H Istory Of Copenhagen ( autore: Michael Acquilino)Presentation Transcript
History of Copenhagen
Copenhagen and Absalon Copenhagen was founded in the years 1160-67 by Bishop Absalon , the counsellor of King Valdemar the Great.It was King Valdemar that gave Absalon the task to build a city on the east coast of Zealand to protect trade on the Sound (Øresund).
The first fortress to protect the city In the years 1160-67 , Bishop Absalon built a little fortress on the Isle of “Slotsholmen” to protect the new city. This was the first step to found the Danish capital Copenhagen .
1200-1400 – from a village to city status Copenhagen grew rapidly in the 12th century. Copenhagen was given a charter as a city by Bishop Jakob Erlandsen in 1254 . In 1369 Absalons little castle was attacked and demolished down to the ground by the German Hanseatic League.
1416-1443 - The Royal city and Capital A new castle called Copenhagen Castle was built on the ruins of Absalons Castle.In 1443 Copenhagen replaced Roskilde as the Danish capital. Copenhagen,because of its centrally placed location became an important trading port as well as a strong military and political centre.
1448 – 1479 - First King crowned of the Oldenborg Dynasty King Christian I (1426-1481) was the first King to be crowned in Copenhagen in 1449 King Christian I was the founder of Copenhagen University in 1479 - the first university in Denmark.
1588-1648 - King Christian IV - The prominent architect of Copenhagen During the reign of King Christian IV (1577-1648), many remarkable buildings and projects were constructed like Rosenborg Castle - The Round Tower - Old Stock Exchange - The Canals of Copenhagen - The Old Citadel etc.
Rosenborg Castle - 1606 Old Stock Exchange - 1620 The Round Tower - 1642 “ Kastellet” - The Citadel
Copenhagen in the 18th century
1728 - Several fires destroyed the city in 1728 and Copenhagen was totally damaged and ruined the medieval part of Copenhagen. Reconstruction was complete by 1737.
1748 - King Frederik V (1723-1766 planned and built the Amalienborg Palaces and Frederiksstad a prominent district at the waterfront that was built to house aristocrats and noble families
1748 - The Amalienborg complex in the center of Frederiksstad, with the Marble Church in the back. The entire Amalienborg project was completed in 1760 and is the prime royal residence today.
In 1794 the Christiansborg Palace was nearly burnt down to the ground by a fire. King Christian VIIth moved to the new Amalienborg Palaces. During the 1800s, the second Christiansborg Palace was rebuilt again and inaugurated in 1828.
In 1829 Hans Christian Ørsted. Founded the College of Advanced Technology that became the Technical University of Denmark in 1994 .
The city grew beyond the ramparts into the new working class quarters such as Vesterbro - Nørrebro and Østerbro that became a part of Copenhagen.
1847 – Carlsberg Brewery
World famous Carlsberg Brewery was founded in 1847 outside of Copenhagen.The Carlsberg foundation runs the museum at Frederiksborg Castle and the New Carlsberg Glyptotek.
1843 - The Tivoli head entrance on inauguration day in 1843. The new amusement park was named “Tivoli & Vauxhall” and was a grand success from the very first day.
1847 - The first Central Station in Copenhagen from 1848 was built in 1847 to serve the very first 30 km. railway line in Denmark from Copenhagen to Roskilde and visa versa.
1859 - Copenhagen Zoo Copenhagen Zoo (Zoologisk Have) was inaugurated in 1859 with a handful of animals. On opening day visitors could see chickens, ducks, owls, rabbits and one fox. There was also a little turtle in a tub.
1901 - The Open-Air Museum On one of the world’s largest and oldest public museum areas - the Open-Air Museum “Frilandsmuseet” in Northern Copenhagen opened in 1901. The Museum includes more than 100 rural buildings from Denmark spread out over a large scenic area covering the period 1650 to 1950 . All the houses are fully furnished and visitors you can walk into all farmhouses and buildings and experience daily life for each era represented. Free admission all year round.
1905 - The Town Hall and Square The building of Copenhagen's Town Hall (Rådhuset) is completed in 1905, with a 107 meter high tower that is open to the public.
1910 - Bicycle Lanes and paths
The first separate bicycle paths are established in Copenhagen around the Lakes in 1910 – as the existing bridle paths was converted into isolated Cycle ways - tracks to secure the heavy growth of cycles on the road at that time. At the present there are more than 300 km of bicycle paths in and around Copenhagen and since the first few bicycles were introduced on the street in 1890s - nearly every Copenhagener owns a cycle today.
1913 - The Little Mermaid
The statue of the Little Mermaid is unveiled at Langelinie in 1913 . The statue was commissioned in 1909 by Carl Jacobsen - founder of New Carlsberg Breweries. The statue was created by sculptor Edward Eriksen , who used his wife Eline Eriksen as the model.
Christiansborg Palace The third Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen was inaugurated in 1928 - . The Palace is built in Neo-Baroque style, with the highest tower in the city, over 106 metres . Christiansborg Palace is separated into two main wings. One half of the Palace houses the Danish Parliament and offices - and the other half is reserved for the Royal Family.
- Grundtvig's Church was completed in 1940 . It is known as the largest public Evangelical Lutheran church in Scandinavia
The great Oresund Bridge (Øresundsbroen). The combined tunnel and bridge to Sweden was inaugurated in 2000.
The National Opera House called "Operaen" is situated at the waterfront on the island of Holmen and inaugurated in 2004.