What is Rhetoric? Aristotle defined it as “The art of observing, in any given case, the available means of persuasion.”Speakers always want to communicate with their listeners; therefore, they take into account . . . • Their understanding of the listeners (audience) • Their understanding of the subject being explored • Their own reasons for wishing to communicate (intention)
The Rhetorical Triangle Speaker or Writer Context IntentionAudience Subject
SOAPSTone tool for analysis Sample questions you might ask: Speaker Who is the speaker? What makes him/her qualified? Occasion What affect does the time period play? Audience Who is the intended audience? Purpose What is the author’s purpose (intention)? Subject What is this piece about? Tone What diction, imagery, etc. is used to evince a particular feeling?
NarrativeIntention is to May be... present an event to the reader- Short or long what happened and how it Factual or happened. imagined May instruct and inform, or simply divert and amuse
DescriptiveIntention is to make the reader as vividly aware as possible of what the writer has perceived through the senses (or in his or her imagination), to give the “feel” of things described, the quality of direct experience.
Two Purposes Descriptive (cont.)Objective SubjectiveDescription: Description: ~ ~To convey To convey itinformation with feelingwithout biasor emotion
ExpositoryIntention is to explain or expose something. ~ Function is to inform, to instruct, or to set forth ideas.
ExpositoryCan be broken into 5 categories 1. Comparison and Contrast 2. Classification and Division 3. Definition 4. Process 5. Cause and Effect
ArgumentativeIntention is to make the reader change his or her mind, attitude, point of view, or feelings. ~ The terms “argument” and “persuasion” often used interchangeably.
ArgumentativeArgument - aims to win readers’ agreement with an assertion or claim by engaging their powers of reasoning.
ArgumentativePersuasion – aims to influence readers’ action, or their support for an action, by engaging theirbeliefs and feelings.
Bibliography “Mr. Henry’s Webpage.” August 2012. http://www.ssdcougars.org/webpages/rhenry/news.cfm