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i Ing-t°-°cIpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
iiName of the BookKizhakkekara Kudumbacharithram(History of Kizhakkekara Family)WrittenMalayalam       K.T. Thomas, Mob: 9...
iii            ka¿∏Wwc‡w hnb¿∏m°n cm]-Iset∂y A≤zmn®v,   ∑-bpsS hnØp-Iƒ hnX-®p-sIm-bvXv,-IpSpw-_sØ imtJm-]-im-J-I-fm°n hf¿Ø...
iv            Xmfp-Iƒ adn-°p-tºmƒ....1    Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_ ]cn-]m-e--tbmKw     12    Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmK n_-‘-Iƒ      5...
BapJw                                               {io.sI.-‰n.-tXm-akv                                                   ...
]≠v Xo≠epw sXmSoepw hfsc Bg-Øn¬ thtcmSn PmXn-hy-hÿ ne-n-∂n-cp∂ ImeØv ]mem tahn-S, ao-®n¬ {]tZ-isØCS-{]-`p-°ƒ tIm´bw aW¿ImS...
Xnb {KŸw C√m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ B[n-Im-cn-I-amb Cu {KŸw Fgp-Xp-hm≥ ap°v Ct∏mƒ km[n-°p-I-bn√. hn⁄m--Zm-ln-bpwB¿÷n® Adnhv hcpw-X-e...
hfsc {ia-Icamb Cu DZy-aØn¬ sX‰p-Iƒ hcm-Xn-cn-°m≥                  - -               -Ign-hns‚ ]c-am-h[n {ian-®n-´p-≠v. {]n...
]q¿∆n-I-cpsS ]pWyw                                    s{]m^. tPmkv tPmk^v                                                 ...
Xma-kn-∏n-s®∂pw ]d-bp-∂p. BbXn-m¬ Ah¿ Fd-tIm∂n am∏n-f-am¿ F∂v Adn-b-s∏-´-Xmbpw ImWp-∂p.           ]mem hen-b-]≈n ÿm]nX-amb...
IpSpw-_-tbm-K--S-Øn-∏n¬ ad-°m-m-hmØ ]¶p-h-ln® al-Xvhy-‡n-Isf Cu Ah-k-c-Øn¬ kvacn-°p-∂p.- Ip-Spw-_-N-cn-{X-Ønse ]g-b-Ime {]...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  1              Ing-t°-°c        IpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  2_mw-K-ß-fpsS hcn-kw-Jy-bn-eq-sSbpw DZm-c-a-Xn-I-...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  3߃°pw tXrXzw evIn-bn-cp∂ sI.-sF.-sXm-Ω≥ {]kn-U‚m...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  4          2011-˛¬ IpSpw-_-tbmKw Bcw-`n-®n´v qdv ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  5                      Ing-t°-°c              IpS...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  6     F∂m¬ bmsXmcp AwKhpw {]Xn-amk Xh-W-I-fn¬ IpS...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  7     cn®v sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠Xpw At±lw B tbmK-Øn¬ am{...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  8    Xpeyambncp-∂m¬ {]kn-U‚ns‚ ImÃnwKv thmt´m-Sp-...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  9    hln-t°-≠Xpw Ah Ahcn¬n∂v s]mXp-hmtbm {]tXy-I-...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 10sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Ccp-]-sØm∂p hb-€p-≈ 11 sNmdn-bmpw Sn ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 11       ΩpsS IpSpw- _ - ß - f n¬ {Zhy- ° p- d - h...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 12W-sa∂p hnNm-cn-°p-hmtm IqSp-hmtm Bh-iy-an-√m-ØXp...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 13Sp-°bpw Aßs hmßp∂ {]am-W-߃ Cu tbmK-Øn-te°pth≠nb...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 14CHAPTER - 1      KIZAKKEKARAS OF PALAI (KERALA) ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 15K.I.Varkey B.Sc.,B.Ed,. on 15-12-1972 for the ab...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 1618. Agusthy, S/o Thomman                  - Peed...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 17CHAPTER - 2THE HISTORY OF THE KIZHAKKEKARAS OF P...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  18      Out of a fraction of the group which move...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 19The lad was from Vadakkum Manakkal Illam. Thomma...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  208,3sons and 5 daughters.At the time of writing ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  21       "The pillars of the sky were destroyed, ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 22NOAHS DESCENDANTS      The Bible records that du...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 232000 BC.      All tribal dialects spoken in Afri...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 24realisation that we are all from the same family...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                  25of 31 kings and annexing their kingdom.       T...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 26ecute the prophets who warned them of their evil...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                   27temple of Jerusalem, and putting an end to the...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 28years, about 24/or 12 generation would have emer...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 29An explanation about Afghan pathans :-       It ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 30the star of David in their houses. The presence ...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 31St. Thomas came to india on two occations.      ...
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 32                                          ...
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○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 38                                          ...
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Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 40   Ingt°°c IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw       10-˛mw q‰m≠p ap...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 41tbip-hn¬ hniz-kn-°p∂ {kmWn sXm´m¬ Aip-≤am-bXpw i...
Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw                                                 42_‘-߃ XpS¿∂v ne-n¿Øp-∂-Xnv XS-€-am-bn-cp-∂p.    ...
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Official Book

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Official book of Kizhakekara kudumbam.

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Transcript of "Official Book"

  1. 1. i Ing-t°-°cIpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  2. 2. iiName of the BookKizhakkekara Kudumbacharithram(History of Kizhakkekara Family)WrittenMalayalam K.T. Thomas, Mob: 9447139489English K.C. Mani, Mob: 09542029226Editorial BoardChief Editor: K.T. ThomasSub EditorsJohney GeorgeDr. Jose FrancisK.V. MammenK.C. ManiPublished on: 08.10.2011Published by:The President & SecretaryKizhakkekara KudumbayogamKizhathadiyoor P. O.PalaD.T.P. & Lay Out & PrintingPrintech Multi Color Press,ThodupuzhaPh: 227191President : Prof. Jose JosephSecretary: K.T. ThomasFor Private Circulation only
  3. 3. iii ka¿∏Wwc‡w hnb¿∏m°n cm]-Iset∂y A≤zmn®v, ∑-bpsS hnØp-Iƒ hnX-®p-sIm-bvXv,-IpSpw-_sØ imtJm-]-im-J-I-fm°n hf¿Øn hmKvZm--tZ-i-tØbv°v t]mb ]q¿∆o-I¿°v Cu IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw ka¿∏n-°p-∂p.
  4. 4. iv Xmfp-Iƒ adn-°p-tºmƒ....1 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_ ]cn-]m-e--tbmKw 12 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmK n_-‘-Iƒ 53 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_ ]cn-]m-e DS-ºSn 94 Kizhakkekaras of Palai (Kerala) 145 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw 406 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_w 517 X´m≥]-d-ºn¬ imJ 538 Cu¥p-¶¬ ]IpXn imJ 659 Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ imJ 9110 ]pØ≥]p-c-°¬ Xd-hmSv 15011 ]oSn-I-bn¬ IpSpw_w 18512 ]oSnI ssIXh-b-en¬ 20713 Be-°¬ IpSpw_w 24314 Ingt° Be-°¬ hmI-bm-n-bn¬ imJ 24715 hmIm-n-bn¬ Iqºp-°¬imJ 25116 ]Sn-™msd Be-°¬ hmIm-n-bn¬ imJ 26317 hmIm-n-bn¬ s√n-ae imJ 27118 hmIm-n-bn¬ sIm®p-a-‰-Øn¬ imJ 27519 Be-°¬ imJ 29320 Ing-t°-°c Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ IpSpw_w Cfw-tXm-´-Øn¬ h¿°n 31521 ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ Xmsg sXmΩ≥ sshZy≥ 32722 Itcm-t´-ho-´n¬ imJ 34923 Xmg-tØ-ho-´n¬ imJ 35524 A{U€v 398
  5. 5. BapJw {io.sI.-‰n.-tXm-akv sk{I-´dn Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbm-Kw, ]me ‘kvacW Ah-ti-jn-∏n-°msX ad-™p-t]m-b-h-cp-≠v, Pohn-°p-Itbm Pn-°p-I-t]m-eptam sNbvXn-s√∂v tXm∂p-amdv Ah¿ a¨a-d-™p, F∂m¬ Ah¿ Imcp-Wy-ap-≈-h-cm-bn-cp-∂p, Ah-cpsS kXv{]-h¿Øn-Iƒ hnkva-cn-°-s∏-´n-√, Ah-cpsS sFizcyw ]n≥Km-an-I-fnepw Ah-cpsS Ah-Imiw a°-fpsS a°-fnepw ne-n¬°pw, Ah-cpsS `mhn-X-e-ap-d-Iƒ Ft∂bv°pw ne-n-ev°pw.’ Ch hnip- ≤ - { K- Ÿ - Ø nse {]`m- j - I s‚ hm°p- I - f mWv .ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Ønepw Cu hm°p-Iƒ°v hf-sc-b-[n-Iw {]m[m-y-ap-≠v. BIm-i-Ønse Xmcm-K-W-ßfpw Bgn-bnse aW¬Ø-cn-I-fpw-t]mse FÆn-bm¬ Xocm-Ø-hn[w Zn-cm-{X-߃ h∂p-t]m-Ip-∂p. EXp°ƒ amdn-h-cp-∂-Xp-t]mse Xe-ap-d-Ifpw amdp∂p. kqcy-N-{µ-∑m¿ hen-°p∂ ka-bcYØnse kl-bm-{Xn-Icmb mw `qan-bnse - - - -G‰-hpw hnin-jvS-amb IpSpw_w F∂ kvtls]mbvI-bn¬ ocm-Sp∂ Ac-b-∂-ß-fm-Wv. 2011 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Øns‚ Ncn-{X-Ønse mgn-I-I-√m-Wv. IpSpw-_-tbmKw AXns‚ iXm_vZn BtLm-jn-°p∂ Cu thf-bn¬ ΩpsS ]q¿∆ ]nXm-al∑msc Hmtcm-cp-Øscbpw G‰hpw BZ- - - -c-]q¿∆w IrX-⁄-X-tbm-sSbpw nd™ kvtl-tØm-sSbpw Ap-kva-cn-°p-∂p.
  6. 6. ]≠v Xo≠epw sXmSoepw hfsc Bg-Øn¬ thtcmSn PmXn-hy-hÿ ne-n-∂n-cp∂ ImeØv ]mem tahn-S, ao-®n¬ {]tZ-isØCS-{]-`p-°ƒ tIm´bw aW¿ImSv I√-°-Spº F∂ IpSpw-_-ØnseHcp AwKsØ hym]m-cm-h-iy-߃°mbn tahn-Sbv°v sIm≠p-h-∂-Xmbn hmsam-gn-N-cn-{Xhpw enJn-X-N-cn-{Xhpw ]d-bp-∂p. 10-˛mw q‰m-≠n¬ ]mem-bn-se-Ønb Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Ønse ]q¿∆ ]nXm-a-l-mb Ct±lw Fd-tIm∂n ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn-®-Xn-m¬ Fd-tIm∂n am∏nf F∂mWv Adn-b-s∏-´-Xv. ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-I¿ Bbn-cw-h¿j-߃°-∏p-dhpw Ipe-a-ln-abpw IpSpw-_alXzhpw ImØp-kq-£n-®hcm-Wv. ]mem-bnse BZy- - - - - -tZ-hm-e-b-amb Ct∏m-gsØ IØo-{U¬]-≈n-bpsS ÿm]-I-cmbmev {][m IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ {]Y-a-ÿmw ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Øn-m-bn-cp∂p F∂Xv CXns‚ sXfnhmWv. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_-Øns‚t]cpw {]i-kvXnbpw {][m--ambpw hym]n-®Xv ]mem Ing-X-Sn-bq¿Xma-kn® sXmΩ-]-Wn-°¿ ]nXm-a-l-n¬ n∂p-am-Wv. Fd-tIm∂nsh´n-°m-´v]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ Xma-kn® C´ns®-dn-b-bpsS Ggv a-°-fn¬Cf-b-]p-{Xpw Ing-X-Sn-bq-cnse {][m hym]m-cnbpw ap-jy-kvt-ln-bp-amb sXmΩ-]Wn-°cpsS Bdv a°-fn¬ c≠m-asØ ]p{X-mb - -sIm®n-´nsF∏ns‚ ]n∑p-d°m-cmWv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ønse mw - -Hmtcm-cpØcpw. sIm®n-´n-sF-∏ns‚ F´v a°-fn¬ ]p{X-∑m-cmbsXmΩ≥, sImt®∏v, C´n-s®dnb F∂n-h-cmWv ΩpsS ]nXm-°-∑m¿. `qan- b nse G‰hpw hnin- j v S hpw kz¿K- k - a m- - h p- a mbIpSpw_-Øns‚ {]m[myw ΩpsS ]nXm-°-∑m¿ a-€n-em-°n-bn-cp-∂p. IpSpw-_mw-K-߃ Hcp-an-®p-n-evt°-≠-Xns‚ Bh-iy-IX Adn-bm-am-bn-cp∂ Ah¿ qdp-h¿j-߃°-∏pdw IpSpw-_cn-]m-etbmKw - - -tN¿∂v DS-ºSn cPn-ÿ sNbvXXv Ah-cpsS sFIy-Øns‚ ZrjvSm-¥-am-Wv. Iq´m-bvabnepw ]¶p-hbv°enepw Ah¿ a‰p-≈h¿°v amXr- - - - -I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. BZy-tbm-K-Øn¬ k∂n-ln-X-cm-bn-cp∂ IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fmb aq∂v sshZn-I-t{i-jvT-scbpw 17 IpSpw-_-ß-fnse ]nXm-°-∑m-scbpw IrX-⁄-Xm-]q¿∆w ChnsS kvacn-°p-∂p. Ing-t°-°cIp-Spw_w iXm-_vZn BtLm-jßfpsS `mK-ambn - - - -IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-{KŸw {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-hm-p≈ Xocp-amw G‰hpwDNn-Xam-bn-. Hcp-h¿jw o≠p-n∂ hnh-cti-JcWØn-p-ti-jamWv - - - - - -Cu {KŸw FgpXn ]q¿Øn-bm-°m≥ km[n®-Xv. ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Øns‚ aqe-{K-ŸI¿Ømhv {io.C´n-sF∏v C´n-sF∏v ]oSnI-bn¬ Fgp- -
  7. 7. Xnb {KŸw C√m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ B[n-Im-cn-I-amb Cu {KŸw Fgp-Xp-hm≥ ap°v Ct∏mƒ km[n-°p-I-bn√. hn⁄m--Zm-ln-bpwB¿÷n® Adnhv hcpw-X-e-ap-dbv°v ]I¿∂p--evIm-p≈ k∑--€p-ap≠mbn-cp∂ B [ym-flm-hns µn-]q¿∆w kvacn-°p-∂p.{]kvXpX {KŸ-Øns‚ ssIsø-gp-Øp-{]Xn √ ae-bm-f-Øn-te°vFgpXnam‰nb {io.sI.-sF.-h¿°n ]oSn-I-bn-en-sbpw Ing-t°-°cIpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ Pohm-flm-bn- {]h¿Øn®v nc-h-[n-{]m-hiywIpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ {]kn-U‚m-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw c≠v IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´n-S-߃ n¿Ωn-°p-I-bpw-sNbvX bYm¿∞ IpSpw-_-kvtln{io.sI.-sF.-sXm-Ω≥ ]oSn-I-bnensbpw, IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´nSwn¿Ωn-°p-∂Xn-p≈ ÿew kw`m-h- evInb {io.Cu∏≥ aØmbn - -]pØ≥]p-c-bv°-en-sbpw IrX-⁄-Xm-]q¿∏w kvacn-°p-∂p. Cu IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-{K-Ÿ-Ønv kvtl-]q¿∆w ktµ-iw- -evIn-b- ko-tdmae-_m¿k` taP¿ B¿®p-_n-j∏v am¿ tPm¿÷v Be-t©cn ]nXm-hnpw IpSpw-_mw-K-ßsf hy‡n-]-c-ambn Adn-bp-Ibpwhm’-ey-]q¿∆w Biwk FgpXn evIpIbpw sNbvX ]mem-cq-]Xm_nj∏v am¿ tPmk^v I√-d-ßmSv ]nXm-hnpw ΩpsS {]Ya tZhm-e-b-amb ]mem IØo-{U¬ ]f-fn- hnImcn dh.-^m.-A-eIvkv tImgn-t°m-´nenpw lrZ-b-]q¿∆w µn-]-d-bp-∂p. Hcp-h¿jw o≠p-n∂ Cu {KŸ-Øns‚ cN-m-th-f-bn¬Fs∂ klm-bn-®-h¿ nc-h-[n-bm-Wv. [mcmfw IpSpw-_-ß-fpsS Ncn-{X-߃ Fgp-Xn-bn-´p≈ {io.kntPm Ie-b-¥m-n, IpSpw-_-tbmKwtemtKm hc-®p- -evInb {io.kÆn Nne-ºn-Ip-t∂¬, IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ BZy-`mKw Cw•o-jn¬ Xøm-dm-°nb {io.sI.-kn.-amWnBe-bv°¬ (ssl-{Zm-_m-Zv), k_v FUn-t‰-gvkm-bn- Fs∂ klm-bn® {io.tPmWn tPm¿÷v Cfw-tXm-´w, {io.tUm.-tPmkv {^m≥kokvssItXm- e n¬, {io.sI.- h n.- a m- Ω ≥ Cu¥p- ¶ - ¬ ]- I p- X n- b n¬,{io.tPmWn tXmakv ]oSnI ssItXm-en¬, {io.km_p tPmk^vssItXm-en¬ (t{]m{Kmw IΩ‰n I¨ho-¿), tUm.-sI.-Fw.-F-Ωm-p-h¬ (Hm¿K-ss-knwKv IΩ‰n I¨ho-¿), iXm_vZn BtLm-j-I-Ω‰n AwK-߃, IpSpw-_-tbm-K-I-Ω‰n AwK-߃, Fn°v F√m-hn[ ]n¥p-Wbpw t{]m’m-lhpw ¬Inb _lp. {]kn-U‚ vs{]m^. tPmkv tPmk-^npw Cu {KŸ-Øns‚ UnSn]n, {]n‚nwKvtPmen-Iƒ `wKn-bmbn n¿∆-ln® sXmSp-]pg {]n≥sSIv {]kv Poh--°m¿°pw amt-Pvsa‚npw µn -]-d-bp-∂p.
  8. 8. hfsc {ia-Icamb Cu DZy-aØn¬ sX‰p-Iƒ hcm-Xn-cn-°m≥ - - -Ign-hns‚ ]c-am-h[n {ian-®n-´p-≠v. {]n‚nw-Knv t]mIp-∂-Xp-h-scbpw{i≤-bn¬s]´ sX‰pIƒ Xncp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. C-nbpw It≠-°m-hp∂sX‰p-Iƒ ktlm-Z-c-a--€m¬ £an-°-W-sa∂v At]£n-°p-∂p. Cu Ncn-{X-{KŸw ap°v ]c-kv]cw IqSp-X¬ Adn-bp-∂-Xnpw Xe-ap-d-Isf Iq´n-bn-W-°p-∂-Xnpw klm-b-I-amIpw F∂{]Xym-i-tbmsS, Cu kwcw-`-Øn¬ kl-I-cn® Hmtcm IpSpw-_mw-K-Ønpw G‰hpw kvtl-]q¿∆w µn-]-d-bp-∂p. ‘IS-∂p-t]mb Xe-ap-d-I-tfmSv Bcm-bp-I, ]nXm-°-∑m-cpsS Ap-`-h-߃ ]cn-K-Wn-°p-I, C∂-se-∏n-d∂ ap°v H∂pw Adn-™p-Iq-Sm, `qan-bnse ΩpsS PohnXw ng¬t]mse am™p-t]m-Ip-∂p.’ss__nƒ. kvtl-]q¿∆w, sI.-‰n. tXmakv sk{I-´dn
  9. 9. ]q¿∆n-I-cpsS ]pWyw s{]m^. tPmkv tPmk^v {]kn-U‚ v thZ-]p-kvXIØn¬ ]g-bn-baØns‚ Bcw`Øn¬ ΩpsS - - - -BZy-]n-Xm-hmb BZw apX¬ tml-h-sc-bp≈ ]nXm-°-∑m-cpsShwim-hen sImSp-Øn-´p-≠v. ]pXn-b-n-b-a-Øn¬ A{_mlw apX¬tbip-hns‚ Pw hsc-bp≈ IpSpw-_-N-cn-{Xhpw sImSp-Øn-cn-°p-∂p. ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-IcpsS IpSpw-_aln-abpw al-Xzhpw Ωƒ Adn- - -bWw Ah-cpsS sNbvXn-I-sf-°p-dn®v hcpw-X-e-apd t_m[-hm-∑m-cm-IWw F∂o Dt±-iy-ßtfmsS ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-I¿ hwimh-enbpwIpSpw-_-N-cn-{Xhpw Fgp-Xn-h-®n-cp-∂p. Hmtcm-Ip-Spw-_-Ønpw AXn-t‚-Xmb {]tXyI ]mc-º-cyhpw IpSpw-_-a-l-Xzhpw ss]Xr-I-hpwAh-Im-i-am-bp-≠v. AXv ImØp-kq-£n-°p-∂-Xnpw jvSs∏-SmsX]n≥X-e-ap-dbv°v ssIam-‰w-sN-ømpw ap°v _≤y-X-bp-≠v. Fd-tIm∂n Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ iXm_vZnBtLm-j-th-f-bm-Wt√m CXv. Cu Ah-k-c-Øn¬ IpSpw-_N-cn-{X-{KŸw {]Im-iw sNøp-∂Xv G‰hpw DNn-X-am-Wv. Ωƒ Ft∏mgpw]nXm-a-l-∑msc Ap-kva-cn-°p-∂-hcpw Ah-cpsS ∑-I-fn¬ A`n-amw sIm≈p-∂-h-cp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. sΩ a‰p-≈-h¿ Adn-bp-∂-Xp-Xs∂ ΩpsS ]nXm-°-∑m-cn-eq-sS-bm-Wv. Aßs tm°p-tºmƒmw IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw Adn-™n-cn-t°-≠-Xns‚ Bh-iy-IX h¿≤n-°p-∂p. ΩpsS IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw ]cn-tim-[n-°p-tºmƒ ΩpsS ]q¿∆n- - -I¿ CS-∏-≈n-bn¬ n∂pw tIm´-b-Ønp Ing°v aW¿ImSv Xma-kn-s®∂pw AXn¬ Hcp IpSpw-_sØ ao-®n¬ CS-{]`p tahn-S-bn¬sIm≠p-h∂v Xs‚ `h-Øn-s‚ ASpØv Fd-tIm∂n ]pc-bnS-Øn¬ -
  10. 10. Xma-kn-∏n-s®∂pw ]d-bp-∂p. BbXn-m¬ Ah¿ Fd-tIm∂n am∏n-f-am¿ F∂v Adn-b-s∏-´-Xmbpw ImWp-∂p. ]mem hen-b-]≈n ÿm]nX-ambXv 1002-˛em-Wv. A∂v ]≈n-ÿm-]n-°p-∂-Xnv ap≥ssI FSp-ØXv Fd-tIm-∂n, hb-e-s°m-ºv,Xd-bn¬, Iq´p-¶¬ F∂o mev IpSpw-_-ß-fm-sW∂v Ncn-{X-tcJ-bp-≠v. AXn¬ {]Y-a-ÿmw ΩpsS amXr-Ip-Spw-_-amb Fd-tIm∂nIpSpw-_-Øn-m-Wv. Fd-tIm∂n am∏n-f-am-cn¬ Hcmfmb C´n-s®-dnb tahnS sh´n-°m´v ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ amdn-Øm-a-kn-®p. Cu C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS Ggm-a-sØ-]p-{X≥ sXmΩ-∏-Wn-°¿ Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ h∂v Xma-kn®v I®-hSwsNbvXp. At±-l-Øns‚ c≠m-asØ ]p{X≥ sIm®n´n sF∏ns‚k¥-Xn-]-c-º-c-I-fmWv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-°m¿. Hcp q‰m-≠p-apºv IpSpw-_-Iq-´m-bva-I-sf-∏‰n tI´p-tIƒhn-t]m-ep-an-√m-bn-cp∂ ImeØv ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Iq-´mbva Bcw-`n®]nXm-a-l∑m-cpsS IpSpw-_-kvt-l-sØbpw k∑--kn-sbpw XymK-a- t m- ` m- h - s Øbpw F{X- A- ` nµn®mepw A[n- I - a m- h pI- b n- √ .{InkvXzm_vZw 1911-˛¬ IpSpw-_Iq-´mbva Bcw-`n-®t∏mƒ Ing-XSn-bq¿ - - -tZiØv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Øn¬s]´ ]Xn-tgv IpSpw-_-ßfpwaq∂v sshZn-Icpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. BZy IpSpw-_-tbmK cPn-ÿ{]Imcw, ΩpsS ]Xn-tgv IpSpw-_-ß-fn-sebpw IpSpw-_-m-Y-∑m-cpw aq∂v sshZn-Icpw ]mem ]≈n-ta-Sbn¬h®v GI-tbm-Kambn IpSpw- - -_-]-cn-]m-e--tbmKw F∂ t]cn¬ Bcw-`n® Iq´m-bva-bmWv Ing-t°- ° c IpSpw- _ - t bm- K w. IpSpw- _ - t bmKw Bcw- ` n- ° p- ∂ - X nvap≥ssI FSpØ Be-°¬ aØmbn IØ-m-scbpw Itcm-s´-ho-´n¬ De-l-∂≥ IØ-m-scbpw ]oSn-I-bn¬ butk^v IØ-m-scbpw ]Xn-tgv IpSpw-_-m-Y-∑m-sc-bpw kvtlm-Z-c-]q¿∆w kvacn-°p-∂p. BZn-a-k-`-bn¬ Hmtcm-cpØcpw F√m-h¿°pw-th≠n Pohn-®p. Hcp lrZ-bhpw Hcm-flm-hp-ambn {]h¿Øn® Ah-cmcpw Xß-fpsS kzØv kz¥-sa∂v Icp-Xn-bn√. Cu ssNXyw Dƒs°m-≠p-sIm≠v ]nXm-°-∑m¿ Bcw-`n® Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmKw IpSpw-_mwK-߃ XΩn-ep≈ ]c-kv]-c-[m-c-Wbpw kulm¿±hpw hf-¿Øphm≥ D]-I-cn-®p. IpSpw-_ßfn¬ kmº-ØnI _p≤n-ap-´p-≈- - -hsc klm-bn-°p-Ibm-bn-cp∂p IpSpw-_Iq-´m-babpsS {][m e£yw. - - v -[mcmfw IpSpw-_mw-Kßsf klm-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. -
  11. 11. IpSpw-_-tbm-K--S-Øn-∏n¬ ad-°m-m-hmØ ]¶p-h-ln® al-Xvhy-‡n-Isf Cu Ah-k-c-Øn¬ kvacn-°p-∂p.- Ip-Spw-_-N-cn-{X-Ønse ]g-b-Ime {][m Ncn-{X-߃ apJy-ambpw ap°v e`n-®XvIng-t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ {in.C´n-sF∏v C´n-sF∏v Fgp-Xn-h-®n-cp∂IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ ssIsø-gp-Øp-{]-Xn-bn¬n-∂m-Wv. hn⁄m-nbpw Ncn-{X-Ip-Xp-In-bp-amb At±-l-Øns‚ maw F∂pw kvacn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ °¬ FgpXn kq£n-®n-cp∂]oSn-I-bn¬ h¿°n-km-dn-sbpw µn-tbmsS kvacn-°p-∂p. hf-sc-°mew IpSpw-_-tbm-K-Øns‚ {]kn-U‚m-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw Bcw-`-Im-eØpw ]n∂oSpw atm-l-c-ßfmb c≠v IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´n-S߃F√m AwK-ß-fp-sSbpw klm-b-k-l-I-c-W-ß-tfmsS n¿Ωn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX {io.sI.-sF.-sXmΩ≥ ]oSn-I-bnensbpw IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´nSw n¿Ωn-®n-cn-°p∂ ÿew kw`m-h--bmbn X∂ {io.-Cu-∏≥ aØmbn ]pØ≥]p-cbv°en-sbpw BZ-c]q¿∆w kvacn-°p- - - - -∂p. IpSpw-_-tbmKw ap≥{]-kn-U‚p-am¿°pw sk{I-´-dn-am¿°pw a‰v`mc-hm-ln-Iƒ°pw µn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. c≠p-h¿j-ambn IpSpw-_-N-cn-{X-c-N--bn¬ A£oWw bXvn-®, F√m-Ip-Spw-_-ß-fn-epw-t]mbn hnh-c-߃ tiJ-cn-°p-Ibpw Cu {KŸw Fgp-Xn-X-øm-dm-°p-Ibpw sNbvX IpSpw-_-tbmKw sk{I-´dn {io.-sI.-‰n.-tXm-akv Ing-t°-°-cbv°v {]tXyIw lrZy-amb µn ]d-bp-∂p. Hmtcm imJ-bp-sSbpw {]Xn-n-[n-I-f-S-ßnb Pq_nen IΩ‰n AwK-߃°pw µntcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. henb IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ hy‡n-_-‘-߃ Ipd-bp-hm≥ CS-bm-Ip-∂p CXv ]cn-l-cn®v IpSpw-_-߃ XΩn-ep≈ AI¬® Ipd-bv°p-∂-Xnv ΩpsS IpSpw-_-Iq-´mbva D]-I-cn-°s´. IpSpw_wkvtlw ]cn-I¿Ωw- sN-ø-s∏-Sp∂ _en-th-Zn-bm-W-t√m. ΩpsSIpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ F∂pw kvtlm-¥-co£w nen¬°-s´. Ap-{K-l-߃°mbn PK-Zo-iz-c-tmSv {]m¿∞n-°mw. {]kn-U‚ v Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_tbmKw -
  12. 12. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 1 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e-tbmKw Bbpw Aºm-cnbpap≈ BtLm-j-]q¿∆-amb hnhm-l-N-S-ßnemWv Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_]cn-]m-e-tbm-K-Øns‚ BZyBtem-N S-∂-Xv. 1910/1086˛¬ Ing-t°-°c h¿°n-bpsS aI≥Ip™p-h¿°n-bpsS hnhm-l-NS-ßn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°m≥ ]pØ≥]pc-bv°¬, ]oSn-Ibn¬, Be-bv°¬ F∂o Xmbvhgn-Ifnse F√m IpSpw- - -_-ß-fn¬ n∂pw Bfp-Iƒ FØn-bn-cp-∂p. A∂v IpSpw-_-tbmKwF∂ Bibw N¿®-sN-øpI-bp-≠m-bn, AXns‚ ^e-ambn 1911/1087Ipw`w 27-˛v Ing-t°-°c Itcms´ho´n¬ BZytbmKw IqSn. BtbmK-Øn¬ h®v ]oSn-Ibn¬ sXmΩ≥ BK-kvXnsb IpSpw_tbmK- -Øns‚ amt-P-cmbpw Itcms´ ho´n¬ h¿°n h¿°nsb s]´nkq£n- ∏ p- I m- c - mbpw Be- b v ° ¬ hmIm- n- b n¬ sNdn- b m≥h¿°nsb ]q´p-kq-£n-∏p-Im-c-mbpw ]pØ≥]pc-bv°¬ Cu∏≥DWn-s®-dn-b-Xns IW-°p-kq-£n-∏p-Im-c-mbpw Xnc-s™-Sp-Øp.1088/1912 Nnßw 1˛mw XobXn Be-bv°¬ aØmbn A®≥ cPn-kv{Smsc ]Sn-sI´n ]mem ]≈n-ta-S-bn¬ hcp-Øn-bmWv Ing-t°-°cIpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e--tbmK DS-ºSn cPn-Ã-dm-°n-b-Xv. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Ønse hnhn[ imJ-I-fn¬ n∂p≈20 AwK IΩn-‰n-bmWv IpSpw-_-tbmK DS-ºSn Xøm-dm-°n-b-Xv. kmº-ØnI Ipd-hp-sImt≠m a‰p-Im-c-W-ß-fmtem IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fn¬B¿s°-¶nepw IjvS-X-Itfm a‰v _p≤n-ap-´p-Itfm D≠m-Ip-tºmƒAhsc klm-bn-°pI F∂ e£y-tØm-sS-bmWv IpSpw_]cn-]m-e-tbmKw XpS-ßn-bXv. 1912 aIcw 28-˛v ASpØ tbmKw IqSpIbpw - -Nn´n-bn¬ tNcp-Ibpw sNbvXp. bqtdm-∏n¬ bq≤w-s]m-´n-∏p-d-s∏´vm´n¬ £ma-Im-e-am-b-Xn-m¬ XpS¿∂v aq∂p {]m-hiyw tbmKwIqSn-bn-√. ΩpsS IpSpw-_]cn-]m-etbmKw tcn´v Hcp sbvØp-ime - - - -Bcw-`n-®n-cp-∂p. hfsc hnP-b-I-c-ambn S-∂p-h∂ sbvØp-im-e-bn¬ [mcmfw XqWn-Ø-c-߬ sbvXv hn¬∏ S-Øn-bn-cp-∂p.an√p-Xp-Wn-Iƒ kpe-`am-bt∏mƒ sbvØp-ime n¿Ø-em-°n. IpSpw- - -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  13. 13. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 2_mw-K-ß-fpsS hcn-kw-Jy-bn-eq-sSbpw DZm-c-a-Xn-I-fmb IpSpw-_-kvtln-Ifp-sSbpw kl-IcWtØmsS ΩpsS nc-h[n IpSpw_mw- - - - -K-߃°v hnhn-[-X-c-Øn-ep≈ klm-b-߃ evIp-hm≥ IpSpw-_-]-cn-cm-e--tbm-K-Ønv km[n-®n-´p-≠v. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ønse 17 imJ-Ifn¬ n∂pw amdn-Øm- - -a-kn® F√m-hcpw tbmKmw-Kßfm-bn. Ah-cpsS hcn-kw-Jy-sIm≠pw - -]W-b-Øn-t∑¬ sNdnb ]en-ibv°v ]Ww ISw-sIm-SpØpw aqe-[w h¿≤n-®p. 1927/1103 CShw 28-˛v IqSnb tbmKw kwL-S-bv°vkz¥-ambn Hcp sI´nSw n¿Ωn-°Ww F∂v Xocp-am-n-®p. F√m- ho-´p- I m¿°pw HØp- t N- c p- h m≥ kuI- c y- a p≈ ÿe- a mb Ipc-ß≥ae]d-ºn¬ ]gbhgn-h-°n¬ 45 tIm¬ Np‰-f-hn¬ sI´n-S-Ønpw ap‰-Ønpw th≠ ÿew Ing-t°-°c ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬Cu∏≥ aØmbn evIn. Ing-t°-°c ]pen-a-e-Ip-t∂¬ sshZy≥tX°p-XSn sh´m-p≈ Ap-hmZw k¿°m-cn¬ -n∂pw hmßn. Ing-t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ sI.-sF.-sXm-Ωs‚ tXr-Xz-Øn¬ bphm-°-sf√mw kwL-Sn®v {ia-Zm--ambn Xd-sI-´v, ap‰w-sI-´v, Dcp-∏Sn NpaSvXpS-ßnb Imcy-߃ hfsc thK-Øn¬ sNbvXp. Bdp-am-k-Øn-p-≈n¬ ]pXnb sI´n-S-Øns‚ DZvLm-Shpw S-Øn,- hmb--im-ebpwssIsø-gpØv amkn-Ibpw XpS-ßn. I¿j-I-cmb IpSpw-_mw-K-߃]pXp-a-Æp-tXSn ]e-ÿ-e-ß-fn-tebv°pw IpSn-tb-dn-b-t∏mƒ IpSpw-_-tbmK {]h¿Ø--ßfpw n¿÷o-h-am-bn. mev]-Øn-aq∂v h¿j-߃°p-tijw 1970 HIvtSm-_¿ 2˛vIqSnb tbmKw IpSpw-_-tbmK sI´nSw IqSp-X¬ kuI-cy-{]-Z-ambÿeØv am‰n-]-Wn-bp-hm≥ Xocp-am-n-®p. BZy IpSpw-_-tbmKa-µn-cw n¿Ωn-°p-∂-Xn-p≈ ÿew evInb ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ aØm-bn-bpsS aqØ-a-I≥ Cu∏≥ ]pXnb sI´nS n¿Ωm-W-Øn-p≈ÿew hbv∏t∏m-Xn-bn¬ evIn. Ing-t°-°c ]oSn-Ibn¬ sXmΩ≥ - - -{]kn-U‚pw Ipºp-°¬ sNdn-bm≥ sk{I-´-dn-bp-ambn sI´nSw ]Wn-°mbn {]tXyIw IΩn-‰nsb Xnc-s™-Sp-Øp. Ch-cpsS A£o-W-amb {]h¿Ø--^e-ambn IpSpw-_mw-K-߃ F√m-h-cp-sSbpw klm-b-k-l-I-c-W-ß-tfmsS A√m-∏m-d-bv°p≈ a¨]mX Xncn-bp∂ Ih-e-bn¬ A©p-apdn sI´nSw IpSpw-_-tbmKw hI-bmbn n¿Ωn-®p.IpSpw- _ - t bm- K - Ø ns‚ Bcw- ` - I mew apX¬ F√m- { ]- h ¿Ø- -○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  14. 14. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 3߃°pw tXrXzw evIn-bn-cp∂ sI.-sF.-sXm-Ω≥ {]kn-U‚m-bn-cns° 1983-˛¬ ncym-X-m-bn. CtXmsS IpSpw-_-tbmK {]h¿Ø--߃ ma-am-{X-am-bn. 1989 Unkw-_¿ 10-˛v sI.-sF.-h¿°n Ing-t°-°c ssItXm-en¬ {]kn-U‚pw BKkvXn C´n sF∏v Ipºp-°¬ sk{I-´-dn-bp-ambn ]pXnb IΩn-‰nsb Xnc-s™-Sp-Øp. ]pØ≥]p-cbv°¬ Cu∏≥ -kw`m-h--bmbn evInb ÿehpw ]pXp-Xmbn n¿Ωn® sI´n-S-hpw1990 G{]n¬ 15-˛v IpSpw-_-tbmKw FgpXn hmßn. 1991 Pq¨ 17-˛v]pXnb {]kn-U‚ v cmPn- ¬InbXn-m¬ 1992˛¬ IqSnb {]tXyIIpSpw-_tbmKw Ing-t°-°c sIm®p-a‰Øn¬ amWn t]mØs {]kn- - - -U‚mbn sXc-s™-Sp-Øp, a‰p `mc-hm-ln-Iƒ°pw IΩ-‰n-°m¿°pwam‰-ap-≠m-bn-√. 1998-˛¬ Ipºp-°¬ BKkvXn C´n-sF∏v {]kn-U‚mbpw Ing- -t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ sI.-‰n.-tPm-k^v sk{I-´-dn-bmbpw ]pXnb `mc-hm-ln-Iƒ sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. C°m-eØv IpSpw-_-tbmKw a‰vÿe- ß - f n- t e°v hym]n- ∏ n- ° p- h m≥ Xocp- a m- n- ® p. 1998- ˛ ap- X ¬ssItXm-en¬ imJ-°m¿ 10, 12 ¢m€p-I-fn¬ F√m-h¿jhpw G‰hpwIqSp-X¬ am¿°v hm-ßp∂ Ip´n-Iƒ°v sImSp-°p-hm≥ “ssItXm-en¬ aØmbn A®≥ kvam-cI kvtImf¿jn∏v” G¿s∏-Sp-Øn. 2000-˛¬ tUm.-sI.-Fw.-C-Ωm-p-h¬ Ing-t°-°c Be-°¬{]kn-U‚mbpw {io.-sI.-‰n.-tXm-akv Ing-t°-°c ]oSn-I-bn¬ sk{I-´-dn-bmbpw sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. ChcpsS ImeØv tIc-f-ØnseF√m-`m-K-ß-fnepw (mev {_m©p-Iƒ) D≠m-°p-Ibpw IpSpw-_-tbmKw Ct∏m-gsØ ne-bn-te°v hf-cp-Ibpw sNbvXp. 2001-˛¬ Ch¿F√m-`-h--ßfpw kµ¿in-®v ^≠p-kz-cq-]n®v IpSpw-_-tbm-K-sI-´nSw]pXp-°n-]WnXv Np‰p-aXn¬ n¿Ωn-®p. F√m Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_mw- - -K-ß-fp-sSbpw A{Ukv Dƒs∏-SpØn A{U-kv_p°v {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®Xpw Ch-cpsS `cWIme-Øm-Wv. Ct∏mƒ Hmtcm {_m©p-IfpwHmtcm-h¿jhpw amdn-amdn IpSpw-_-tbmKw S-Øn-t∏m-cp-∂p. 2002apX¬ X´mw-]-d-ºn¬ imJmw-K-߃ G¿s∏-Sp-Ønb klm-b-n-[n-bn¬ n∂pw A¿ln-°p-∂-h¿°v klmbhpw evInhcp∂p-≠v. 2007- ˛ ¬ IpSpw- _ - t bmKw {]kn- U ‚mbn s{]m^.- t Pm- k vtPmk^ns Xnc-s™-Sp-°p-Ibpw sk{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp∂ {in.-sI.-‰n.-tXm-a-kns X¬ÿm-Øv ne-n¿Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  15. 15. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 4 2011-˛¬ IpSpw-_-tbmKw Bcw-`n-®n´v qdv h¿jw XnI-bp-I-bm-Wv. Cu kph¿Æm-h-kcw G‰hpw `wKn-bmbn BtLm-jn-°p-∂-Xn-mbn c≠p-h¿jw aptº Xocp-am--sa-Sp-°p-Ibpw tUm.-sI.-Fw.-C-Ωm-p-h¬ sNb¿am-mbpw {io.kPn sI.-am-Xyqkv sk{I-´dn-bmbpw -IpSpw-_tbmKw sk{I-´dn {io.-sI-‰n.-tXm-akv P-d¬ I¨ho-dmbpw - -hn]p-e-amb BtLmjIΩ‰n cq]o-I-cn-°p-Ibpw {]h¿Ø--߃Bcw-`n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. iXm_vZn BtLm-j-ß-fpsS kvac-W-bv°mbn IpSpw-_-N-cn{X {KŸhpw A{U€v _p°pw ]pXp°n A®-Sn-°p-hmpw Xocp-am-n-®p. Cu Bhiy-Øn-mbn sk{I-´dn {io.-sI.-‰n.-tXm-a-€ns‚ tXr-Xz-Øn¬ F√m `h--ßfpw kµ¿in®v tcJ-Iƒ tiJ-cn°pIbp-≠m-bn. F√m amkhpw BtLm-jIΩ‰n Hmtcm- - -ho-Sp-Ifn¬ amdn-amdn IqSp-Ibpw {]h¿Ø-߃ hne-bn-cp-Øp-Ibpw - -sNbvXp. 2011 HIvtSm-_¿ 8˛v ]mem IØo-{U¬]≈n ]mco-jvlm-fn¬ h®v hn]p-e-amb BtLmj-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ S-Øp-hmpw ]memcq]X _nj∏v am¿ tPmk^v I√-d-ßm-´v, tIcf [-Im-cy-a{¥n {io.sI.-Fw.-am-Wn, Pe-tk-N a{¥n {io.-]n-sP.-tPm-k-^v, CSp°n Fw.-]n. -{io.-]n.-Sn.-tXm-a-kv, tIm´bw Fw.-]n. {io.-tPm-kv.-sI.-am-Wn, Xfn-∏-dºv Fw.-F¬.-F.bpw Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_mw-Khp-amb {io.-Pbnwkv - -amXyp, ]mem apn-kn-∏¬ sNb¿am≥ {io.-Ip-cym-t°mkv ]S-h≥XpS-ßnb hnin-jvSm-Yn-Xn-Isf tbmK-Øn-te°v £Wn-°p-hmpwXocp-am-n-®p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  16. 16. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 5 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmK n_-‘--Iƒ1. t]cv: Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-tbmKw2. ta¬hn-emkw: Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_tbm-Kw, Ing-XSn-bq¿, ]mem, - - tIcfm3. Dt±iw: AwK-ß-fpsS IpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e-bv°v Bh-iy-ambn kmº-Øn-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-am-bp≈ F√m Imcy-ßfpw N¿® sNbvXv Xocp-am--sa-SpØv AwK-ßsf klm-bn-°p-∂-Xnv Iq´mbpw {]tXy-I-ambpw {]h¿Øn-°p-I. apJy-ambn AXym-ln- X-Ønepw n¿≤-m-hÿbnepw AwK-ßsf klm-bn-°p-I. ao- - - ®n¬ k_v cPn-kv{Sm¿ B^o-kn¬ sIm√-h¿jw 1088 Nnß- amkw 1˛mw XobXn 1˛mw º¿ Bbn cPn-ÿ sNbvXn-´p≈ DS- º-Sn-bn¬ D≈Xpw Cu nb-am-h-en-bn¬ t`Z-KXn sNøm-Ø-Xp- amb F√m hIp-∏p-Ifpw {]m_-ey-Øn¬ XpS-cp-∂-Xm-Wv.4. AwK-߃: Fd-tIm∂n ]pØ≥]p-c-bn¬ sXmΩ-]-Wn-°-cpsS c≠m-asØ ]p{Xpw Ing-t°-°c XmgØp Xma-kn-®n-cp∂ Bfp- amb C´n-b-bn-∏ns‚ k¥m ]c-º-c-I-fn¬s∏-´-hcpw 18 hb€v XnI-™n-´p-≈hcp-amb F√m kv{Xo˛-]p-cp-j∑m¿°pw {]kvXpX - - - k¥m ]c-º-c-bn¬s∏´ ]pcp-j-∑m¿ hnhmlw Ign®v Ah- cpsS IpSpw-_Øn¬ h∂n-´p≈ F√m kv{XoIƒ°pw Cu tbmK- - Øn¬ AwK-ßfmbn tNcp-hm≥ Ah-Im-iap-≈Xm-Ip-∂p. Sn C´n- - - - b-bn-∏ns‚ k¥m--ß-fn¬s∏´ kv{XoIƒ hnhmlw Ign®v Ay IpSpw-_ßfn¬ t]mbm¬ Ah-cpsS AwKm-hImiw C√m- - - - Xm-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv. Ay IpSpw-_-Ønse ]pcp-j-∑m¿ Cu IpSpw- _-Ønse kv{XoIsf hnhmlw sNbvXv ZØ-h-Im-in-bmbn Cu IpSpw-_-Øn¬ hcn-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Ah¿°p Cu tbmK-Øn¬ AwK-ambn tNcp-∂-Xnv Ah-Im-i-ap-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p. ]pcp-j-∑m¿ hnhm- l w - I - g n®v Ay IpSpw- _ - Ø n¬ ZØ- h - I m- i n- b mbn t]mbmepw Ah-cpsS Ah-Imiw jvS-s∏-Sp-∂-X-√.5. aqe-[w: 4˛mw hIp-∏n¬ _‘-s∏´ bmsXm-cmƒ°pw 1 cq]m {]th-i--^okpw 50 (A≥]-Xv) ss]k-hoXw {]Xn-amk Xh- W-I-fn-ep-ambn AS-®m¬ tbmK-Øn¬ AwK-am-Im-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  17. 17. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 6 F∂m¬ bmsXmcp AwKhpw {]Xn-amk Xh-W-I-fn¬ IpSn-»nJ hcp-Øn-bm¬ IpSn-»nJ Xo¿°p-∂-Xp-hsc tbmK-Øn¬ B Bfnv bmsXmcp Ah-Im-ihpw Bp-Iq-eyhpw Bh-iy-s∏-Sm- hp-∂-X-√. ta¬ hnh-cn®hn[ap≠m-Ip∂ ]Whpw 1088 Nnß- amkw 1˛mw XobXn ao-®n¬ k_v cPn-kv{Sm¿ B^o-kn¬ 1˛mw º¿ Bbn cPn-ÿ sNbvXn-´p≈ DS-ºSn {]Imcw S-Øn-h- ∂n-´p≈ tbmK-Øns‚ kI-e-hn[ ÿmh-c-Pw-K-a-ßfpw o°n- bn-cn-∏p-X-pIbpw, _m¶v nt£-]-hpw, Cu tbmK-Øns‚ aqe-[- -am-Ip-∂p. GsXm-cm-fn¬ n∂pw kw`m-h--Iƒ kzoI-cn®pw tbmK-Øns‚ aqe-[w h¿≤n-∏n-°m-hp-∂Xm-Wv. AwK-߃ hcn- - kwJy Btbm kw`m-h Btbm AS-®n-´p≈ bmsXmcp XpIbpw tbmK-Øn¬n∂v XncnsI In´p-hm≥ Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm- hp-∂-X-√. F∂m¬ hnhmlw sNbvXv a‰p IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ t]mIp-∂-Xntm [¿Ωÿm]--ß-fn¬ t]mIp-∂tXm Bb kv{XoIƒ°v hcn-kw-Jytbm nt£-]-ßtfm Xnscy In´p-hm≥ Bh-iys∏Smhp-∂Xpw AXn-t∑¬ D≠m-Ip∂ IΩ-‰n-bpsS Xocp- amw Ap-k-cn-t°-≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p.6. IΩ-‰n-tbmKw: tbmKmw-KßfpsS s]mXp-tbmKw 7 AwK-ßfp≈ - - - Hcp IΩ-‰nsb sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. Cu IΩ-‰n-bpsS Imem-h[n aq∂p sIm√tam As√-¶n¬ ASpØ Hcp IΩ-‰nsb Xnc-s™-Sp-°p-∂Xp-hsctbm Bbn-cn-°p-∂Xm-Wv. IΩ‰n AwK- - - - ߃ tbmKw tN¿∂v Hcp {]kn-U‚n-tbpw Hcp sk{I-´-dn- tbbpw Hcp JPm≥Pn-tbbpw sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. tbmK-Øns‚ F√m Imcy-ßfpw {]kn-U‚ns‚ ta¬tm-´- Ønepw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-Ønepw S-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv. ]Ww hmßn ckoXp sImSp-t°-≠Xpw sd°m¿Up-Iƒ ]q¿Øn-bm-t°-≠Xpw kq£n-t°-≠Xpw sk{I-´dn BIp-∂p. IΩ-‰n-tbm-Khpw s]mXp- tbm-Khpw {]kn-U‚ns‚ n¿t±-iap-kcn®v hnfn-®p-Iq-t´-≠Xpw - - - sk{I-´dn BIp-∂p. IΩ‰n amk-Øn-sem-cn-°-se-¶nepw IqSn- bn-cn-°-Ww. Bh-iy-ap-≈-t∏m-sgm-s°bpw IΩ‰n hnfn-®p-Iq-´m- hp-∂-Xm-Wv. IΩ-‰n-bpsS tImdw A©m-bn-cn-°pw. IΩ-‰n-bnepw s]mXp-tbm-K-Ønepw ÿncw {]kn-U‚ v lmP-cp-≈-t∏mƒ At±lw Xs∂ A≤y-£-m-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. {]kn-U‚ v lmP- cn-√m-Ø-t∏mƒ B tbmKw Hcp A≤y-£s `qcn-]-£-a-p-k-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  18. 18. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 7 cn®v sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠Xpw At±lw B tbmK-Øn¬ am{Xw A≤y-£-mbncn°p-∂-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. tbmK-n-_-‘-a-Iƒ°pw s]mXp-tbmK n›-b-߃°pw hnt[-b-ambn F√m Imcy-ßfpw Cu IΩ‰n S-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv. IΩ‰n tbmK-Øn¬ A`n-{]mb hyXym-k-ap-≈-t∏mƒ {]ivw thm´n-n-tS-≠Xpw thm´p-Iƒ Xpey-am-bn-cp-∂m¬ lmP-cn-√mØ AwK-߃ lmP-cm-Ip-∂-Xp- hsc tbmKw o´n-h-bvt°-≠Xpw B tbmK-Ønepw Xocp-am-- ap-≠m-Im-Xn-cp-∂m¬ s]mXp-tbmK Xocp-am--Ønv ka¿∏n-t°- ≠-Xp-am-Wv.7. IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fpsS GsXm-cm-h-iyhpw {]kn-U‚ns Adn-bn- ®m¬ {]kn-U‚ v AXn¬ {i≤m-ep-hmbn IΩ‰n hnfn-®p-Iq´n Btem-Nnt®m Xnt®m {]iv߃, Xo¿t°-≠Xm-Wv. AXns‚ - - apgp-h≥ Npa-X-ebpw At±-l-Øn¬ n£n-]vX-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xm- Wv.8. tbmK-Øns‚ ]W-an-S-]m-Sp-Iƒ, IcWw Xo¿°¬ apX-emb kwK-Xn-Iƒ IΩ-‰n-bpsS Xocp-am-ap-kcn®v {]kn-U‚ v, sk{I- - ´-dn, JPm≥Pn Ch¿ aq∂p-t]cpw IqSn sNtø-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. Ch¿ aq∂p-t]-cpw-IqSn sNømØ bmsXmcp Ic-Whpw km[p-hm-bn-cn- °p-∂-X-√.9. s]mXp-tbmKw: s]mXp-tbmKw Bh-iy-ap-≈-t∏m-sgm-s°bpw km[m-c-W-K-Xn-bn¬ Hcp h¿j-Øn¬ Hcn-°¬ F¶nepw IqtS- ≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. ÿew, Xob-Xn apX-em-bh IΩ‰n tbmK-Øn¬ n›-bn®v sk{I-´dn AwK-ßsf Adn-bn®v IqtS-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. BsI-bp≈ AwK-ß-fn¬ A©n-semt∂m As√-¶n¬ 25 AwK- ßtfm tcJm-aqew Bh-iy-s∏-´m¬ IΩ‰n s]mXp-tbmKw hnfn- ®p-Iq-t´-≠-Xm-Wv. AwK-߃°v Ggv Znhkw apsº-¶nepw s]mXp-tbm-K-tm-´okv In´n-bn-cn-°-Ww. s]mXp-tbm-K-Øn¬ IΩ‰n AwK-ßsf sXc-s™-Sp-t°-≠Xpw ap≥ sIm√sØ {]h¿Ø dnt∏m¿´pw hchp sNehp IW-°p-Ifpw hmbn®p ]m€m-t°-≠-Xp-am-Wv. AwK-߃°v {]ta-b-߃ lmP-cm-°m- hp-∂-Xpw, {]iv-߃ tNmZn-°m-hp-∂-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. `n∂-`n-{]m-b- ap-≠m-bm¬ thms´-Sp∏v S-tØ-≠Xpw `qcn-]-£m-`n-{]m-b-a-p- k-cn®v Imcy-߃ Xocp-am-n-t°-≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. thm´p-Iƒ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  19. 19. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 8 Xpeyambncp-∂m¬ {]kn-U‚ns‚ ImÃnwKv thmt´m-Sp-IqSn Imcy- ߃ Xocp-am-n-t°-≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. memw hIp-∏n¬s∏´ Hcmƒ AwK-ambn tN¿∂v aq∂p amkw ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-Ibpw {]Xn-amk hcn-kw-Jy-bn¬ apS-°n-√m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ Abmƒ°v s]mXp-tbm-K-Øn¬ thm´v D≠mbncn°p-∂-Xp-am-Wv. thm´p≈ Bfnv am{Xta IΩ-‰n-bn¬ AwK-am-Ip-hmpw ]mSp-≈q.10. {]kn-U‚n-tm, sk{I-´-dnt°m 50 (A≥]-Xv) cq]-bn¬ IqSp- X¬ XpI o°n-bn-cp∏v ssIhiw hbv°m≥ ]mSp-≈-X-√. IqSp- X¬ hcp∂ XpI AXmXp ka-b-ß-fn¬ _m¶n¬ nt£-]n- t°-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p.11. memw n_-‘--b-p-k-cn-®p≈ Bfp-Iƒ Iq´-ambn Xma-kn- °p∂ ÿe-ß-fn¬ A©n¬ Ipd-bmsX AwK-ß-fp-≈-]£w imJ-Iƒ ÿm-]n-°m-hp-∂Xpw imJ-Iƒ tI{µ-tbm-K-tØmSv LSn-∏n-°m-hp-∂Xpw Aßs LSn-∏n-°-s∏-Sp∂ imJ-Iƒ°v tI{µ-tbm-K-Øn¬ {]Xn-n-[n-Isf Ab-°m-hp-∂Xpw IΩ‰n AwKo-I-cn-®m¬ a‰w-K-߃°v Xpey-ambn thm´p-Iƒ D≠m-bn- cn-°p-∂-Xp-am-Wv. Cu hn[w LSn-∏n-®n-´p≈ F√m imJ-Iƒ°pw n_-‘ _m[-I-am-Wv. imJ-Iƒ tI{µ-tØmSv LSn-∏n-°p-∂- Xn-p≈ hyhÿ-Iƒ IΩ‰n AXmXp kµ¿`-ß-fn¬ n›- bn®v imJ-Isf Adn-bn-t°-≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p.12. Cu n_-‘--I-fn¬ GsX-¶nepw hIp∏v t`Z-KXn sNøp-Itbm Iq´n-t®¿°p-Itbm d±v sNøp-Itbm thW-sa-¶n¬ B hnhcw AwK-ßsf c≠m-gvN-sb-¶nepw apºv tcJm-aqew Adn-bn®v s]mXp-tbmKw hnfn-®p-Iq´n s]mXp-tbm-KØn¬ lmP-cp≈ AwK- - ß-fn¬ aq∂n¬ c≠v `mKw Ap-Iq-en®v sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv.13. Bsc-¶nepw s]mXp-tbm-KsØ h©n-bv°p-Isbm ]Ww jvSw hcp-Øp-Itbm sNbvXm¬ IΩ‰n ]cn-lmcw n›-bn-t°-≠Xpw Bh-iy-ap-≠m-Ip∂ ]£w Bb-Xn-te°v hyh-lmcw S-tØ- ≠-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. tbmK-Øn¬ Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂ hyh-lm-c߃ S- - tØ-≠Xv IΩ-‰n-bpsS n¿t±-i-a-p-k-cn®v sk{I-´-dn-bm-Ip-∂p. Hmtcm IΩ-‰n-bp-tSbpw S-Øn-∏p-Im-e-ß-fn¬ D≠m-Ip-∂Xpw s]mXp-tbmKw Ap-h-Zn-°m-Ø-Xp-amb kIe jvS-߃°pw IΩ‰n AwK-߃ s]mXp-hmbpw {]tXy-I-ambpw DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  20. 20. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 9 hln-t°-≠Xpw Ah Ahcn¬n∂v s]mXp-hmtbm {]tXy-I- amtbm CuSm-°m-hp-∂-Xp-am-Ip-∂p.14. Cu n_-‘--Iƒ 1975 Pp-hcn 1 apX¬ {]m_-ey-Øn¬ hcp- ∂-Xm-Wv. sIm√-h¿jw 1088 Nnß-amkw 1 v ao-®n¬ k_v cPn-kv{Sm¿ B^o-kn¬ 1˛mw º¿ Bbn cPn-ÿ sNbvXn-´p≈ tbmK DS- ºSn CtXm-S-p-_v[-ambn tN¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p.Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ H∏vtbmK-am-^okv amt-P¿ Ap-_‘w Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-]-cn-]m-e DS-ºSn Bbn-cØn F¨]Øn Ggm-am≠v Nnß-amkw H∂mw XobXnfmew {]hr-Øn-bn¬ Ing-b-Sn-bqcp apdn-bn¬ ]pØ≥]p-c-bm-Ip∂Ing-t°-°c n∂pw ao-®n¬ {]h¿Øn-bn¬ ]mem apdn-bn¬ ]mem-∏-≈n-ta-S-bn¬ Ccn°pw {kmWn C´n-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aI≥ I¿Ω-{]-hrØn mev]-sØ´p hb-€p≈ aØmbn IØ-mcpw h¿°n-bpsSaI≥ I¿Ω {]hrØn mev]-tØgp hb-€p≈ 2 De-l-∂≥ IØ-mcpw Sn. Ing-t°-°c n∂pw Af-mSp apdn-bn¬ Ff-t¥m-´Øp]≈n-bn¬ Ccn°pw C´n-sF-∏ns‚ aI≥ I¿Ω {]hrØn mev]-sØ´p hb-€p≈ 3 Ahp-tk∏p IØ-mcpw Sn Ing-t°-°c ]m¿°pwh¿°n-bpsS aI≥ Irjn mev]-Øn-aq∂p hb-€p≈ 4 h¿°nbpwSn Ing-t°-°c n∂pw ]pen-ae°p-t∂¬ ]m¿°pw sXmΩs‚ a°ƒ - -Irjn-°m¿ ap∏-sØm∂p hb-€p≈ 5 h¿°nbpw Ccp-]-sØ´p hb-€p≈ 6 sXmΩpw Ing-t°-°c n∂pw Be-bv°¬ ]m¿°pw C´n-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aI≥ Irjn Ccp-]-sØm≥]Xp hb-€p≈ 7 C´nAbn∏pw Sn Ing-t°-°c n∂pw hmIm-n-bn¬ ]m¿°pw sNdn-bms‚a°ƒ Irjn-°m¿ mev]-Ø©p hb-€p≈ 8 h¿°nbpw mev]Xphb-€p≈ 9 C´n sF∏pw ap∏-Ømdp hb-€p≈ 10 sNdn-bmpw○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  21. 21. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 10sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Ccp-]-sØm∂p hb-€p-≈ 11 sNmdn-bmpw Sn Ing-t°-°c n∂w ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ ]m¿°pw C´n-s®-dn-b-Xns‚ aI≥Irjn Ccp-]-Øn-mep hb-€p≈ 12 BK-kvXnbpw Sn Ing-t°-°cn∂pw sISp-ºw-]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ ]m¿°pw Cu∏s‚ a°ƒ Irjn-°m¿ mev ] - Ø n- a q∂p hb- € p≈ 13 DWn- s ®- d n- b Xpw ap∏-sØm≥]Xp hb-€p≈ 14 C´n-A-bn∏pw ap∏-Ømdp hb-€p≈ 15aØm-bnbpw sXmΩs‚ aI≥ Irjn Ccp-]-Øn-c≠p hb-€p≈ 16Cu∏pw Ing-t°-°sc n∂pw ]oSn-I-bn¬ ]m¿°pw C´n-b-bn-∏ns‚aI≥ Irjn ap∏-sØm≥]Xp hb-€p≈ 17 C´n-b-bn∏pw Sn Ig-t°-°sc n∂pw ssItXm-en¬ ]m¿°pw sXmΩs‚ a°ƒ Irjn-°m¿ap∏-Xp-h-b-€p≈ 18 BK-kvXnbpw Ccp-]-sØ´p hb-€p≈ 19 C´n-b-bn∏pw Ccp-]Ønc≠p hb-€p≈ 20 DWn-s®-dn-bXpw IqSn Fgp-Xnb DS-º-Sn. Ωƒ F√m-hcpw ]pØ≥]p-c-bm-Ip∂ Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-°mcpw Ω-fn¬ 1Dw 2 Dw I£n-I-fp-tSbpw 3˛mw I£n-bp-tSbpwhey-∏pw tijw I£n-I-fpsS A∏q-∏pw Bbn-cp∂ acn®sXmΩ≥ C´nb-bn∏v F∂ Bfn¬n∂pw D¤-hn®v ]e imJ-I-fmbn ]ncn™p 1 Dw 7 Dw 8 Dw 9Dw 10Dw 11 Dw 12 Dw I£n-Iƒ HcpimJ-°mcpw Ah-cn¬ H∂mw I£n I¿Ωm-Zn-Iƒ Ap-jvTn®p ]mem-∏-≈n-bnepw 7˛mw I£n Be-bv°¬ F∂ ho´nepw 8˛mw I£nhmIm-n-bn¬ ho´nepw 9˛mw I£n Xmtm-en¬ ho´nepw 10-˛mw I£nsIm®p-a-‰-Øn¬ ho´nepw 11-˛mw I£n Sp-hnse hmImn ho´nepw12-˛mw I£n ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ ho´nepw 2Dw 4Dw 5Dw 6Dw I£n-IƒHcp imJ-°mcpw 2˛mw I£n I¿Ωm-Xn-Iƒ Ap-jvSn®v ]mem-∏-≈n-ta-S-bnepw 4˛mw I£n Ing-t°-°c ho´nepw 5˛mw I£n Ff-t¥m-´-Øn¬ ho´nepw 6˛mw I£n ]pen-a-e-°p-t∂¬ ho´nepw 3Dw17Dw 18 Dw 19Dw 20Dw I£n-Iƒ Hcp imJbpw Ah-cn¬ 3˛mw I£nI¿Ωm-Zn-Iƒ Ap-jvTn®p Ff-t¥m-´Øp ]≈n-bnepw 17-˛mw I£n]oSn-I-bn¬ ho´nepw 18-˛mw I£n Cu¥p-¶¬t∏mXn ho´nepw 19-˛mwI£n ssItXm-en¬ Ing-t°-ho-´nepw 20˛mw I£n ssItXmenho´nepw 13 apX¬ 16 hsc I£n-Iƒ Hcp imJbpw Ah-cn¬ 13-˛mwI£n Cu¥p-¶¬∏mXn ho´nepw 14-˛mw I£n ssItXmen ho´nepw15-˛mw I£n ]pØ-≥]p-c-bv°¬ ho´nepw 16-˛mw I£n X´mw-]-dºpho´nepw Ccn∏pw Xma-k-°mcpw BIp-∂p.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  22. 22. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 11 ΩpsS IpSpw- _ - ß - f n¬ {Zhy- ° p- d - h n- mepw a‰pw HcpimJbvt°m imJ-°m¿t°m IjvSX D≠m-Ip∂ Ah-k-c-ß-fn¬klm-bn®v Ahsc √ ÿnXn-bn¬ sIm≠p-h∂m¬ sIm≈m-sa∂p -Ωƒ°p B{K-l-ap-≈Xpw AXn-te°p Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cm¬ Xn-®p-’m-ln-°p-∂Xnp nhr-Øn-bn-√m-sX-bn-cn-°p-∂Xpw Aßs klm- -bn-°p-∂-Xn-te-°mbn Hcp aqe-[w D≠m-°p-∂-Xn-te°p am¿§wn›-bn®v Hcp apX¬ kzcq-]n®p h¿≤n-∏n-°-W-sa∂p Ωƒ n›-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xpw AXns‚ S-Øn∏npw Dd-∏npw th≠n Ct∏mƒCu DS-ºSn sNøp-∂Xpw Ω-fn¬ {]tXyIw {]tXyIw Xma-kn-°p∂ Bfp-Iƒ CXn¬ Dƒs∏-´n-cn-°p-∂Xpw BIp-∂p. Cu DS-ºSn Ing-t°-°c IpSpw_ ]cn-]m-e DS-º-Sn-sb∂phnfn-°s∏-Sp-∂Xpw 1087-˛mam≠v Ipw`-amkw 27-˛p HSp-hn-esØ Rmb- -dmgvN apX¬ S-∏n¬ hcp-Øn-bXpw BIp-∂p. Ωƒ {]tXyIw{]tXyIw Xma-kn-°p∂ Hmtcm ho´p-Imcpw AXmXp amk-Øn¬HSp-hn¬ hcp-∂-Xmb Rmb-dmgvN Znhkw BZysØ B≠mb 1087Ipw`w 27-˛mw XobXn apX¬ 1088 Ipw`w Ah-kmw hsc Ing-t°-°c ho´nepw ASpØ B≠n¬ Be-bv°¬ ho´nepw AXn--SpØB≠n¬ sISp-º≥]p-c-bn-S-Øn¬ ho´nepw AXn--Sp-Ø-bm-≠n¬]oSn-I-bn¬ ho´nepw Ω-sf-√m-hcpw IqSp-Ibpw Ωƒ Ct∏mƒ]ncn™p Xma-kn-°p∂ 17 ho´p-Imcpw hosSm-∂p°p 7 N{Iw h®pIW-s°-gp-Xp-Ibpw ΩpsS t£am-Zn-I-sf-∏‰n Btem-Nn®p th≠G¿∏m-Sp-Iƒ sNøpIbpw AXn-te°p Hcp amt-Pcpw Hcp ]Wwkq£n-∏p-Im-cpw Hcp IW°p kq£v-a-°m-cpw Hcp Xmt°m¬kq£n-∏p-Im-cpw D≠m-bn-cn-°bpw Ah-cpsS t]cp-hn-hcw apX-em-bXpw tbmK--S∏p kw_-‘n® S-]-Sn-Ifpw S-]Sn ]pkvX-I-Ønepw mƒhgn IW-°nepw hnh-cn-®n-cn-°bpw sNøp-∂-Xm-Ip-∂p. ΩpsS hoSp-Ifn¬ n∂pw, th¿]n-cn™p Xma-kn-°p∂ Bfp- -Iƒ Aßs ]ncn™p Xma-kn-°p∂ ImeØp Cu DS-ºSn Ap-k-cn®pw A{]-Imcw ]Ww h®pw S-t°-≠Xpw Aßs S-°p∂hnhcw S-]Sn ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ FgpXn Ah-sc-s°m≠p H∏n-Sp-hn-t°-≠Xpw Ah¿ H∏n-tS-≠Xpw Aßs tNcp∂ ka-b-ß-fn¬Ahcv Cu DS-º-Sn-bn¬ tN¿∂me-sØ-t∏m-se-bp≈ ^ew D≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xpw BIp-∂p. Ωƒ tbmKw IqtS-≠Xp Ime-ap-dbv°vta¬hn-h-cn® mep hoSp-I-fn-embn th≠Xpw thsd hoSpI-fn¬ IqS-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  23. 23. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 12W-sa∂p hnNm-cn-°p-hmtm IqSp-hmtm Bh-iy-an-√m-ØXpw ]W-s∏´n kq£vaw ta¬ hnh-cn® hoSp-I-fn¬ Hmtcm B≠n¬ kq£n-®p--sImt≈-≠Xpw Hcp-ho-´n¬ n∂pw as‰mcp ho´n-te°v s]´n amdn-s°m-Sp-°p-tºmgpw Xmt°m-ep-Iƒ apX-em-bh G¬∏n®v sImSp-°p-tºmgpw AXp- I ƒ G¬°p- ∂ - b mƒ ckoXv sImSp- t °- ≠ Xpwkq£va-t°-Sn-mtem at‰-sX-¶nepw kwK-Xn-h-imtem ]W-Øntms]´nt°m dn°m¿UpIƒt°m Xmt°m-entm h√ jvS-ØntmtNX-Øntm CS-h-cp-Øn-bm¬ AXn¬ h®p-≠m-Ip∂ F√m jvS-߃°pw jvSw hcp-Ønb Btfm Bfp-Itfm DØ-c-hm-ZnXzwsNtø-≠Xpw Ah-cpsS ÿmhc PwK-a-kz-Øp-°-fn¬ n∂p jvS-k-lnXw CuSm-°p-hm≥ a‰p I£nIƒ°p Iq´mbpw {]tXyIw{]tXy-I-am-bn´pw Ah-Im-i-ap-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p. F√m amkhpw HSp-hn-esØ Rmb-dmgvN Znhkw Ωfpw taem¬ CXn¬ tNcp∂ Bfp-Ifpw IqS-W-sa∂p n›-bn-®n-´p≈ hoSp-I-fn¬ ]I¬ Hcp-aWn ka-bØp IqSn ]Ww-h®p IW-s°-gp-Xn-°bpw ΩpsS IpSpw_ kw_-‘-ambn th≠n-hcp∂ F√m Imcy-ßtfbpw apX¬ h¿≤-hn-tbpw - - -]‰n ]cym-tem-Nn®p th≠ A`n-{]mb߃ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°bpw Bhnhcw S-]Sn ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ FgpXn amt-Pcpw ]W-s∏-´n,Xmt°m¬, IW-°v CXpIƒ kq£va-°mcpw AXp-Iq-SmsX c≠p-t]-cn¬ Ipd-bm-sX-bp≈ Bfp-Ifpw H∏n´p kq£n-°bpw tbmKwIqSp∂ Znh-k-ß-fn¬ F√m-hcpw lmP-cm-ImsX Ccp-∂m¬ KpW-tZmj Nn¥-sb-∏‰n `qcn-]£m-`n-{]m-bØn¬ a‰m-fp-Iƒ tNcp-Ibpw - - -sNbvXp-sIm-≈p-hm-p-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p. tbmKw IqSp∂ Znh-k-ß-fn¬ ]Ww ssh°msX Bsc-¶nepwhogvN hcp-Øp-Itbm AXp apX¬ mep amk-Øn-p-≈n¬ AtX-h-sc-bp≈ kwJy apgp-hpw h®p IW-s°-gp-Xn-°bpw AXn-p-ta¬]Ww sh°msX hogvN hcp-Øp-∂-Xm-bm¬ hogvN hcp-Øp∂ mƒapX¬ ]Ww sh°p-∂-Xmb mƒhsc sht°-≠-Xmb apgp-h≥kwJybpw AXnp XhW H∂p°p Hcp N{Iw hoX-ap≈ ]ng-tbm-Sp-IqSn hbv°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠Xpw Aß-sbpw sNøm-Xn-cp-∂m¬Aßs hogvN hcp-Øp∂ Bfp-Iƒ°p CXp kw_-‘-ambn HcpAh-Im-ihpw D≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂-X-√m-ØXpw BIp-∂p. C{]-ImcwapX¬ hcp∂ ]Ww icn- b mb kz¿Æw ]Wbw hmßnbpwsImt≠m Dd-∏mb {]amWw hmßn-bnt´m ]Ww ]en-i-bv°p-sIm-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  24. 24. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 13Sp-°bpw Aßs hmßp∂ {]am-W-߃ Cu tbmK-Øn-te°pth≠nbpw S-Ø-°m-cpsS t]cp h®p th≠Xpw Aßs sImSp-°p∂ ]Ww CuSmImsX hcnItbm AXn¬ h®p h√ jvShpwbtbmK apX-en-te-°p-≠m-Itbm sNbvXm¬ B hI jvSw S-Ø-Im-cp-h-ln-t°-≠Xpw ]Ww sImSp-°¬ hmß-ep-Iƒ°p≈ Npa-X-Iƒ ta¬ hnh-cn® S-Ø-°m-cn¬ am{Xw Ccn-°p-∂Xpw BIp-∂p. Ω-fn¬ GsX-¶nepw ho´p-Im¿°p GsX-¶nepw B]-Øp-IƒD≠m-Ibpw Icw hI tbmK-ap-X¬ sIm≠-√msX AXns nhr-Øn-°m≥ ]mSn-√msX hcn-Ibpw sNøp∂ Ah-k-c-ß-fn¬ ΩƒtbmKw IqSn n›-bn-°bpw tbmK apX¬ sIm≠p klm-bn-°bpwAXns Xnscy G¬∏n-°p-Ibpw Aßs G¬∏n-°m-Xn-cn-°bpwapX¬ Ds≠∂p ImWp-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ B hI apX¬ ]eniIqSmsX hkq¬ sNøp-∂Xnpw tImS-Xn-®n-ehp apX-em-bXp th≠n- -h-∂m¬ AXp-Iƒ Ic-Sm-°p-∂-Xnpw S-Ø-°m¿°p A[n-Im-c-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xm-Ip-∂p. ΩpsS Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-°m-c-√msX thsd IpSpw-_-°m¿°p Icw tbmK-Øn¬ tNcp-∂-Xnp B{K-ln-°p-hmtm Ahsc tN¿°p-hmtm ]mSn-√m-Ø-Xm-bn-cn-°p-∂p. apX-ens‚ h¿≤--hnpw IpSpw-_-Øns‚ c£bv°pwth≠n Icw hI apX-en¬ n∂pw B≠-h-km--ß-fn¬ HmtcmIp¿_m hoXw sNm√n-°bpw A∏-g-t∏mƒ D≠m-Ip∂ Nne-hp-Iƒ°p hni-Z-ambn IW-s°-gpXn S-Ø-°mcp H∏n´p kq£n-°bpwHmtcm B≠nepw D≠m-Ip∂ hchp Nne-hp-Iƒ B≠-h-km--ß-fn¬ S-Ø-°mcp t_m≤ys∏Sp-Ønbpw Ign-bp-∂Xpw a‰p tbmK-°msc t_m≤y-s∏-Sp-Ønbpw Ccp-∏np Hcp Xnc´p FgpXn BbXpwH∏n´ tijw dn°m¿Up-I-tfm-Sp-IqSn kp£n-°bpw sNtø-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p. C{]-Imcw Icw DS-ºSn Fgp-Xnb Sn 1 aØmbn IØ-m¿ 2De-l-∂≥ IØ-mcv 3 Ahp-tk∏p IØ-mcv tijw t]cpw (H-∏v). 1088 Nnßw 1˛v ]mem henb ]≈n taS-bn¬ h®p 1˛mw{ºmbn cPn-ÿ sNbvXp. hmk-ÿ-e-tØ-°p≈ ]Sn 1˛mw I£n Nnehp sNbvX cq]m11.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  25. 25. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 14CHAPTER - 1 KIZAKKEKARAS OF PALAI (KERALA) Origin & GrowthINTRODUCTORY REMARKS -THE PEOPLE The Kizhakkekara families form a very small fraction of theMalayalee population. Their history may be said to span a period of lessthan 400 years. Even so a genuine interest has been evinced by the elders of thissmall group to record the history of the clan, so that children and grandchildren of the Kizhakkekara families living in India and overseas mayget to know the roots of their origin, while family members of the rest ofthe Malayalee community may become aware of the presence of theKizhakkekara clan and story of their emergence in Kerala. The name Kizhakkekaras emanated during 1690 - 1700 when thehero of the story, the 2nd son of a family of 3 sons chose to settle downwith his family on the eastern part of the family estate. Since then, thisfamily and their generation came to be called Kizhakkekaras, meaningthe "easterners".ABOUT THIS BOOK As a result of the continued interest shown by the leaders of theclan to record their presence in Kerala an account of the families of theKizhakkekaras was being written from time to time from the beginningby members of the clan and most of the writings were done on palmleaves according to the prevailing practise of writing down importantevents and happenings taking place. During the period 1847 - 1961, the Palmyra documents were com-piled and in Malayalam Language made into a hand written manuscript,which later on was got printed. The person responsible for this transitionfrom palm leaf documents to hand written manuscript - during the aboveperiod was Kizhakkekara Peedikayil ITTYIPE ITTYIPE of the genera-tion. The handwritten manuscript - compiling all the earlier Palmyra leafdocuments is still available in the house of Pedikyil in Palai.Rev.Fr.Dr.C.T.Kottaram who was overseeing this work selected Sri○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  26. 26. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 15K.I.Varkey B.Sc.,B.Ed,. on 15-12-1972 for the above task. Another important development contributing to the emergence ofthe book during the period was the setting up of an organisation calledthe "Kizhakkekara Paripalana Yogam by elders of the clan consisting of20 members, 3 among them being priests,who were been on maintain-ing a historical account of the Kizhakkekara families. The first meeting of the Kizhakkekara Kudumba Yogam was heldin 1911 A.D. (Kollavarsham i. E. Malayalam Era. 1087) at Karotte VeettiHouse in which 3 priests and 17 heads of various branches attended themeeting. The following are the names,in these founder members:1. Mathai Kathanar, S/o Itty Cheriathu - Alakkal Branch2. Ulahannan Kathanar, S/o Varkey - Karotte Veettil3. Ouseph Kathanar, S/o Itty Ipe - Peedikayil4. Varkey, S/o Varkey - Karotte Veettil / Pulimalakunnel5. Varkey, S/o Thomman - do6. Thomman, S/o Thomman - do7. Itty Iype, S/o Itty Cheriathu - Alakkal (Cashier)8. Varkey, S/o Cherian - do- Vakaniyil9. Itty Iype, S/o Cherian - do - do10. Cherian, S/o Cherian - do - do11. Cherian, S/o Thomman - do - do12. Agusthy, S/o Ittycheria - Karotte Veettil /Pulimalakunnel13. Unnicheria, S/o Eapen - Puthanpurackal Eenthunkal Pakuthiyil14. Itty Iype, S/o Eapen - do - Kaitholil15. Mathai S/o Eapen - do- Puthenpurackal16. Eapen, S/o Thomman - do- Thattamparambil17. Itty Iype, S/o Itty Iype - Peedikayil○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  27. 27. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 1618. Agusthy, S/o Thomman - Peedikayil / Kaitholil19. Itty Iype, S/o Thomman - do20. Unnicheria, S/o Thomman - do During the 60s of the 20th century, the manuscript of theKizhakkekara history was printed, with updated information about thefamilies living up to that time. Since then, and during 2011, a fresh attempt was made to updatethe details of Kizhakkekara families. This year, 2011, was also the 100thanniversary of the yogam. It was also at this time that an English versionof the Kizhakkekaras history was prepared by Mr. K. C. Mani of the 8thgeneration of the clan (see the family tree of the clan ) to create aware-ness about their origin among the countless number of Kizhakkekarafamilies living abroad without the knowing to read and write the Malayalamlanguage. It was the curiosity and the zeal of a new beginner to dig upfacts of historical development that made him look for the early begin-nings of the clan families which took his research up to the Biblical ori-gins of the group. This will surprise many readers now and in the future. A red alert : The writer Mr.K.C.Mani (Kizakkekara Alakkal Branch)feels it necessary to alert all Kizakkekara family members particularlythe women about the prevalence of inbreeding genetic disorders noticedin large number of children as well as adults. It will be necessary to checkthis information in all their alliances for marriage in the coming years.A good Counsel :- It is recommended that a serious study be given to the issueof Jewish presence in India, and its impact on Malayalee commu-nity by reading the book of Abraham Benhur a Keralite author. Thebook is titiled "The Jewish background of Indian people."○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  28. 28. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 17CHAPTER - 2THE HISTORY OF THE KIZHAKKEKARAS OF PALAI The history begins with Errakonni Puthan Purakkal ThommaPanikar who had established a trading centre at Palai in 1696 A.D.whowas the youngest of 7 sons of Erakonni Itty Cheria. Puthan Purakkal Thomman was himself a renowned and well -established clan called Errakonnies who had settled themselves inMevada near Kottayam. The question naturally arises about the background of theErrakonnies.THE ERRAKONNIES :-Who are the Errakonnies and where did they come from?Historians have recorded evidence of the presence of a group of peopleat Palayoor who went by the family names - Sankarapuri, Pakalomattom,Kalli and Kaliankal, they were Afghan Pathans of Jewish origin, who hadsettled in Palayoor near Guruvayur, and who had been converted to Chris-tianity by St. Thomas, the disciple of Jesus, sometime during 52 - 55A.D. These Afghan Pathans were engaged in buying spices and condi-ments, sandalwood and other perfumery ingredients and precious stonesto be shipped back to Alexandria and Rome. To safeguard their activitiesa legion of Roman soldiers were stationed in Cranganore and Palayur,the port cities where ships came from Africa and Europe.It is useful to remember at this juncture, that Christianity was not well -received in Rome and the Roman soldiers stationed in the port area didnot take kindly to the Jewish Pathans and Jewish Pathan converts in thearea. they were harrased by the Roman soldiers, and prevented fromcarrying on with their trade. This was the situation up to 325A.D.Henceafter the converted Afghan Pathan family moved out to other places. For reasons stated above there was compelling reasons for themigrations of the members of these families from Palayur to Angamali,Edappally, Kuravilalgad,Kottayam,Niranam,Etc,. In their Moments of des-peration, the migrated families cursed the place which they were forcedto leave and place is now called Chavakkad (Shapakkad).○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  29. 29. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 18 Out of a fraction of the group which moved to Edapalli, some movedto Manarkad near Kottayam and prospered in their trade some othermoved further to Mevada near Palai and set up trading in spices. Thegroup which moved from Edapalli to Manarkad belonged to Pakolomattomclan. Near Mevada, was located Errakonni, and the ruler of Errakonnitook a liking to the immigrant community on account of their experiencein trading, and invited them to come over to Errakonni to set up a tradecentre. In those days, Errakonni was fast becoming a popular centre fortrade and commerce. The migrant families accepted the offer of the rulerof Errakonni and started their trading activities in Errakonni. Since then,they were called "Errakonni-Mappillas". It will be useful to remember the Jewish link(Afghan Pathan) in theclan name of Pakolomattom and the Errakonni - Mappillas, to know theorigin of the Errakonnies and the splinter group, Kizhakkekaras. Some time during 1341, continous rains caused great floods inKerala which resulted in heavy siliting of the Periyar river, disabling tradeactivities to the Pathan Families at Angamali. The Periyar river whichwas flowing to Crangannore port also changed its course and startedflowing to Cochin and Wipin Island also formed during this time.ThePathan families staying at Angamally were compelled to move out toEddapally near Alwaye and to Kurvilangad,and other places in search oftrading activities.THE KIZHAKKEKARAS :- We made a mention about Errakonnin Puthan Purakkal ThommaPannikar and his 3 sons of whom, the 2nd son was the founder of theKizhakkekara clan. Before we take up the life accounts of the 3 sons, there is aninteresting account of Thomma Panikkar himself. The account is abouthis inherent generous nature and Compasion to help people in distress. In 836(kollavarsham) Thomma Panikkar was on his way to Kochito buy the merchandise for his business centre at Palai, he spotted ayoung Brahmin lad sitting on the road - side at Piravom. On enquiry, hefound that the lad was held in bondage over the non - repayment of aloan taken by his father who had left on a pilgrimage to Benaras and wasdelayed on his return journey. The lad had been kept as a hostage andhe was left most of thedays starving and unattended to, by the creditor.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  30. 30. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 19The lad was from Vadakkum Manakkal Illam. Thomma Panikkar tookpity on him, repaid the debt and released him from his bondage. This isjust one incident of the many generous deeds said to have been done byhim, during his lifetime. Now we return to the 3 sons and how they faredin their lives. The 1st son, named Ottaplakkal Ittycheria became a minister inthe service of Meenachil Kartha, the ruler of Palai. This enabled thefamily, to become respected. Marriage alliances with well - to - do fami-lies, having landed propery, were arranged for his sisters of whom therewere 3. His position as a Minister, brought honorary title of "Panikkar" tothe father, Puthan Purakkal Thomman. The 3rd son, named Padinjarekara Mathai took over the familybusiness of trading and rose to bcome very rich and earnd the title"Tharakan" . As for the 2nd son Itty Iype (THE HERO OF OUR STORY) hebecame well - known as a martial art professional, which enabled him tobe recognized as a chieftain in the area. He was well remembered forsettling local disputes, and bringing peace among the warring factions inthe area. He concentrated on developing agriculture. He played an im-portant role to save his father when he was attacked by one of the dis-missed labour heads, while taking a nap in the courtyard of the house IttyIype caught him and informed his brother minister Ottaplackal Itty Cheriawho in turn ordered to shoot him at Kanattupara. He married from thehouse of Pallipurath family (Pakalomottam clan),He raised a family of 3sons and 5 daughters. Even his marriage was not with out adventure.Thebride who was said to be the only sister of Thomas Methran (Bishop)was interested to get married to a respectable family. There was a diffi-culty which he had to face.The ruler Ancha kulathu panickker who wantedher to be married to a young man from Kunnumpurathu family.This pro-posal was not agreeble to Thomas Methran, Because the Kunnumpurathufamily was of inferior rank among the Catholics of that time, ThereforeThomas Methran selected our hero Itty Iype as the Prospectivegroom.When the marriage was concluded, and the bridal pair was beingattented to with other ceremonies in Pallypuarathu house a soldier of theruler Anchakulathupanickker showed up and started creating trouble bycutting down the lamb hanging in front of their house to which IttyIypebecame furious got up, and kicked out the soldier to the delight of allwho had assembled there.Thus began his married life,and the genera-tion of Kizakkekara .He lived a shortlife of 11 years,and raised a family of○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  31. 31. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 208,3sons and 5 daughters.At the time of writing this historical account in July of 2011,AD, there are10 to 12 generations of the Kizakkekaras.Chapter 111 CONNECTING THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT In the Previous chapters we mentioned about the presence of fami-lies of Jewish ancestry in diffrent locations of Kerala State,and how fromout of these families, a connectivity has been estsablished to somemalayalee families. Our connecting thread is the Erakonnies, and the splinter groupthe Kizakkekara clan, whose history we are narrating in this book. It willbe useful to remember that descendants of Jewish origin have beensettled in Kerala for almost 2000 Years,Historical evidence backed byarchaeological findings show that these Jewish descendants are alsoseen to have established their presence in other parts of India-Punjab-Kashmir,Central India,Eastern India,Maharashtra,Karnataka,South India,(Tamil Nadu) and Kerala A further understanding of their movement leadsto even earlier periods, earlier to Abraham to know how long back in intime these peoples originated ,and when and how they came to be spreadout so far? If the Reader is acquainted with Bilble,you will recall that the worldwas destroyed by a great flood from out of which only 8 people wereable to escape in a big size boat and the family which surviced the floodwas the family of Noah his wife, his 3 sons and 3 daughters in law, The Quaranic account of the flood is very similar to the narrationin the Bible, It mentions the survival of Noah and his family and a pair ofall animals and birds as stated in the Bible. All the ancient population hadrecords and beliefs about a flood. For instance the Indian mythyologyrecords the "Matsya" avatar (Fish incarnation of vishnu) in which avenearble saint was warned of a forth coming flood in 7 days, and hewas advised to escape in a boat with a chosen group of 7 sages.TheGreek philosopher Plato narrates in his book Timaeus. "The Gods puri-fied the world with a flood allowing only a small number of shepherds toescape". The Chinese also have a story about the flood in their book "Li-Ki" which states as follows:-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  32. 32. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 21 "The pillars of the sky were destroyed, The Earth shook to itsfoundations,The Sun and Stars changed their Tracks, The Earth crackedopen.The great order of the Universe was destabilized . All these badevents took place because man disobeyed the supreme Lord of the Uni-verse. The Chinese tradition acknowledges the escape of a family headedby Nuah (Noah) the righteous man, his wife, and 3 sons,Lottan (Ham)losheen (sheen) and jah-hu (japath) by building a very broad ship andtaking on it pairs of animals and birds. Just as it was among the people in the middle east, Greece , EgyptIndia and china, the anceient occupants of the American continent had alegend about a cataclysmic flood which had ravaged the world known tothem, and from out of which 3 to 8 person saved themselves in boat,which settled down on a hill. The survivors came down to the plain andpopulated the world. Dear Reader, all the above details are furnished to establish thepoint about the commonality of belief and similarities of the stories re-garding " great flood", which destroyed the world leaving behind a hand-ful of survivors. This historic event had taken place somewhere between 4000 and3000 BC.Noah and his family:- The first family on Earth The boat in which one family of 8 members survived, was said tohave settled on top of a mountain. This mountain has since been identi-fied as the Ararat peak mountain in the Armenian ranges, east of modernTurkey. This is the same area refered to in the Bible the Quran, and theSumerian epic of Gulgamesh, Noah the first parent of the world after the flood is said to havesettled down with his family in a location called "urattin" which is situatedin Turkey-Armania. With their preflood experiences the family started a pastoral life.The Bible records that Noah was the first man to plant a vineyard(gen9:20). The descendants of Noahs sons Shem, Ham and Japheth devel-oped settlements along rivers and spread out through the length andbreath of the world.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  33. 33. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 22NOAHS DESCENDANTS The Bible records that during plege"s time the people of the worldwere divided,(gen.10.25), Now ,Reader this is a pointer to the spread out situation of Noahsdecendants, going their separate ways during the time of Pledges- whowas one of the great grandsons of Noah. They formed separate tribes, and drew the limits of their domainssettlements. Anthrapological studies speak about 6000 odd clans of people onearth, Tracing their ancestry to the Semitic, Hameric and Japhethik stocks. Bible records that 26 of these great races descended from shem,30 from Ham, 14 from Japheth. It is these 70 tribes who created thecivilisation of the bygone days, These races lived on the sea coasts, along the great rivers ofAsia,Africa and Europe. As at the time of writing in 2011, there are 6400 millions people onearth belonging to 6000 groups,speaking about 3000 languages, Basedon the structural and grammatical similarities, philologists have groupedthem into 10 main categories as follows.(1) The Indo-european (2) the semitic (3) the Sino-tibetian (4) theDravidian (5) the ural-altaic (6) the Malayo-polyuresian (7) The African -Negroid (8) The American-Indian,(9) The caucasian and (10) Micellaneous(viz the Astree and Mundra). From the Semitic stock(after Noah"s son shem) the prominentpeople who emanated into tribes were - the Herbrews (later Israelites)the Ishmaelitis etc. The 13 Arab tribes were also from the Semitic stock.They mostly lived in Tigris basin, the Medi teranien coast and Arabia.Their main language of the Middle Eastern, and North African countriesis Arabic. The Hametic stock (after Ham the 2nd second son of Noah) arebelieved to have lived in Babylon, Egypt,Somalia, Ethopia and Libye . The youngest son of Ham was canaan. He is credited as beingthe founder of 11 tribes who were found settled in an area extendingfrom Bogoskoy in Asia minor to Gaza on the Mediterranien coast until○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  34. 34. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 232000 BC. All tribal dialects spoken in African Continent are the languages ofthe descendants of Ham. (Hametic stock) They are popularly known asthe Negroid races. The canannites who had reached Indus valley and later on movedto the southern Indian peninesula spoke Dravidian language- The lan-guage of the people who developed the Indus valley civilisation as foundin the excavation of Mohenja-Dara and Harappa. Dear Reader, haveyou heard about these remarkable cities which were known to have highstandard of civilisation as we know it now?. The cananites migrated further south, establishing homesheadsin the Godavari, Krishna and Cavery basins. The Dravidian languageswere mostly spoken by the tribals and the socially backward communi-ties of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,Tamil Nadu, and Kerala and thesewere the legacies of the cananaties. The Japhethites :- The descendants of Japeth the 3rd son ofNoah were known as the Aryan race, they had settled in the areas northof the Tropic of Cancer in Europe, central Asia, and northern Iran. Fromout of them, the Anthrapologists trace the emergence of wild tribes ofcentral Asia, including the Scythians, Turks Tartas, parthieans and Huns. They gave rise to the languages identified as Indo-European, whichare the dominant language-group in the present day world. There arefive branches of the Indo-European language. They are (1) The Indo - Aryan (2) The Indo-Iranien (3) The germanic(german, English, Swedish) (4) The Roman (italian, spanish, french,romanien) and 5th the Baltic slavic. Hindi ,Urdu,Punjabi, Sindhi,Gujarathi,Marathy,Bengali,Orya andAssamees are the offshoots of the Indo-Aryan language of Sanskrit. Modern scientific findings, and religious texts enable any seriousthinking mind to accept that the history of the human race began at onepoint and with one family. The vast multitude of generations that havepopulated the globe during the years since 3000 BC, have necessarily alink among themselves whether -they be dressed up in white, black, brownand yellow skins. The fact and the understanding behind the fact is a compelling○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  35. 35. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 24realisation that we are all from the same family- and we are cousins toeach other - never mind if the rank of the cousinship is first,Second,Thirdor the thousandthBeginning from the time of Noah (3000 BC) when mankind got a newlease of life on earth we reach upto the time of Abraham(2166-1991BC)-his son Issac(2066-1896 BC) and his grandson Jocob (2006-1859 BC).Jews move to Egypt and undergo life as slaves :- Jacob and his 12 sons moved to Egypt when their land was rav-aged by a severe famine. When they migrated to Egypt in 1876 BC.Thejoseph family members were only 70. During the next 430 years thisnumber swelled up to 2000,000. When Joseph the son of Jacob occu-pied a prominent position under Paroah the Egyptiean ruler the jewishpeople lived happily. But the later rulers of Egypt began to make lifedifficult for the Jews, imposing hard conditions of labour, and severepunishments for mistakes made. The Jewish women were forced to killtheir newborn male children.During their stay of 430 years in Egypt the descendants of the 12 sons ofJacob had divided themselves into 12 tribes, with the following names. 1) Reuben 2) Saimon 3) Joseph 4) Judah 5) Zebulum 6) Issachar7) Dan 8) Gad 9) Asher). 10) Napthali 11) Ephraim and 12) Benjamin. The Jewish people were liberated from the Egyptian captivity bythe strong hand of their God, under the leadership of Moses. Although their God helped them to leave Egypt, cross the RedSea and Took them towards Canan the promised land, he became angrywith their constant acts of desobediance, and revolt against himself somuch so the jews were made to wander in the area for 40 years, until theolder generation who had shown rebellion and distrust perished , and theremaining people were young and obedient. They reached Canaan in 406 BC conquering many rulers, andtaking possession of large areas of land around Jericho.The Jewish people form a Nation for themselves -Israel ;- When the Jewish exile from Egypt finally moved into the countryof Moab under the leadership of Joshua, they were by engaged in battleswith many rulers of near by kingdoms, big and small conquering them alland seizing large areas,The Bible records in Joshna 11.16-17 the defeat○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  36. 36. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 25of 31 kings and annexing their kingdom. The conquered land was divided among the 12 tribes, and theland thus occupied by the 12 tribes was called Israel and its locationextendedd from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean sea to the Jor-dan Valley- the Valley of Lebanon, and to the South of Mount Harmon. Israel was made up of a collection of village republics (panchayatin the Indian administrative practice) These village units were governedby leaders, and tribal chiefs, some of the tribal chiefs who were knownfor their wise counsel and good judgements in settling disputes, and quar-rels among the people were known as Judjesfind pre- eminent place inthe Bible.under the chapter judges. between (1406 and 1025) BC theJewish people now known as Israelies were adoministered by Judjes,thereafter the Israelies found it necessary to have a king to rule all the tribes,so as to have a fighting force drawn up from among them to meet thefrequent battles arising from the neighbouring kingdom.. The first king was saul,who was succeeded by David,who madeJerusalem the capital of Israel. After David Solomon (well known for hiswisdom, which attracted many kings from far and near to attend his courtruled Israel till his death in 937 BC to this time the land of Israel wasunder one ruler king.Thereafter the 12 Tribes carved the nation in to twoparts,the north and south Israel- the northen part was taken over by 10tribes and the southern part by the 2 tribes Judah and Banjamin. Thenorthern part was called Israel with its capital setup in Samaria. Theanother part became known as Judaea, with its capital in Jerusalem.The Israelies disobedience ;- With life well settled and prosperity in their land and home, thepeople of Israel begen to forget the instructions given by moses, regard-ing worshipping false gods" They started worshipping gods of the peopleswhom they had conquered in battles Due to the persuasion of their womenwhom they had taken up as wives or concubines. As these wives werewomen of different religious.beliefs, and not guided by strict code of con-duct, the Israelies soon found themselves livings a life far moved fromthe law of Moses and worse, in total negation of the covenant which God(Jehooah) had made with them through Moses, The Israelies were warned of their erring ways, and betrayal ofthe covenant with God by prophets like Elijah, Jonah, Amos, Hosea, Micah,and others.The Israelities, turned a deaf ear and even began to pros-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  37. 37. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 26ecute the prophets who warned them of their evil ways,The Punishment :- The punishments to samaria the northern kingdoms of Israel andJeruslem the southern part of Israel came one after another true to thewarnings given by the prophets. The neighbouring kingdoms,who wereonce afraid of Israels power because they believed that the Israel werepeople, in whom their God was ever present and always protected themfrom enemies now began to see the difference in their life styles, changeof worship, and the ebbing away of their moral fibre. They rose up indi-vidually and collectively against Israel Syria, Assyria,Babylon, Egypt,persia, rose against Israel with devastating consequences. The Assyrean emperor Sargon 2 conquered samaria and took27290 Israelities prisoners in 725 BC The southern Judah kingdom wasoverran by the Egyptian king Neko in 608 BC who took a good number ofIsraelist as prisoners, The babylonion king Nebuchadnezzar attackedJudah and took of Israelists prisoners in 607 BC. The babylonion kingsattacked Israel again and again successively in 597 BC,587 BC and 582Bc, taking away nearly 80,000 prisoners and settled them in Babylon. The last of the kingdoms which dominated Israel were Greeceand Rome. Greece under Alexander took over Israel by defeating Per-sians in 333BC. Although Israelities were treated with leniency byAlexander his successers illtreated and persecuted them installing Greekgod zeus in the temple at Jerusalem. The Jewish tribe of Maccabeesprevailed against the mighty Greeks and seized control of Judah, andpurified the temple in 165Bc. They even fought the other Isreali tribes inthe Northern part of the Kingdom captured the town of Samaria, anddestroyed the temples built for the cannite goddesses. However their freedom from foreign domination was shortlived,since a Roman General named Pompeii stationed in the city of Dam-ascus, attacked Judah in 63 BC capturing Jerusalem. This was the lastforeign domination. After the Roman occupation. Israel was literally blownoff the map due to continous rebellion of the Jews against Roman occu-pation, leading to severe and cruel repression of the Jews in Israel. Notwithstanding the fact that a Jewish king named Herod was appointedruler of Israel under Romes approval, the Jewish rebellion continuedwell into the years when Jesus was born and far later until Rome camedown with a heavy hand, crushing the Jewish resistance, destroying the○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  38. 38. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 27temple of Jerusalem, and putting an end to the very presence of theJews in Israel. It was a sad end to the heroic resistance put up by theJews, when the last remnants of them numbering about 800 comittedsuicide on the top of a hilly terrain called "Mazade".The year 70 AD isremembered as the time when the great diaspora (the great uprooting ordisplacement) of the Jews took place scattering them all over the world. Speaking of the Jewish Diaspora, two periods are rememberedfirst when they were exiled to Babylon in 607 BC and the 2nd in 70ADwhen they were pushed out of Judah by the Romans. This is one part of the sad story of the Jews who began their liveson earth, as a nation full of promise and achievements, giving rise togreat civilizations, and finally ending up as losers, with no homeland oftheir own and marking each passing year from 72 AD till 1947 AD withthe prayer "that the next year will see them in Jerusalem".This was theprayer of every true blooded Jew for well over 1075 years since 726BCtill.1947 AD, when the United Nation organization announced the birth ofthe nation of Israel- For the time being this was a happy ending for thescattered Jews.As we write in 2011 AD, Israel was found to be hostlileand inimical to many of these Arab neighbouring kingdoms - particularlyIran which has openly stated "Israel must be wiped out from the worldmap" The other part of their sad story concerns the lost tribes, and ournarration of all the above history has a certain relevance in knowing aboutthe lost tribes-we discuss the issue in the next chapter.Chapter : IV THE CONCLUDING PART OF THE STORY :- The Reader is invited to the passage in the Bible (Math.10.6) whereJesus Christ advises his disciples to go in search of the lost sheep (tribes)!He was referring to the enslavement and deportation of nearly 27300families from the northern part of the Kingdom of Israel by Sargon II ofthe Assyria. In the year following their deportation there was no further newsabout what happened to them.The deportation took place in 627 BC.andtheir where abouts remained un known. So when Jesus come on the scene almost 6 countries had rolledout.On the basis of the hypocthesis that a new generation in every 25○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  39. 39. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 28years, about 24/or 12 generation would have emerged.During the 6 cen-turies since the capture and Departation of the Jews from the northernpart of Israel no information about them was available so they began tothink that some trouble or calamity he has overtaken their kinsmen takenas slaves. Thus the notion of ten lost tribes in which began to to takeshape . It was these lost tribes Jesus referred to as the lost sheep. Nodoubt later on Jesus spoke about the lost sheep in a broader context toindicate the inclusion of each and every soul that strays away from thepath of righteousness labeling them as sheep that had lost its way. It was the exhortation of Jesus addressed to the disciples thatimpelled St.Thomas to go to India 2 times when he came to know of thepresence of Jewish settlements in the north, and north western part ofIndia, at the first instance and later on about their presence in the south-ern part of India.Were these people the descendants of the lost tribes.,if so how did they reach out so far from the places of their incar-ceration? The Jewish families of the 10 tribes of the northern Israel whowere taken to Assyria were informed that their kinsmen in the southernIsrael kingdom were also conquered by the kings of to their homelandIsrael and made slaves and taken to other kingdoms. Emperor, Sargon, attacked Samaria and took 30,000 Israelites asprisoners (2 Kings 18:12) .The Assirians also started marrying women ofIsrael and a new generation called Samaritans was born. The captive Israelites multiplied in their places where they weredeported to as slaves began to spread out to different parts of the Earth.Research evidences show their presence in Sindh and North - westernprovinces, Baluchistan(Baluchistan ranges are called Solomom ranges)in Hindu Kush region, Thakshila (Rawal Pindi), an important place oflearning and trade centre on the silk route to China- and also to Afghani-stan, Kashmir, Pakistan,india, Africa, Europe, America, China, Korea &Japan, etc. Researchers were able to establish their presence in those areas,on account of their foot - prints which they left behind. The foot - printswere mainly the similarities in the technique they used to bury their dead.The jews and their descendants graves and the grave sites were called"Dolmens" wherever they went.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  40. 40. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 29An explanation about Afghan pathans :- It is claimed that the grandson of King Saul of Benjamin tribe wascalled Afghana and that he rose to become the head of the army. WhenNebuchadnezzar, the emperor of Babylon overran the kingdom of Israelin 607 B.C. and took 80,000 Israelites to his kingdom. Afghana was saidto have escaped with his followers and made good his way to a placecalled Gore near the HinduKush ranges. he was astonished to meetmany families of the lost tribes already settled there keeping Jewish cus-toms infact and speaking fluent Aramic language. He is said to havegathered them under his leadership- they were called Afghanas, whichlater became the name of the country now called "Afghanistan". Theterm "pathan" came from word "path" meaning ten in the Dravadian lan-guage which was widely spoken among the section of jews in themedterranien region. Pathans therefore came to be associated with thepeople settled in the region. It may be remembered that the Israelites found in this region wereindeed the 10 tribes who were called the "Pathans" the details of theirarrival and the setting up of their kingdom of Afghanistan are furnished in"Mahasan-I-Afhghani", a document compiled by the Iranian writer,"Nemathulla Harvi", who was a historian in the court of the EmperorJahangir, in 1612A.D. It may be mentioned here that the Afghanistan Pathans who wereof the lost tribes and many of them had embraced Islam,"Sunni"werethey also called Afridis (in Persian Afridi means new arrivals). The firstking of Afghanistan was from the Afghana clan, called Ahmed Shah, andthe kingdom lasted from 1747 to 1973A.D. Even though many of the lost tribes converted to Islam, they con-tinued to observe many rituals and socio-cultural practices of the losttribes. They were known to circumcise their male infants on the 8th dayafter birth, They Kept separate mats for prayers (Talith),wore marriage rings(Hupa), observed menstrual cleanliness abstained from forbidden food(camels and horses),avoided boiling flesh in milk observed distinction ofclean and unclean bird meat, observed sabath, lighting of candles onsabath days, and praying towards Jerusalem, smearing of blood on thedoorsteps during epidemic, rearing of goats for special festivals, keepingthe book of psalms below the pillow during an illness and the display of○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  41. 41. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 30the star of David in their houses. The presence of many Hebrew words inAfghan language, naming of hills and hill ranges after famous Jewishleaders( Ranges in Baluchistan called Solomon ranges), all bear witnessto their jewish heritage . Over the centuries, some of the Jewish Pathans now called Af-ghan pathans belonging to the lost tribes were following the silk routefor their trading activities and found themselves travelling to the westand east coast regions of India, passing through the present day MadhyaPradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states to reachKerala in pursuit of trading in spices, condiments, sandalwood and pre-cious stones, In kerala they settled mainly in sea-ports, like Cranganore,Palayur, Thondy(Calicut), Paravoor, Quilon and riverside towns likeCocomangalam(Malayattor ) of Periyar, Niranem and Nilakkal of PampaRiver most of which were spice producing centres. They were also foundliving in Marayur, Wayanad, Pathanamthitta. This is the brief history of the movement of the Jews of the losttribe to Palayur, the starting part of the Kizhakkekara clan.An explanation regarding the confusion about who St.Thomasconverted? In the light of research and studies, making use of the epigraphicand literary sources, modern historiographers like Prof. Elamkulam KunjanPillai came to the conclusion that the ancestors of the present dayNambudiris established their temple centred gramas, in the span of the8th and the 9th centuries in Kerala. Only by the 9th and the 10th centu-ries of the Christian era, many of the temples in kerala were constructed. Dr. Keshavan Veluthatt states that the 32 Nambudiri gramas re-ferred to in "Keralolppathi" suggested that their migration to Kerala wasduring the 8th century. The reason for this confusion was because some of the Pathanfamilies embraced Hinduism during their long stay in India and becameknown as Bhatts and Bhattathiris in the Konkan Coast. Iyers, Iyengarsand Shastris in the Western Coast and those settled in Kanchipuramcalled themselves as Tamil Brahmins and they spread to Mylapore. Thosesettled in kerala were the early converts and not nambudri brahmins.Following this, Jewish Pathans delect (reomove) the portion also mi-grated to the above places in search of trade. This prompted St. Thomasto visit Mylapore and other areas.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  42. 42. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 31St. Thomas came to india on two occations. People remember the epic journey of St. Thomas in A.D 52 toCranganore in South India. This journey was done on ship along thepopular sea route by taking advantage of the "HIPPALUS" wind which isthe south west monsoon winds as we know it now. What is not so well -known and recalled is the fact of St. Thomass 1st visit to North India. Hewent to Taxila to help design the architecture of the palace of the ParthianKing, Gondophorus (BC 95 to AD 45). He is said to have followed the silk- route to reach Taxila along with a leader in trading, Mr. Hebban whotold him about the presence of large Jewish settlements in and aroundthe place. St. Thomas converted many Jewish Pathans to Christianity inthe area of Takhshila. There he was made to understand that there weremany Jewish settlements in South India also and to reach them, the sea- route was the best option. There is a mistaken notion that the very first converts were Brah-min numbudris And this took place in AD52(i.e first century after christ). This is awrong belief. India was thus, twice blessed to have the presence of this pre-cious saint of the Lord and the early beginning of the conversion to Chris-tianity of the lost tribes besides the Indian people, who had not knownChrist. He spent 20 years in India. He was martyred in Mylapore on the3rd of July A.D and Christians in South India observe this day as"DUKHRANA". It may be recalled that when Jesus exhorted his disciples to go outto the 4 corners of the Earth and bring to the people his teachings, hemade a special mention to seek the lost sheep - meaning the families ofthe lost tribes which was one of the main reasons of St. Thomas to cometo far away India, where he was given to understand the members of thelost tribes had migrated and settled (Mathew 10.6). We noted earlier that St. Thomas had heard about the presenceof Jewish families in South India when he went to Taxila. When he reachedCranganore Port in Kerala Coast, he was surprised to find that the Jew-ish Pathans spoke Aramaic language and many of the socio - culturalpractices were similar to that of the Jewish people of Israel. The first conversion took place in Palayur where 4 families namely,Pakalmattom, Shankarapuri, Kalli and Kaliyankal.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  43. 43. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 32 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  44. 44. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 33 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  45. 45. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 34 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  46. 46. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 35 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  47. 47. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 36 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  48. 48. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 2000 B.C. The Silk route through India 37 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  49. 49. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 38 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  50. 50. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 39 Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw
  51. 51. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 40 Ingt°°c IpSpw-_-N-cn{Xw 10-˛mw q‰m≠p apX¬ ]membpsS Ncn-{X-Øn-sm∏w S-°pIbpw X-Xm-sbmcp Ncn{Xw cNn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXv tIc-fØns‚-hnhn[ `mKßfn-te°v IrjnImcy߃°mbpw temI-Øns‚hnhn[ `mKß-fn-te°v tPmen-bpsS -`m-Kambpw -IpSn-tb-dnbhcm-WvIng-t°°c IpSpw_mwK߃. ]≠v hym]mcw Pnhn-X-am¿§-am-bn-cp∂ Hcp {InkvXobIpSpw_w Beph CS-∏-≈n-bn¬ n∂pw hym]m-cm-h-iy-߃°mbntIm´bw ASpØv aW¿ImSv h∂v Xma-kn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. A∂v]mem {]tZiw ao- ® n¬ F∂m- W v Adn- b s∏´ncp- ∂ - X v . A∂vChnSsØ nbaßfpw ymbm-ym-b-ßfpw tm°n S-Øn-bn-cp-∂Xpw cmPy-]p-tcm-K-Xn-°m-h-iy-amb Imcy-߃ sNbvXn-cp-∂XpwcmPm-hn-smØ A[nImcmh-Im-i-߃ D≠m-bn-cp∂ ao-®n¬I¿Ømhv F∂ CS-{]-`p-hm-bn-cp-∂p. ao®n¬ I¿Øm°∑mcpsS ]q¿∆nI¿ a[pcbn¬ n∂pwh∂hcmWv. a[pc ao-m£n t£{Xw ]pcm-X {]kn-≤-am-Wv.aom£n t£{X-Ønv ASp-Øp-n∂pw h∂-h¿ F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ao-®n¬ F∂v Chsc hnfn-®p-h∂p. ao-®n¬°m¿ Xma-kn® {]tZ-iw {ItaW ao-®n¬ Icbmbpw, ao-®n-en-eqsS Hgp-Ip∂ ]pg ao-®n¬ Bdmbpw Adn-b-s∏-´p. sslµh CXn-lm-k-Øn¬ ]memgn IS-™t∏mƒ AarXv e`n-®-Xmbn ]d-bp-∂p. ao-®n-en-eqsS Hgp-Ip∂]pgsb ]mem-gn-bmbn `‡¿ hnti-jn-∏n-®p. ]memgn hmsam-gn-bneqsS{ItaW tem]n®v ]membv (Palai) Bbn. ]membv˛¬ A®Sn ajn]Xn-™-t∏mƒ B[p-n-I -Im-esØ ]mem F∂-t]cv cq]-s∏-´p. PmXnhyh-ÿbpw Xo≠epw sXmSoepw ne-n-∂n-cp∂]Ømw q‰m-≠n¬ tahn-S, ao-®n¬ {]tZisØ CS-{]-`p-°ƒ ºn-ImSv Nmh-°m´v I¿Øm-°∑mcm-bn-cp-∂p. ‘Cu®, ]q®, mbv,{kmWn’ F∂n-hbv°v Aip≤n Iev]n-®n-cp-∂n-√. {km-b-mb○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  52. 52. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 41tbip-hn¬ hniz-kn-°p∂ {kmWn sXm´m¬ Aip-≤am-bXpw ip≤- -amIpw F∂ hnizmkw mb-∑m-cnepw {_m-“-W-cnepw A∂v cqV-aq-e-am-bn-cp-∂p. FÆ, D∏v, ]©-km-c XpS-ßnb ntXym-]tbmK hkvXp- -°ƒ Aip-≤-am-bm¬ AXv IgpIn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xnpw km[y-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. Cu kml-Ncy-Øn¬ tah-S, ao-®n¬ {]tZ-isØ I¿Øm- -°-∑m¿ Btem-Nn®v tahS Hcp hym]m-c-tI-{µ-am-°-W-sa∂ Dt±-iy-tØmsS aW¿ImSv n∂pw I√-°-Spº F∂ {InkvXob IpSpw-_Ønse Hcmsf tah-Sbv°v sIm≠p-h-∂p. At±-l-sØ IpSpw-_-ktaXw kz¥w `h-Øn-SpØp≈ Fd-tIm∂n ]pc-bn-SØn¬ hoSp- - - -n¿Ωn®v Xma-kn-∏n-®p. Fd-tIm∂n ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ Xmakn®-Xn-m¬Fd-tIm∂n am∏n-f-am¿ (alm-]n-≈) F∂mWv Ct±-lhpw ]n≥ap-d-°mcpw Adn-b-s∏-´Xv. ]mem {]tZiØv BZy-Im-eØv Npcp°w Nne ItØm-en-°m -Ip-Spw-_-߃ am{Xta D≠m-bn-cp-∂p-≈q. 10-˛mw q‰m-≠p-hscCh¿ Acp-hn-Øpd ]≈n-bn-emWv B≤ymXvanImhiy߃°mbnt]mbn-cp-∂-Xv. Fd-tIm∂n, hb-e-s°m-ºv, Xd-bn¬, Iq´p-¶¬ F∂omev {]apJ IpSpw-_ßfpsS tXr-Xz-Øn¬ 1002 Pqsse 3˛v ]mem- - -bn¬ ]pXnb ]≈n°v I√n´v n¿Ωm-W-{]-h¿Ø--߃ Bcw-`n-®p,CXn¬ {]Y-aÿmw Fd-tIm-∂n- Ip-Spw-_Øn-m-Wv. Cu ]≈n-bmWv - -]n∂oSv IØo-{U¬ ]≈n-bmbn Db¿Øn-b-Xv. Ing-t°°c IpSpw_mwK-ß-fpsS hy‡-amb Ncn{Xw 16˛mwq‰m-≠n¬ XpS-ßp-∂p. 16, 17 q‰m-≠p-I-fnse ΩpsS ]q¿∆n-I-cpsSNcn{Xw apJy-ambpw hmsam-gn-bmbn e`n-®hbm-Wv. 1650-˛¬ Fd-tIm∂n - -am∏n-f-am-cn¬ C´n-s®-dnb F∂- IpSpw_mY≥ sh´n-°m´v IpSpw-_-Øn-te°v amdn-Øm-a-kn-®p. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Ønse ]q¿∆n-I-cn¬ t]cv e`y-amb BZy ]nXm-a-l≥ Cu C´n-s®-dn-b-bmWv. sh´n-°m´v ]pc-bnS-Øn¬ Xma-kn® C´n-s®-dn-bbv°v Ggv ]p{X-∑m-cmWvD≠mb-Xv. CXn¬ aqØ-bmƒ Ab¿Ip-∂Øv IpS-I-t»-cnepw c≠m-a≥ ao-®n¬ ]cn-¥n-cn-°epw aq∂m-a≥ tahnS ]pfn-°epw mem-a≥ søq¿ mK-tm-en-°epw A©m-a≥ sh´n-°mSv Xd-hm-´nepwBdm-a≥ sXmSp-Ibnepw Ggm-apw Cf-b]p-{X-p-amb sXmΩ≥ F∂ - -‘sXmΩ≥]-Wn-°¿’ Ing-X-Sn-bqcpw Xma-kn-®p. Chsc√mw ktlm-Z-c-im-JIfmsW¶nepw Im¿jn-Ita-JebpsS {]tXy-IXbpw hoSp-Iƒ - - - - - -XΩn-ep≈ Zqc-°q-Sp-Xepw bm{Xm kuI-cy-ß-fpsS A`mhhpw Cu○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  53. 53. Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_Ncn{Xw 42_‘-߃ XpS¿∂v ne-n¿Øp-∂-Xnv XS-€-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]ucm-Wn-I-Xzhpw Ipeo--Xzhpw D≈ Ing-t°-°c IpSpw-_-Øns‚ t]cpw {]i-kvXnbpw hym]n-®Xv {][m--ambpw C´n-s®-dn-b-bpsS Cf-b]p-{Xpw Ing-XSn-bq¿ Xma-kn®bmfp-amb sXmΩ≥ ]nXm- - -aln¬ n-∂m-Wv. ]q¿∆n-IcpsS sXmgnepw Pohn-Xam¿§-hp-amb hym- - -]mcw hn]p-eo-I-cn-°p-∂Xns‚ `mK-ambn 1696 ˛¬ tIm´-bv°-IØv]oSn-tb-°¬ sXmΩ≥ Xc-I-p-ambn ]¶p-tN¿∂v Ing-X-Sn-bq-cn¬ΩpsS ]nXm-al≥ hym]mcw Bcw-`n-®p. aq∂p-h¿jw √-co-Xn-bn¬ -I®-hSw S-Øn-b-tijw Ah¿ ]¶p-]n-cn™v I®-hSw n¿ØnsXmΩ≥ tahnS Fd-tIm-∂n-bn-te°v Xncn-®p-t]m-bn. IngX-Sn-bqcpw]cn-kcßfnepw Aßm-Sntbm a‰p-ISItfm C√m-Xn-cp-∂Xn-m¬ CXv - - - - - -B {]tZ-i-Øp-≈-h¿°v hfsc Aku-I-cyhpw _p≤n-ap´pw D≠m-°n. Cu {]ivw ]cn-l-cn-°p-∂-Xn-mbn Ahn-SpsØ {][m-nI-fmbht≈m≠ mb¿, tNm‰p-Ie mb¿, ]S-hn¬ mb¿ XpS-ßn-b-h¿tahnS h∂v sXmΩ≥ ]nXm-a-ltmSv Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ ho≠pw hym]mcwXpS-ß-W-sa∂v A`y¿Yn-®p. “Ing-X-Sn-bq-cn¬ Cnbpw IS XpS-ßn-bm¬ IpSpw-_-k-taXwXma-khpw Ahn-sS-bm-°-Ww. AXn-pw-IqsS Bh-iy-ap≈ sI´nSw]Wn-bm-p≈ ÿ-ehpw km[-km-a{Kn-Ifpw X∂m¬ hcmw.” ]nXm- - -a-l≥ Ah-tcmSv ]d-™p. “mSp-hm-gn-bp-ambn Btem-Nn®v ]d-bmw.” F∂p ]d™v m´p-{]-am-Wn-Iƒ aS-ßn. ºn-°m´p I¿Øm-hp-ambn Ah¿ Cu hnjbwN¿®-sNbvXp. mSp-hm-gn-bpsS n¿t±-i-{]-Imcw Ing-X-Sn-bq¿ A∂yw-n-∂p-t]mb ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ mb¿Ip-Spw-_-Øns‚ ]pc-bnSw]nXm-alv ]oSn-Ibpw hoSpw ]Wn-bp-hm≥ evIn. Cu ÿew A°m- -eØv ]mem-bn¬ n∂pw sXmSp-]p-gbv°v t]m-Ip-∂- GI m´p-h-gn-tbmSp tN¿∂m-bn-cp-∂p. ]nXm-al≥ A∂v ASpØ Ab¬]-°amb - -s]mcp-t∂m-en¬ ho´n¬ Xma-kn-®mWv ]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ -ho-Sns‚n¿Ωm-W- {]-h¿Ø--߃ S-Øn-b-Xv. -]pØ≥]p-c-bv°¬ -hoSv A°m-esØ A]q¿∆hpw atm-l-chp-amb hoSm-bn-cp-∂p. Iodn-s°m-Ønb I√p-Iƒ sIm≠v sI´nb -S-Iƒ, hnim-e-amb ap‰w, hoSn-p-Np‰pw sIm®p-Xn-Æ, sIm®p-Xn-Æbv°v apI-fn¬ ap≥h-iØv henb XnÆ, hen-b-Xn-Æbv°v aq∂p-○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

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