, Ashan NagarPh: 09741244001. Vallakadvu P.O. Sr. Bennet F.C.C. ThiruvanthapuramEapen Thomas Deepthi Bhavan Ph: 0471 2505506.(Eappachan) Provincial House Email:Kizhakkekara Mananthavady - vinodvij@hotmail.com 670645 Sakhi@md2vsnl.net Sr. Alma Kizhakkekara Deepa Louis Medical Mission Sisters 4507, Palmetto Street Ayusha Veroor, Ballaire○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 301. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 432Texas 77401 Kurumannu P.O. Kanjirapuzha,PalaghatUSA Kottayam Dt. Dist. Pin - 678 591Ph: 001-713-664-3311 Ph: 04822 221270. 04924 238232Email: Mob: 9847032804anthony@ktinet.com Jose T. Kizhakkekara Email: (Josemon) vivekgm@gmail.comK.J. Mathew Kizhakkekara House Kurumannu P.O. Mrs. Accamma Paul(Mathappan) Kottayam Dt. Kannanpilli HouseKizhakkekara Kanjirapuzha P.O.Kanjirapuzha P.O. Ph: 04822 221270 Palaghat Dt.Palaghat Dt. Pin - 678591Ph: 04924238222 Mini Tomy Cherkottu House Ph: 0492 - 4238241 Arakuzha P.O. email:Eapen Mathew B.Tech Muvattupuzha paulaccamma@yahoo.com7909, Country Ridge Ph: 04852 255043Plano, Mrs. ThressiammaTexas- 75024 Molly Sabu VarkeyUSA Mannoor House KizhakkekaraPh; 001-972-208-7085 Vakakkadu P.O. Edayadiyil,email: Ph: 04822 286265. Velathussery P.O.eapenjmathew@aoi.com Theekoy Dr. Mathew Mathew Ph: 04822 280192.Jose Kurian (Joychan) M.B.B.S. D.L.O. (Mathachan) MariaKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara W/o. MathewKurumannu P.O. EdayadiyilKottayam Dt. Kanjirapuzha P.O. Palaghat - Dt. Velathussery P.O.Ph: 0482 2221231 TheekoyMob: 9447140287 Pin - 678 591 Ph: 04924 238232 Ph: 0482 2280192 Mob: 9447973232 Mob: 9947264093.Rev. Fr. Joseph email:Kizhakkekara dr_mmathew@rediffmail.com Mary JosephVicar, St. Thomas Mr. Vevek George MaliakkalForane Church Mathew MavidaThudanganadu, Kizhakkekara Ph: 04822 213081.ThodupuzhaPh: 04862 255031. Kunjamma W/o. MathewK.J. Thomas(Thommachan)Kizhakkekara House○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 302. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 433Mathekkal Chengalam ChengalamArakuzha Koorali P.O. Koorali P.O.Ph: 0485 - 256799, Ponkunnam Ponkunnam255006. Pin - 686 522 Mob: 9995971756 Mob: 9526705750.Mrs. Rosamma SallyMathew Sabu Jose W/o. JoyKizhakkekara Kizhakkekara OdakkalMoolamattom Moolamattom Mundankal P.O.Pin - 685589 Ph: 04862 252545. Pin - 686 574Ph: 04862 252714. Ph: 04822 210672 K.M. George (Benny) Mob: 9846764522Rosy Joseph KizhakkekaraKadumthode Veedu Moolamattom SoniaUpputhara P.O. Ph: 04862 252714. W/o. JojoPin - 685 505 Mob: 9495790545 CheruthottathilPh: 0486 344394. Sunny Jose Pious MountK.V. Jose (Joppy) Kizhakkkekara KurumannuKizhakkekara Ph: 9495215735○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 303. 434