RFID and its applications


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RFID and its applications in present and future

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  • Two components-
  • The Electronic Product Code ( EPC ) is a family of coding schemes created as an eventual successor to the bar code . The EPC was created as a low-cost method of tracking goods using RFID technology. It is designed to meet the needs of various industries, while guaranteeing uniqueness for all EPC-compliant tags. EPC tags were designed to identify each item manufactured, as opposed to just the manufacturer and class of products, as bar codes do today. The EPC accommodates existing coding schemes and defines new schemes where necessary. The EPC was the creation of the MIT Auto-ID Center , a consortium of over 120 global corporations and university labs. The EPC system is currently managed by EPCglobal, Inc. , a subsidiary of GS1 , creators of the UPC barcode. The Electronic Product Code promises to become the standard for global RFID usage, and a core element of the proposed EPCglobal Network . All EPC numbers contain a header identifying the encoding scheme that has been used. This in turn dictates the length, type and structure of the EPC. EPC encoding schemes frequently contain a serial number which can be used to uniquely identify one object.
  • In 2008 more than a dozen new passive UHF RFID tags emerged to be specifically mounted on metal. At the same time new integrated circuits (ICs) were introduced by Impinj and NXP (formerly Philips) which proved much better performance and the IT Asset Tracking application exploded. The largest adopter to date appear to be Bank of America and Wells Fargo - each with more than 100,000 assets across more than a dozen data centers Many forms of RFID race timing have been in use for timing races of different types since 2004. It is used for registering race start and end timings for individuals in a marathon-type race where it is impossible to get accurate stopwatch readings for every entrant. Individuals wear a chest number containing passive tags which are read by antennae placed alongside the track. UHF based tags instead of Low or high frequency last generation tags provide accurate readings with specially designed antennas. Rush error, lap count errors and accidents at start time are avoided since anyone can start and finish anytime without being in a batch mode. This method is being adapted by many recruitment agencies which have a PET (Physical Endurance Test) as their qualifying procedure especially in cases where the candidate volumes may run into millions (Indian Railway Recruitment Cells, Police and Power sector). An Indian Software company has perfected the system for the same using UHF tags for the first time and they are able to process more than 30,000 candidates per day.
  • RFID and its applications

    2. 2. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID) <ul><li>Radio Frequency IDentification is a technology which uses tags as a component in a solution set that will evolve over the next several years. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags contain a chip which holds an electronic product code (EPC) number that points to additional data detailing the contents of the package. </li></ul><ul><li>Readers identify the EPC numbers at a distance, without line-of-sight scanning or involving physical contact. Middleware can perform initial filtering on data from the readers. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications are evolving to comply with shipping products to automatically processing transactions based on RFID technology. </li></ul>
    4. 4. RFID - EVOLUTION <ul><li>In 1946 Léon Theremin invented a listening device which retransmitted incident radio waves with audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which slightly altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder invented in the United Kingdom in 1939, was routinely used by the allies in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft to this day. </li></ul><ul><li>Mario Cardullo's U.S. Patent 3,713,148 in 1973 was the first true ancestor of modern RFID; a passive radio transponder with memory. The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, and was demonstrated in 1971 to potential users and consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for use as a toll device. </li></ul>
    5. 5. TAGS <ul><li>A Tag is a transponder which receives a radio signal and in response to it sends out a radio signal. </li></ul><ul><li> Tag contains an antenna, and a small chip that stores a small amount of data </li></ul><ul><li> Tag can be programmed at manufacture or on installation </li></ul><ul><li> Tag is powered by the high power electromagnetic field generated by the antennas – usually in doorways </li></ul><ul><li> The field allows the chip/antenna to reflect back an extremely weak signal containing the data </li></ul><ul><li> Collision Detection – recognition of multiple tags in the read range – is employed to separately read the individual tags </li></ul>
    8. 8. READERS <ul><li>An RFID reader is a device that is used to interrogate an RFID tag. The reader has an antenna that emits radio waves; the tag responds by sending back its data. </li></ul><ul><li>The reader has two basic components – </li></ul><ul><li> A scanning antenna </li></ul><ul><li> A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data </li></ul><ul><li> Some Reader Examples </li></ul>
    9. 9. THE EPC CODE <ul><li>The objective of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) is to provide unique identification of physical objects. </li></ul><ul><li>The EPC will be used to address and access individual objects from the computer network, much as the Internet Protocol (IP) Address allows computers to identify, organize and communicate with one another. </li></ul>
    10. 10. THE EPC CODE <ul><li>Eg. 613.23000.123456.123456789 (96 bits) </li></ul><ul><li>Header – defines data type (8 bits) </li></ul><ul><li>EPC Manager – describes originator of EPC (Product manufacturer) (34 bits) </li></ul><ul><li>Object Class - Could describe the product type (20 Bits) </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Number – Unique ID for that product item (34 Bits) </li></ul>
    11. 11. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>IT Asset Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>- institutions with large IT assets with numerous data centers </li></ul><ul><li>Race Timing </li></ul><ul><li>- Registering race start and end timings for individuals in a marathon-type race </li></ul><ul><li>- Individuals wear a chest number containing passive tags which are read by antennae placed alongside the track </li></ul><ul><li>- Rush error, lap count errors and accidents at start time are avoided </li></ul>
    12. 12. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>E-passport </li></ul><ul><li>- Pioneer: Malaysia(1998)-visual data page, travel history </li></ul><ul><li>-Norway(2005), Japan, EU, UK, Australia, US, Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Payments </li></ul><ul><li>- Gurgaon, Noida: Toll-way </li></ul><ul><li>-Mumbai: Integrated transport- buses and local trains </li></ul><ul><li>- United States: Chicago Transit Authority’s Card for Metro, Metra, CTA buses & PACE buses fare payments (2002) </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>An Electronic Road Pricing gantry </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tag : electronic toll collection </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Human implants </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul>
    15. 15. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Animal tracking tags, inserted beneath the skin, can be rice-sized. </li></ul><ul><li>Tags can be screw-shaped to identify trees or wooden items. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit-card shaped for use in access applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The anti-theft hard plastic tags attached to merchandise in stores are also RFID tags. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy-duty 120 by 100 by 50 millimeter rectangular transponders are used to track shipping containers, or heavy machinery, trucks, and railroad cars. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>zombie RFID tag , </li></ul><ul><li>-a tag that can be temporarily deactivated when it leaves the store. </li></ul><ul><li>- The process would work like this: you bring your purchase up to the register, the RFID scanner reads the item, you pay for it and as you leave the store, you pass a special device that sends a signal to the RFID tag to &quot;die.&quot; That is, it is no longer readable. </li></ul><ul><li>-The &quot;zombie&quot; element comes in when you bring an item back to the store. A special device especially made for that kind of tag &quot;re-animates&quot; the RFID tag, allowing the item to reenter the supply chain. </li></ul>
    17. 17. PROBLEMS AND CONCERNS TECHNICAL PROBLEMS <ul><li>No Standardization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exxon Mobil Speed pass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easy to Jam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disastrous in case of hospitals and military </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFID Reader Collision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One tag many readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFID Tag Collisio n </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Reader many tags </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. SECURITY , PRIVACY AND ETHICAL PROBLEMS <ul><li>Contents can be read after the item leaves the supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags are difficult to remove </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags can be read without your knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags can be read a greater distances with a high-gain antenna </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags with unique serial numbers could be linked to an individual credit card number </li></ul>
    19. 19. QUESTIONS??? Thank You…