Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and otherlife forms for food, fibre,and other products used to sustain life. Agriculturewas the key development in the rise of sedentaryhuman civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created foodsurpluses that nurtured thedevelopment of civilization.The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.
Shifting agriculture isalso known as slash and burn cultivation.(i) Shifting agriculture is practiced by tribal communities of tropical forest lands.(ii) The people make a small clearing in the forest by cutting the trees and burning them. (iv) It causes soil erosion.
In subsistenceagriculture, farmer and his familyproduce cereals for themselves only or for local market.Cereals like wheat, rice, millets aremainly raised. This is practiced in most parts of India even today.
(i) Intensive farming aims at maximum possible productionon the limited farms with all efforts possible under the circumstances. (ii) Intensive farming is capableof raising more than one crop a year.(iii) It is practiced in most parts of densely populated areas.
(i) It is the modern systemof farming doneon large farms. (ii) It is also known as mechanical farming due toextensive use of machines. (iii) Extensivefarm raises onlyone crop a year.
(i) In plantationagriculture, bush or tree farming is done on huge areas.(ii) It is capital- centered and needs good managerialability, technical knowledge, improved machineries, fertilizers, irrigation and transport facilities.
(i) Commercial Agriculture is practiced to raisecrops on a large scalewith a view to export them to other countries and earn money.(ii) It is done mostlyin sparsely populated areas. (iii) Purpose ofcommercial agricultureis to sell the produce for money.
The term Good whether a practiceAgricultural can be consideredPractices (GAP) can "good" will dependrefer to any on the standardscollection of you are applying.specific methods, The remainder ofwhich when applied this articleto agriculture, describes one results that are in particular definitionharmony with the of "Goodvalues of the Agriculturalproponents of those Practices" aspractices. There defined by the Foodare numerous and Agriculturecompeting Organization (FAO)definitions of what of the Unitedmethods constitute Nations."Good AgriculturalPractices", so
ROTATIONHORICULTURE OF CROPS
Horticulture isthe art, science, techn ology and business ofintensive plant cultivation for human use. It is practiced from the individual level in a garden up to the activities of a multinational corporation. It is verydiverse in its activities,incorporating plants for food.
Crop rotation is the practice of growinga series of dissimilartypes of crops in the same area in sequential seasons. Crop rotation confers variousbenefits to the soil.A traditional element of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops.
Organic farming is the form of agriculture thatrelies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost a nd biological pest control. Organic farming uses fertilizers and pesticides butexcludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured(synthetic) fertilize rs
Natural farming is an ecological farming Thetitle refers not to lack of labour, but to the avoidance of manufactured inputs andequipment., Ecoagriculture andpermaculture bu t should be distinguishedfrom biodynami c agriculture.
RegenerativeAgriculture reminds us of the true importance of farmers in our society. Theridiculous image ofthe farmer as hick and redneck is forgotten. We remember that agriculture is the foundation of all civilization, that when you improve agriculture, you elevate the whole society.
Permaculture is atheory of ecological design which seeks to develop sustainable human settlements and agricultural systems, by attempting to model them onnatural ecosystems.Permaculture drawsfrom several otherdisciplines including organic farming, agroforestry .
Biodynamicagriculture is a method of organic farming thatemphasizes the holistic development andinterrelationshi ps of the soil, plants and animals as aself-sustaining system.