Indian education system

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INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

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Indian education system

  1. 1. •In India the Guru or the teacher is held in high esteem. •Indeed, there is an understanding that if the devotee were presented with the guru and God, first he would pay respect to the guru, since the guru had been instrumental in leading him to God.
  2. 2. In compiling the vedic mantras, VED VYASA edited them into four books, the Rig-Veda, the Yajur- Veda, the Sama-Veda, and the
  3. 3. The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitutes the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. •Scholars have determined that the Rig Veda, the oldest of the four Vedas, was composed about 1500 B.C.
  4. 4. Gurukul was a type of school in India, residential in nature, with pupils living in proximity to the guru. In a gurukul, students resided together as equals, irrespective of their social standing, learnt from the guru and helped the guru in his day-to-day life. At the end of his studies, the pupil offered dakshina (fees) to the guru. The gurudakshina is a traditional gesture of acknowledgment, respect and thanks.
  5. 5. Nālandā is the name of an ancient university in Bihar, India and was a Buddhist center of learning from 427 CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the first great universities in recorded history.
  6. 6. There were universities like Taxila, Ujjain, Kanchi etc. for medicine and learning including mathematics and astronomy.
  7. 7. Education of Indians had become a topic of interest among East India Company officials. The policy’s goal was • to advance knowledge of Indians and • to employ that knowledge in the East India Company
  8. 8. • Since English was increasingly being employed as the language of instruction, during 1852–1853 petitions were sent to the British Parliament in support of both establishing and adequately funding university education in India which resulted in the Education Dispatch of July 1854 which helped in shaping the education system of India.
  9. 9. • Established a Department of Public Instruction in each province of British India. • Established teacher-training schools for all levels of instruction. • Increased the number of Government colleges ,vernacular schools and high-schools . • The Department of Public Instruction was in place by 1855. By 1857 a number of universities were established modeled on the University of London. Educational reforms in the early 20th century led towards the nationalisation of many universities.
  10. 10. GRANT MEDICAL COLLEGE,1844
  11. 11. • Rabindranath started an open-air school known as the Patha Bhavan at Shantiniketan that gradually developed into an international university named Visva Bharati where the cultures of the East and the West met in common fellowship and thereby strengthening the fundamental condition of world peace.
  12. 12. PATHA BHAVAN, the school of his ideals, whose central premise was that learning in a natural environment would be more enjoyable and
  13. 13. • The main attractions of Shantiniketan include the various buildings of the Visva-Bharati campus. Chinese faculty,College of Arts and Crafts, Patha Bhavan (the
  14. 14. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
  15. 15. • The University Education Commission popularly known as the Radhakrishnan Commission was appointed under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sri. S. Radhakrishnan in 1948 . • The Commission was required to study the problem of university education in the country and to suggest measures for its reforms keeping in view the needs and aspirations of the people. • The then Minister of Education, Abdul Kalam Azad inaugurated this Commission on December 6, 1948 and gave it the necessary directions.
  16. 16. • Some of the famous students of Visva- Bharati include India's former Prime Mister the Ms Indira Gandhi ,world famous film director Mr.Satyajit Ray and Nobel Laureate
  17. 17. • Following independence in 1947, MAULANA AZAD, India's first education minister recommended strong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educational system.
  18. 18. The Indian government lays great emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years (referred to as Elementary Education in India.) The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.
  19. 19. Education has also been made free for children for six to 16 years of age. The District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalize primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the existing primary education system
  20. 20. • The Mid-day Meal Scheme is the popular name for school meal programme in India. It involves provision of lunch free of cost to school-children on all working days with an objective to: • increase school enrolment and attendance, improve socialisation among children belonging to all castes and addressing malnutrition.
  21. 21. The current scheme for universalization of Education for All is the SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN which is one of the largest education initiatives in the world.
  22. 22. RIGHT TO EDUCATION Every child between the ages of 6 to 14 years has the right to free and compulsory education. The government schools shall provide free education to all the children. Private schools shall admit at least 25% of the children in
  23. 23. 2 . 1 In our national perception, Education 2 . 2 refines sensitivities and perceptions that contribute to national cohesion, a scientific temper and independence of mind and spirit - thus furthering the goals of socialism, secularism and democracy enshrined in our Constitution. 2 . 3 2 . 4
  24. 24. . The government is committed to providing education through mainstream schools for children with disabilities. The need for inclusive education arises precisely because it is now well understood that most children with disabilities can, with motivation and effort on the part of teaching institutions, become an integral part of those institutions
  25. 25. There is a common educational structure(10+2+3) followed all over the country.
  26. 26. School education 10+2 Pre primary (FOR 1 YEAR) Primary (GRADE 1-5) Middle (GRADE 6-8) Secondary (GRADE 9-10) Senior Secondary (GRADE11-12)
  27. 27. Significant feature of India's secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Another feature of India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing.
  28. 28. The Secondary education is supported by the following organisations under the administrative control of the Union Department of Education: Some of the institutes are:- •National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) •Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) •National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
  29. 29. The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, has provided for environment awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements such as yoga into the Indian secondary school system
  30. 30. The CBSE was set up by a special resolution of the Government of India in 1929 at Ajmer  with a view to play a useful role in the field of Secondary Education and to raise its standard.
  31. 31. . The Main functions of the board are: to conduct Class X and XII examinations and grant certificates, to prescribe courses of instructions, prescribe conditions for examinations, and to affiliate institutions for the purpose of examinations. The CBSE also conducts all India entrance examinations at the under graduate level for pre-medical/pre- dental, engineering and architecture courses.
  32. 32. The CBSE has constantly been engaged in process of curriculum design, in-service teacher empowerment programmes and development of textual material.
  33. 33. CBSE has introduced CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) at the secondary level. The scheme of CCE discourages mechanical testing. It envisages employment of variety of tools and techniques for assessment in informal and formal settings which are more interesting, relevant and meaningful and involve learners for greater participation and learning.
  34. 34. It is a system of school based assessment that covers all aspects of student’s development. It emphasizes two fold objectives. Continuity in evaluation and assessment of broad based learning. CCE will cover the scholastic and co scholastic areas of school education.
  35. 35. The NCERT was established in 1961. It functions as a resource centre in the field of school education and teacher education. Publication of school textbooks and other educational material like teachers’ guides/manuals etc. are its major functions. NCERT is an autonomous body fully funded by the Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD) It aims at making environmental education an integral part of curriculum in school education.
  36. 36. India's higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States.
  37. 37. imbued with a scientific culture was Jawaharlal Nehru's aim. One such initiative was the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences as an institution of national importance by an Act of Parliament and has set the pace for medical education and research in
  38. 38. Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), have been globally acclaimed for their standard of education. The IITs enroll about 8000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to both the growth of the private sector and the public sectors of India.
  39. 39. Higher education in India has evolved in divergent streams with each stream monitored by an apex body(UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISION- organisation set up by Union government in 1956, for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education )indirectly controlled by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Most universities are administered by the States, but there are 18 important universities called Central Universities, which are maintained by the Union Government.
  40. 40. The National Law School of India University is highly regarded, with its students being awarded Rhodes Scholarships to Oxford University, and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences is consistently rated the top medical school in the country . Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are the top management institutes in India .
  41. 41. Educational Development: Current Scenario in India
  42. 42. • The Government of India is responsible for arranging, allocating and distributing financial resources required by the University Grants Commission (UGC) for the establishment of Central Universities in India. • The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) has been constituted to assist in the functioning of the two Governments and ensure that parity is maintained in the field of higher education. • Open Universities provide the facility of distance education to people who are unable to pursue regular courses. • Distance education is provided on academic, technical and professional subjects. These universities offer undergraduate, post- graduate and doctoral programmes. They also offer diploma and certificate level courses.
  43. 43. Technical Education • The technical education system in the country covers engineering, technology, management, architecture, pharmacy etc. • The Ministry of Human Resource Development supports the programmes at undergraduate, graduate, post-graduate and research levels. • The technical education system at the central level comprises of Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institute of Management (IIMs), Indian Institute of Sciences (IISc), National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and all India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).
  44. 44. Professional Education • Higher education also deals with the professional education. • For this a network of public and private polytechnics and vocational institutions, controlled and supervised by the councils specializing in each discipline, exist. • Professional councils, like All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Distance Education Council (DEC), National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), Medical Council Of India (MCI) and others are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards.
  45. 45. Adult Education • In the education of adults the emphasis has not been only on making them literate, but an attempt is also made for education of the personality in order that they may fulfill the responsibilities of citizens of a democracy intelligently. • In 1973 a Programme of Adult Education was launched. • Its objective has been to educate 30 crores adults within the age range of 15-35 years by the end of the 20th century. • The main purpose of this Adult Education Programme is to increase the working efficiency of the adults and to create in them a social and national consciousness.
  46. 46. Women Education • The Government has paid special attention on women education since 1957-58. • In the programmes made for the same special provisions have been made for arrangement of stipends, appointment of lady, residential accommodation for women teachers and training of women teachers. • By 1995 i.e. within 48 yrs the progress of women education had reached such a point that there remained little difference between percentages of educated boys girls. • Under Adult Education Programme for women the objectives have been to make women over 15 years of age literate and to make them economically self-dependent. • Another aim has been to give them training in rearing up children, family planning and information about health principles; also to acquaint them with the laws relating to women’s rights in order to raise their social status and to inform the Government about the atrocities committed against them at times.
  47. 47. Educational Research and Training • The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was established by the central Government in 1961 for implementing the educational policies and plans of the Central Ministry of Education. • The Council runs four Regional Colleges of Education situated in Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar and Mysore. These colleges train teachers and arrange for in-service training of teachers during summer also.
  48. 48. Educational Research and Training • The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was established by the central Government in 1961 for implementing the educational policies and plans of the Central Ministry of Education. • The Council runs four Regional Colleges of Education situated in Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar and Mysore. These colleges train teachers and arrange for in-service training of teachers during summer also.
  49. 49. Delhi Chief Minister Ms.Sheila Dikshit launched the ‘Ladli’. Under the scheme, the state government intends to deposit Rs.100,000 in the account of every girl child (belonging to a particular income group) by the time she attains the age of 18. As per the scheme, the government will deposit Rs.10,000 in the name of a girl child at the time of her birth and Rs.5,000 each at the time of admission to Class I, VI, IX, X and XII to encourage her education.
  50. 50. • Vocational education is imparted through Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and polytechnics.
  51. 51. •India which has always been a centre for the textile and garment trade. Now the fashion industry has become so specialized that it encompasses a vast field of studies in design, concept management, design production management, quality control, planning, fabric design, printing, fashion accessory design, fashion merchandising, textile science, colour mixing, marketing and so on.
  52. 52. National Institute of Fashion Technology was set up in 1986 under the aegis of the Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. It has emerged as the premier Institute of Design, Management and Technology, developing professionals for taking up leadership positions in fashion business in the emerging global scenario.
  53. 53. MATHS LABS ARE A PART OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE ALONG WITH PHYSICS,CHEMISTRY,BIOLOGY,PSYCHOLOGY,HOME SCIENCE AND COMPUTERS.
  54. 54. THEATRE,SINGING,DANCING,POETRY WRITING AND RECITATION ARE A FEW CO CURRICUAR ACTIVITIES WHICH ENHANCE THE PERSONALITY OF THE LEARNERS.
  55. 55. VARIOUS CLUBS AND SOCIETIES IN SCHOOL ENGAGE THE STUDENTS IN SOCIAL SERVICE, TREE PLANTATION ,CLEANING OF NEIGHBOURHOOD AND SPREADING AWARENESS REGARDING VARIOUS ISSUES.
  56. 56. The online projects encourage our students to collaborate ,cooperate and communicate with the students all over the world. This use of cyber space has led to the globalisation of education.
  57. 57. Conclusion
  58. 58. • Despite all the efforts to develop the education system in India, access, equity and quality of education in India continue to haunt the policy makers till this date. This has mainly been due to the widespread poverty and various prejudices. • Many aspects of the current educational setup demand review and change. Until concrete steps are taken to reformulate our methodology of imparting education, we shall continue to underutilize, even waste our youth, and this could have serious consequences in the future. • However, the renewed emphasis in the education sector in the 11th five year plan and increased expenditure in both primary and higher education can act as palliatives for the Indian education system.
  59. 59. We give them roots, we give them wings And great joys from, little things, A hope that they will soar , A hope that they will try, We are sure that one day , Our children will learn to fly. PREPARED BY NAVEEN SINGH & ATUL DUBEY

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